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3  0864  0016    2969  3 



IIAR2  8'«'5 

:    .     l/.St 



u.    s.    ..           («J 

CAT.    NO.    23231 

978.6  K'tONTAMA 
I'bntajia,  Historical 



cop.   1 
vol,  X 





^5  ® 

^Q     o 



Historical  Society  of 


THE  FORT  BENTON  JOURNAL.     1854-1856. 


THE  FORT  SARPY  JOURNAL.     1855-1856. 




Officers  of  the  Historical  Society  of  Montana vii 

Foreword ix-xi 

Fort  Benton  Journal,  1854-1856 1-  99 

Fort  Sarpy  Journal,  1855-1856 100-187 

Appendices - 189-236 

Notes  and  References 237-305 

Bibliography  307-310 

Index    311-327 



Blackfoot  Council,  October,   1855 Frontispiece 

Alexander  Culbertson Facing  page  4 

Mrs.  Alexander  Culbertson Facing  page  8 

Hugh  Munro Facing  page  20 

Buffalo  Press Facing  page  28 

James  Bird Facing  page  36 

Colonel  Alfred  Cumming Facing  page  42 

Fort  Benton  and  Fort  Campbell Facing  page  46 

Star  Robe Facing  page  54 

The  Rider Facing  page  60 

Low  Horn Facing  page  66 

Lame  Bull Facing  page  98 

Fort  Union Facing  page  106 

Edwin  T.  Denig Facing  page  110 

Rotten  Tail Facing  page  114 

Four  Rivers Facing  page  120 

Fool  Bear Facing  page  136 

Charles  Mercier Facing  page  194 



Historical  Society  of 



MRS.  JOSEPHINE  I.  HEPNER,  President 

O.  F.  GODDARD,  Vice-President 


JOHN  B.  PITCH,  Secretary  and  Librarian 

MRS.  ANNE  McDonnell,  Assistant  Librarian 


THE  PUBLICATION  of  the  two  Journals  offered  by  the 
Historical  Society  of  Montana  in  this  volume  is  a  matter 
that  should  have  been  done  some  years  ago,  but  it  has  not  been 
an  easy  work  to  prevail  upon  our  various  Legislative  Assemblies 
to  furnish  funds  for  many  of  the  Library's  proposed  activities. 
The  original  manuscripts  have  been  in  the  possession  of  the 
Historical  Society  for  a  period  longer  than  we  care  to  set  forth, 
but  so  many  demands  are  made  by  the  various  State  Depart- 
ments upon  each  succeeding  Legislature  that  the  Historical 
Library  must  make  its  battle  for  appropriations  just  as  the 
others ;  too  often  without  success.  The  Assembly  of  1939,  how- 
ever, saw  fit  to  set  apart  an  appropriation  sufficient  for  this 
publication.  We  present  it  to  the  other  libraries  and  the  public 
in  general  with  some  confidence  that  we  may  in  some  place  or 
other  in  the  Appendices  have  unearthed  from  the  uncertain  debris 
of  historical  data  something  new  and  of  interest  to  our  readers. 
The  journals  themselves  offer  illuminating  testimony  as  to 
the  way  of  life  in  the  fur  trading  posts  during  the  declining  days 
of  that  adventurous  and  picturesque  business.  The  general  con- 
dition and  operation  of  the  trading  posts  throughout  all  the 
years  amid  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  Upper  Missouri  are  matters 
of  intimate  knowledge  to  students  of  Western  history.  Yet  it 
seems  that  no  other  Journals  we  have  read  have  brought  us  into 
a  closer  personal — one  might  say,  homelike — touch  than  do  the 
Fort  Benton  and  Fort  Sarpy  Journals.  From  them  we  get  a 
convincing  statement  of  the  business  operations  of  the  posts ; 
we  learn  much  of  the  character,  courage  and  capacity  of  each 
of  the  men  in  charge;  we  delve  deeply  into  the  jealousies,  strife 
and  dickerings  amongst  the  employes ;  and  we  look  with  some 
regret  upon  the  social  degradation  attaching  to  some  of  these 
men  and  learn  that  environment  had  its  sinister  influences  upon 
the  lives  of  many  of  these  unfortunates.  On  the  other  hand,  we 
are  sure  that  the  warp  and  woof  of  the  fabric  of  some  of  these 
did  not  have  within  its  weave  the  silken  thread  of  self-respect ; 
they  fell  into  surroundings  where  they  fitted  well. 

We  do  not  pretend  to  offer  you  anything  new  as  to  such  emi- 
nent fur  traders  as  McKenzie,  Culbertson,  Dawson  and  some  of 
the  others,  but  we  have  worked  untiringly  to  secure  as  much 
information  as  might  be  had  concerning  the  men  who  worked 
in  the  minor  fields  of  endeavor.  Most  of  these  men  worked  for 
what  would  be  considered  nowadays  as  starvation  wages.  They 
met  the  hazards  of  life  amongst  a  savage  people  with  unsur- 
passed courage ;  the  destructive  hardships  of  the  rigors  of  a 
northern  climate  did  not  daunt  them,  nor  did  the  lack  of  proper 
food,  housing  or  practically  all  of  the  so-called  comforts  of  civi- 
lization cause  them  to  retreat.  These  hired  men  of  the  fur 
brigades,  men  who  trapped  the  streams  of  parching  plains  and 
the  farthest  recesses  of  unknown  hills  were  the  true  pioneers  of 
the  mighty  West.  It  has  been  our  endeavor  to  find  something 
new  as  to  some  of  the  lowly  ones  mentioned  in  these  Journals 
that  they  may  not  go  farther  into  the  list  of  the  unremembered. 

It  has  ever  been  the  story  of  men  moving  in  masses  that  a  few 
of  the  leaders  are  made  famous  by  the  success  attained  or  in- 
famous through  its  failure.  The  fur  brigades  had  men  who 
were  only  hunters  and  trappers  but  who  had  ample  abilities  to 
be  successful  leaders.  Our  task,  however,  has  been  to  secure 
as  much  accurate  information  concerning  all  of  them,  great  or 
lowly,  as  might  be  accomplished  and  to  identify  the  various 
well-nigh  forgotten  geographical  locations. 

The  success  of  this  work  is  practically  all  due  to  the  skillful, 
resolute  and  untiring  efforts  of  Mrs.  Anne  McDonnell,  our 
assistant  librarian,  generously  fitted  by  nature  and  training  for 
just  such  an  undertaking.  A  learned  student  of  the  history  of 
the  great  Northwest,  always  eager  to  enter  upon  further  re- 
search in  the  soil  of  this  rich  historical  field,  Mrs.  McDonnell 
here  gives  us  refreshing  evidence  that  she  had  a  fine  first-hand 
knowledge  of  much  of  the  story  embraced  within  these  two 
Journals ;  and  to  this  she  has  added  the  logical  skill  of  a  genuine 
tactician  in  such  work. 

It  would  be  impossible  for  the  most  subtle  and  learned  his- 
torian to  add  much  new  information  to  the  misty  history  of  a 
hundred  years  ago  in  this  region,  where  but  few  records  were 
kept,  without  the  aid  of  all  other  historians  who  have  stored 
something  of  the  story  of  those  times.    For  such  assistance  Mrs. 

McDonnell  was  aided  by  the  library  staffs  of  tlu-  Minnesota 
Historical  Society,  the  Missouri  Historical  Society  of  St.  Louis 
and  St.  Louis  University.  Not  only  did  these  institutions  respond 
generously  to  her  every  request,  but  she  desires — and  the  writer 
joins  her  in  this — to  particularly  remember  the  personal  assist- 
ance of  Miss  Grace  L.  Nute  of  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society 
and  Miss  Stella  M.  Drumm  of  the  Missouri  Historical  Society. 
Also,  acknowledgment  is  due  to  the  following  persons,  namely 
Ernest  E.  East,  Peoria,  Illinois ;  Howard  B.  Lott,  Buffalo, 
Wyoming;  James  VV.  Schultz,  Eli  Gardipee,  Richard  Sandoval, 
Mountain  Chief,  all  of  Browning,  Montana;  J.  Larpenteur  Long, 
Oswego.  Montana  ;  Harry  Stanford,  Kalispell,  Montana ;  Clyde 
McLemore,  Helena,  Montana ;  R.  A.  Culbertson,  Fort  Benton, 
Montana,  all  of  whom  helped  her  readily  and  without  stint. 

For  all  of  this,  and  to  all  of  these,  the  Historical  Society  of 
Montana,  its  Librarian  and  Mrs.  Anne  McDonnell,  in  particular, 
tender  sincere  thanks. 

Our  goal  has  been  to  give  to  you  information  of  the  men  foimd 
in  the  rank  and  file  of  the  fur  trade.  Word  of  their  origin,  their 
service,  and  their  lives  to  the  end,  if  possible,  is  almost  as  obscure 
as  were  the  regions  where  they  labored  when  fur  laden  macki- 
naws,  keel-boats  and  pirogues  streamed  down  the  great  river 
each  season  to  build  St.  Louis  into  the  world's  greatest  fur  trade 
center.    We  trust  the  effort  has  not  been  in  vain. 

For  Mrs.  Anne  McDonnell  and  all  of  us. 


JOHN  B.  RITCH,  Librarian. 


September  1854. 

Thurs.  28 — About  noon  much  to  the  delight  of  all  in  the  Forf^, 
Mr.  Culbertson^,  Lady^,  and  three  men  arrived  from 
Fort  Union^, — Received  him  with  a  proper  salute. 
Hunter^  and  man  got  back  w^ith  the  meat  of  two  deer. 
Game  very  scarce — 1290  Dobbies^  today — 1-  loads 
wood. — 

Fri.  29 — Mr.  Culbertson  gave  men  a  feast  and  in  the  evening 
a  Ball  at  which  two  only  of  the  number  made  a  sorry 
display  of  their  reasons — 

Sat.  30 — Little  or  no  work  doing,  and  the  effects  of  intemper- 
ance a  little  noticeable  in  the  faces  of  the  afore  alluded 
to  two  worthies.  Slight  rain  and  the  Dobbies  at  a 
stand  still. 

October,  1854 

Sun.  1 — Throughout  the  day  Bercrir'^  and  men  arrived  with 
his  trade  from  Flat  Head  country — and  with  him 
came  a  white  man^  with  a  little  money  to  trade. 

Mon.  2 — Busy  today  putting  up  another  equipment  to  send  to 
Flat  Heads  and  traded  the  man's  gold  that  arrived 
yesterday  $160  only  in  all.  We  hear  the  Flat  Heads 
have  still  a  good  lot  of  Beaver  and  some  gold,  and  in 
the  morning  shall  send  there  the  equipment  put  up 
today. — 

Tues.  3. — Started  our  intended  expedition  to  Flat  Head  coun- 
try which  we  hope  will  turn  out  as  satisfactory  in  all 
respects  as  our  last. — Had  all  our  horses  brought  in 
and  overhauled  found  a  few  missing,  changed  their 
place  for  the  present  on  a/ct  of  the  grass.  Made 
some  changes  with  our  Coal  makers^  which  we  hope 
will  prove  beneficial  to  us  all —  Very  cold  frosty 
morning,  but  fine  warm  day,  all  that  could  be  wanted 
for  Dobbie  making — 


October  1854 

Wed.  A — Sent  after  some  lost  horses  and  found  six  of  them, 
but  four  are  still  missing'  Fixed  up  a  little  at  Gov- 
ernment goods  but  was  interrupted  by  the  arrival  of 
George  Weipert^''  w^ith  two  Waggon  loads  of  meat 
after  Avhich  he  has  been  started  some  20  days 

Thur.  5 — Reco\-ere(l  one  of  our  horses  and  one  belonging  to 
another  party.  War  party  that  arrived  here  yester- 
day started  today  and  in  the  evening  another  arrived. 
Cold  disagreeable  day. — 

Fri.  6 — Sent  all  our  horses  on  hand  further  down  the  river 
on  other  side,  to  where  there  is  better  grass,  under 
charge  of  Mr.  Rose'^  with  two  men —  Exceedingly 
disagreeable  day  from  rain  Ind  unable  to  work  at 
Dobbies  but  did  a  little  other  outdoor  and  indoor 
work. — 

Sat.  7 — Another  day  of  rain  and  still  unable  to  do  any  out- 
door job.    Fixed  up  all  our  stores. 

Sun.  8 — The  same  weather  only  a  degree  more  disagreeable 
the  rain  having  turned  into  Snow —  Towards  evening 
it  cleared  up  a  little  and  we  took  a  walk  to  top  of  our 
Three  Butes^-  from  where  we  discovered  the  Moun- 
tains to  be  white  with  Snow. — 

Hon.  9 — Hard  frost  throughout  the  past  night  but  a  clear 
morning  and  towards  noon  warm  enough  for  us 
again  to  commence  to  our  Dobbies.  Started  9  men 
with  4  double  yoke  Ox  Waggons  to  Mountain^'^  for 
80  Logs  or  so  for  boat  building  purposes.  In  the 
evs  a  few  Gros  Ventres'"*  arrived  to  war. — 

Tues.  10 — Again  it  has  turned  cold  with  slight  rain  early  men 
commenced  Dobbie  making  but  had  to  disist  on  ac- 
count of  cold.  Riva  (Rivet)  ^'^  returned  from  a  40 
days  Beaver  hunt  or  so.  One  of  our  moimtain  men 
also  came  back  in  search  of  his  Oxen  which  arrived 
a  short  time  before  him. 


October  1854 

Wed.  11 — Another  most  disagreeable  day  and  nothing  earthly 
doing.  Dull  times  indeed  and  the  more  annoying  that 
we  have  so  much  to  do.  Started  man  back  with  his 
Oxen  to  join  those  for  the  mountains  and  sent  another 
man  with  him. — 

Thurs.  12 — Clear  but  very  cold.  Started  Dobbie  makers  to  work 
but  they  had  to  give  it  up  from  the  cold.  Another 
war  party  arrived  and  one  departed. 

Fri.  13 — Again  clear  and  considerably  warmer  Had  Dobbie 
makers  make  up  their  mud  into  bricks  and  bring  in 
all  their  tools  as  we  have  to  stop  making  any  more 
from  the  lateness  of  the  season  and  are  anxious  to  get 
what  we  have  made  put  on  our  building. — 

Sat.  14 — Started  all  hands  to  building  our  Kitchen  Beautiful 
warm  day.  In  the  afternoon  3  Waggons  having  16 
logs  arrived  from  the  Mountains.  A  Pagan  and  Wife 
arrived  with  a  horse  a  Robe  and  a  little  meat, — 
traded  it — and  immediately  cleared  out.  Horse 
guard^*^  arrived  and  reports  one  horse  stolen. — 

Sun.  15 — Another  fine  day.  Nothing  doing,  and  though  so  far 
from  civilization  still  the  day  bears  more  the  impress 
of  Sunday  that  we  have  frequently  felt  it  there. — 

Men.  16 — Continuation  of  same  weather.  One  and  all  in  one 
way  or  another  working  at  Kitchen —  A  war  party 
arrived  with  some  17  stolen  horses —  Our  hunter  also 
arrived  with  three  small  horse  loads  for  us,  and  as 
many  big  ones  for  himself 

Tues.  17 — Same  weather —  Got  on  well  with  our  Kitchen —  In 
the  evening  our  Flat  Head  trader  and  men  arrived 
with  17  Horses  he  had  traded  and  some  few  other 
things ;  but  in  all  he  has  made  but  a  very  poor  trade 
from  appearances  but  he  has  arrived  too  late  for  us 
to  balance. — 


October  1854 

Wed.  18 — Started  Revia  (Rivet)  with  2  Waggons  etc.  and 
a  small  equipment  to  Milk  River  there  to  build 
new  houses  and  trade  for  the  winter  with  the  Gros 
Ventres —  Check  and  balanced  our  Flat  Head  a/c 
and  find  it  makes  a  very  poor  show  indeed.  Getting 
along  with  Kitchen  pretty  well.  Two  Waggons  ar- 
rived from  Mountains  with  12  logs  and  driver  of  one 
of  the  other  Waggons  arrived  with  his  Thumb  shot 

Thurs.  19 — One  of  our  mountain  men  having  broken  the  Tog 
(Tongue)  of  his  Waggon  detained  them  all  day  here, 
repaired  the  old  one  and  made  a  new  one  also.  Had 
Fort  and  stores  swept  out  some  Dobbies  piled  up 
and  proceeded  on  as  usual  with  our  Kitchen. — 

Fri.  20 — .Started  men  back  to  Mountains  and  with  them  one 
to  take  the  place  of  wounded  man  and  another  to 
assist  in  making  shingles  chopping  etc.  Sent  also 
some  shingle  tools  as  we  want  some  10000  shingles 
to  cover  our  new  Kitchen.  Partitioned  off  part  of 
our  store  for  a  harness  house —  And  fixed  up  stores 
a  little  getting  these  matters  rapidly  into  a  better 
order  under  Mr.  Culbertsons  judicious  management. 
Continuance  of  warm  pleasant  weather. — 

•  ,  Sat.  21 — Our  hunters  got  back  with  a  little  meat,  but  have 
lost  one  of  the  Companys  Mules  and  a  private  horse. 
Getting  on  well  with  our  Kitchen —  Threatening 
rain  all  day. 

Sun.  22 — Nothing  doing.  Sent  after  lost  Mule  War  party  of 
13  arrived  all  mounted  on  the  Companys  horses, 
which  they  merely  took  however  to  cross  the  river 
with  and  cast  them  loose  when  that  purpose  was 
served. — 

Men.  23 — Again  at  work  at  Kitchen — Mr.  Tevis^"  and  Cadot^* 
arrived  from  mountains  and  say  our  Waggons  will 
(be)  here  in  the  morning. — 


Reproduced  throug'h  the  courtesy  of  Houghton,  Mifflin  Company. 


October  1854 

Tues.  24 — Our  Waggons  arrived,  two  having  12  logs  and  the 
third  unloaded  and  Wheel  broken  by  the  same  man 
that  broke  the  last  Attempting  to  rig  it  up  by  sub- 
stituting an  odd  Wheel  we  have,  having  now  no 
wood  to  repair  the  broken  one.  Building  away  as 
usual  but  our  Sawyers  have  to  stop  from  one  of 
them  getting  sick  and  we  fear  this  will  delay  us 

Wed.  25 — Cold  disagreeable  day  and  rain  all  the  time.  Unable 
to  do  any  out  door  work    No  news. 

Thurs.  26 — Better  weather.  Men  started  back  to  Mountains  with 
their  three  Waggons  and  we  trust  they  will  have 
better  luck  this  time  than  heretofore.  Men  also  busy 
again  at  Kitchen. 

Fri.  27 — Same  weather.  Working  away  at  Kitchen  Today 
Mr.  Culbertson  started  in  his  carriage  with  three 
men  on  horseback  for  horses  on  Milk  River.  We 
anticipate  he  will  be  absent  some  10  days. — 

Sat.  28 — Finished  the  upper  square  of  our  Kitchen  and  put 
on  plates,  and  now  our  builders  has  to  await  for  the 
Saw3^ers  getting  out  joists  preparatory  to  finishing 
the  gable  ends.  Very  windy  and  boisterous  and  in 
consequence  our  Sawyers  unable  to  work.  In  the 
afternoon  Bercier  arrived  with  an  express  from  Mr. 
Culbertson  that  our  Wagns  were  on  the  way,  would 
possibly  be  here  tomorrow  and  to  send  out  more 
goods.  Put  up  what  we  think  sufficient —  Started 
three  Ox  Carts  to  the  Teton  for  firewood  but  one 
unfortunately  got  unmanageable  and  smashed  the 
Cart.    Wagns  arrived  from  Mountains  with  18  logs. 

Sun.  29 — Started  3  Ox  Carts  with  goods  to  Mr.  Culbertson 

Our  Waggons  arrived  with  a  lot  fine  fat  meat— Very 
acceptable. — 

Men.  30 — Started  two  Wagns  back  to  Mountains  having  to 
retain  one  here  to  haul  fire  wood.    Sent  also  six  men 


October  1854 

to  timber  now  lying  above  and  had  18  logs  rafted 
down,  and  pulled  ashore.  Checkes  (d)  Plettries 
(Peltries)  and  weighed  meat  received  try  (by)  Wag- 
gons yesterday  and  fixed  up  stores.  Hauled  two  loads 
Firewood,  two  Saws  going — everything  brisk. —  Got 
in  our  broken  Cart  from  Teton. 

Tues.  31 — Again  had  21  of  our  logs  rafted  down  which  were 
like  to  go  too  far  for  our  purpose  but  getting  the 
men  to  take  water  we  got  them  stopped  and  landed 
a  little  below  the  Fort.  A  war  party  arrived  with 
26  stolen  horses,  and  another  arrived  going  out.  Two 
Saws  at  work  grinding  Meal  —  making  pans,  and 
everything  pretty  satisfactory. — 

November  1854 

Wed.  1 — Started  men  again  to  bring  down  some  more  logs 
and  they  dragged  the  remainder  to  river's  edge  but 
on  account  of  the  wind  were  unable  to  raft  them 
down.  Wind  also  stopped  our  Sawyers.  Put  up 
Gable  and  joists  to  Kitchen  and  we  trust  tomorrow 
to  be  able  to  continue  our  daubbie  work  and  shortly 
to  finish  it.  Waggons  arrived  from  Mountains  with 
12  logs  and  shortly  afterwards  PauP^  arrived  on 
horseback  Hauled  load  firewood  and  some  Char- 

Thurs.  2 — Commenced  to  our  Kitchen  once  more  and  got  on 
slowly  with  it —  About  noon  Mr.  Culbertson  arrived 
from  the  Gros  Ventres  all  well  Started  men  back  to 

Fri.  3 — Got  on  well  with  our  Kitchen  and  hope  to  finish  the 
dobbie  part  of  that  building  tomorrow.  Mr.  Culbert- 
sons  B  in  Law — Little  Dog^® — and  a  number  of  other 
principle  men  arrived  on  a  visit.  Got  from  them  2 
Mules  and  4  horses. — 

Sat.  4 — Fine  pleasant  weather,  at  length  finished  the  dobbie 
work  of  our  two  story  Kitchen  and  now  all  our  fears 


November  1854 

al)out  this  building  are  ended  as  the  Carpenter  work- 
can  go  along  smoothly  at  any  time —  Traded  a  little 
meat  and  a  few  Robes  from  the  Indians  that  arrived 
yesterday  also  a  few  more  came  today  from  whom 
got  some  more  horses  and  a  little  more  meat.  10 
logs  from   Mts. 

Sun.  5 — Again  busy  with  Indians.  Started  two  Waggons  to 
Pagan  Camp  and  one  to  Bloody^^  Indians  with  a 
meat  equipment  and  a  very  few  goods  to  trade  a 
stray  Robe  or  two.    Most  of  the  Indians  left. 

Men.  6 — Started  men  back  to  Mountains.  Put  up  Pickets 
round  our  Kitchen  so  as  to  protect  our  Fort  in 
Winter.  Used  up  all  our  Plank  in  roofing  Kitchen 
which  was  not  quite  enough  for  half  of  it.  Making 
as  much  haste  as  we  can  in  these  times  to  get  out 
more  but  can  now  only  keep  one  saw  going  and  that 
very  slowly. — 

Tues.  7 — Today  Mrs.  Culbertson  started  with  Carriage  4  Mules 
and  2  Men  for  Camp.  Put  up  a  small  equipment  for 
Blood  Ind.  Camp,  to  go  in  the  morning —  Finished 
Picketing  in  our  Kitchen. — 

Wed.  8 — Started  expedition  to  Camp  under  charge  Hugh 
Munroe-2 — with  2  Waggons  and  three  men — Fort 
getting  pretty  much  deserted  in  these  times. 

Thurs.  9 — Men  arrived  from  Mounts,  with  5  logs  and  12  Bdls 
containing  3600  Shingles  —  The  Little  Gray  Head^^ 
arrived  wanting  a  trader  for  his  Camp,  and  in  the 
evening  Bercier  arrived  alone  wanting  more  goods 
for  Gros  V  camp. 

Fri.  10 — Heavy  fall  of  Snow —  Men  started  back  to  Moun- 
tains— Started  also  Mr.  Burd--*  with  2  Wagns.  and 
some  goods  to  Little  Gray  Heads  Camp,  and  in  the 
afternoon — started  Bercier  with  one  4  Mule  Wagn. 
containing  a  fine  equipment  for  Gros  Ventres 
Camp. — 


November  1854 

Sat.  11 — Today  we  have  neither  had  arrivals  nor  departures 
Put  our  Stores  in  order —  Hauled  a  load  of  fire  wood 
and   also    crossed    over   our    Shingles    in    the    Yanb 

Sun.  12 — About  3  P.  M.  Mrs.  Culbertson  and  party  arrived 
and  shortly  afterwards  Baptiste^^  with  his  one  Wag- 
gon lightly  loaded  with  meat  and  some  40  Robes 
etc.  —  He  brings  back  most  of  his  goods  however 
and  we  think  has  made  a  fine  little  trade  but  we  will 
better  tell  in  the  morning  on  balancing  his  a/c — 

Men.  13 — Early  another  Wagn.  arrived,  from  Michel^^  with 
830  lbs.  Dry  Meat,  Put  up  another  equipment  to  send 
to  Michels  Camp  in  the  morning,  and  fixed  up  many 
other  things  about  the  Fort. 

Tues.  14 — Our  Men  arrived  bag  and  baggage  from  the  Moun- 
tains bringing  6  logs  two  of  which  they  brought  into 
the  Fort  and  the  others  they  left  on  other  side,  11 
Bdl  Shingles  and  some  15  blocks  to  make  more  of — 
All  right.  Started  Wagn.  with  goods  to  Michel,  also 
put  up  and  sent  by  same  Wagn.  a  small  equipment 
for  M,  C's  B  in  L  to  trade  with  in  another  Camp 

Wed.  15 — Rested  men  from  mountains.  Hauled  2  loads  Coal 
and  1  load  fire  wood  getting  on  rapidly  with  shingling 
Kitchen,  Made  a  fine  little  pig  pen  and  Chicken 
Coop  one  of  our  Sows  having  litered. — 

Thurs,  16— Sent  and  had  26  of  our  logs  rafted  down  and  hauled 
out  of  water.  Wrote  letters  to  Fort  Union  intending 
to  send  a  band  of  horses  there  in  the  morning. — 

Fri.  17 — Early  started  Cadot  with  31  horses  to  Fort  Union. 
Sent  with  him  two  men.  Sent  after  the  balance  of 
our  logs  and  had  tliem  rafted  down  26,  making  in 
all  91  logs  at  this  time  from  Mounts. —  A  few 
traders  arrived  in  the  evs.  with  a  few  Robes 

Sat.  18 — Men  fixing  road  to  haul  our  Boats  out  of  River — 
Late  last  evening  our  Indian  arrived  with  our  three 
Oxen  which  we  had  expected  with  our  Carts  from  the 

NATAWISTA   IKSANA    (Airs.   Alexander   Culbertson) 


November  1854 

Gros  Ventres  some  days  since  but  which  he  found  in 
the  Prarie  and  they  must  have  strayed  off.  Sent 
two  men  with  them  back  who  returned  in  the  eve- 
ning- having  met  Wagn.  and  Cart  with  each  two 
Mules  on  their  way  in  close — They  sent  on  two  of 
the  Oxen  to  fetch  the  remaining  Carts.  M  Cham- 
pagne also  arrived  very  late  and  states  his  Waggon 
will  be  in  in  the  morning. — 

Sun.  19 — Waggon  and  Cart  arrived  loaded  with  Meat  from 
the  Gros  Ventres,  Michels  two  Waggons  arrived 
loaded  with  209  Robes,  etc.  etc.  and  Munro  with 
his  two  Waggons  arrived  loaded  with  Meat  and 
Robes  so  that  notwithstanding  the  day  this  has  been 
one  of  the  busiest  we  have  ever  passed  in  the  Coun- 
try. Put  up  two  equipments  to  start  in  the  morning, 
one  with  Michel  to  his  Camp  and  another  to  the 
Gros  Ventres. — 

Men.  20 — Started  two  double  yoke  Ox  Waggons  to  the  Gros 
Ventres  and  one  Mule  (4)  Waggon,— also  1  4  horse 
Waggon  with  Michel  to  the  Pagans.  Busy  writing 
and  balancing  a/cts  fixing  up  Stores  etc.— Hauled 
our  two  Boats  out  on  Bank  high  and  dry. — 

Tues.  21— Started  men  splitting  up  blocks  they  brought  from 
the  Mountains  into  shingles, — Mr.  Burds  Wagn.  ar- 
rived today  with  balance  of  his  trade  and  goods. 
Put  up  a  fine  large  equipment  to  send  to  Hamils^^* 
Houses  under  charge  of  Mr.  Rose. — 

Wed.  22 — Early  started  Mr.  Rose  with  Mr.  Monroe  and  4  men 
with  equipment  put  up  yesterday  and  immediately 
afterwards  Mr.  Culbertson  and  Mr.  Tevis  started  on 
a  visit  to  the  Gros  Ventres.  Very  windy  but  very 
mild. — 

Thurs.  23 — Lonesome  times  nothing  at  all  doing  in  the  way  of 
trade,  nor  have  we  any  arrivals  of  any  kind — Ex- 
ceedingly windy  morning  but  calms  a  little  at  noon 


November  1854 

so  as  to  let  us  saw  a  little.    Other  men  hauling  our 
logs  into  Fort  and  pileing  (piling)  them  away. — 

Fri.  24 — Raining  and  snowing  and  altogether  very  disagree- 
able. Sent  after  2  loads  fire  wood  and  another  Wagn. 
to  haul  wood  for  fireburner. — 

Sat.  25 — Clear  but  cold.  Got  on  well  with  all  the  work  of  the 
Fort — Hauled  balance  of  our  logs,  etc.  etc.  A  trader 
— the  white  Calf-^  arrived  with  some  five  Robes. — 

Sun.  26 — Late  last  night  Baptiste  arrived  with  a  letter  from 
M  Champaigne  in  want  of  more  goods,  and  states 
his  Wagn.  is  on  the  way  in  with  200  Robes.  Put  up 
an  assortment  in  consequence  to  fill  this  order  in  the 
morning.  Windy  and  cold.  The  Crows  Flag  arrived 
with  some  9  Robes  for  trade. — 

Men.  27 — Again  late  last  night  Perry^^  arrived  from  G  Vs 
express,  but  having  lost  his  way  was  behind  two  days 
He  came  for  three  Wagns.  to  move  Revais  his 
Inds  having  all  left  him.  Started  Panton  with  a 
Wagn.  to  Michel!  containing  the  goods  put  up  yes- 
terday. Also  started  1  Ox  Wagn.  and  2  horse  do. 
to  the  Gros  Ventres  in  conformity  with  express 
reed,  yesterday  but  scarcely  were  they  started  when 
Mr.  Culbertson  arrived. 

Tues.  28 — Put  up  a  small  equipment  to  send  to  Blkfoot  Camp 
per  Baptiste — Arrived  three  W'agns,  and  two  Carts 
from  Gros  Ventres  with  619  Robes  2300  lbs.  Meat 
etc.  etc.  also  one  Wagn.  from  M  Champaigne  with 
200  Robes  and  a  few  other  things — Pretty  Busy — 

Wed.  29 — Started  Baptiste  with  one  Waggon  and  small  equip- 
ment put  up  yesterday.  Started  also  an  Ox  Wagn. 
to  M  Champaigne  as  we  hear  he  has  about  another 
load  for  one. 

Thurs.  30 — Again  put  up  anotlier  eciuipment  to  .send  to  another 
Camp  in  the  morning.  Some  few  traders  arrived 
from  whom  got  a  few  Robes. 


December  1854 

Fri,  1 — Early  Mr.  Culbertson  started  with  family  on  a  visit 
to  Blood  Inds.  Started  also  Mr.  Burd  with  2  Carts 
and  equipment  put  up  yesterday,  but  shortly  after- 
wards he  returned  having-  met  some  Inds.  who  in- 
formed him  the  Camp  he  was  going-  to  had  moved 
up  to  Mr.  Rose.  A  few  traders  arrived  and  three 
War  parties.  Fort  crowded. — Late  our  long  looked 
for  Express  arrived  from  St.  Louis. 

Sat,  2 — Indians  all  cleared  out — No  new  arrivals,  quite  quiet 
and  able  to  do  a  little  writing — Yesterday  was  very 
windy  having  blown  down  our  pickets — and  today 
is  also  a  little  too  windy  for  us  and  very  cold 

Sun.  3 — Early  Ox  Wagns.  arrived  from  M  Champ  (Cham- 
paigne)  having  366  Robes  etc.  etc.  and  shortly  after- 
wards a  few  Inds.  arrived  with  some  40  Robes  to 
trade,  but  they  will  await  Mr.  Culbertsons  com- 
ming — 

Mon.  4 — Two  War  parties  arrived  and  these  with  what  came 
yesterday  crowd  us  a  little — No  Word  of  Mr.  Cul- 
bertson— Ice  begins  to  run  pretty  briskly — 

Tues.  5 — Warriors  all  started — Our  Ox  Wagn.  arrived  from 
Gros  Ventres  with  52  Robes  Ind.  awaiting  Mr.  Cul- 
bertsons arrival  becoming  very  impatient — 

Wed.  6 — Started  two  Ox  carts  with  some  goods  to  M.  Cham- 
paigne  as  we  are  afraid  to  delay  any  longer  waiting 
for  Mr.  C.  who  has  not  turned  up  today  either — 
Started  another  saw  today  but  from  wind  unable  to 
work  at  ornamental  work  of  kitchen.  Hauled  two 
loads  fire  wood 

Thurs.  7 — All  the  work  of  our  Fort  progressing  nicely.  Late 
last  evening  an  Express  arrived  from  Mr.  Culbert- 
son for  three  Mules,  as  his  horses  were  stolen  by 
some  party  or  another — and  today  sent  him  that 
number  with  two  men  also  a  few  goods  asked  for 


December  1854 

Fri.  8 — In  the  evening  Mr.  Culbertson  and  party  arrived 
along  with  some  5  or  6  Indians — Finished  roofing 
and  all  outer  work  to  Kitchen  and  began  with  floor- 

Sat.  9 — Traded  with  a  good  many  Indians  and  three  started 
back  home  Two  Carts  arrived  from  M  Champaigne 
with  191  Robes  etc  Very  busy  today  and  having 
slept  but  little  the  past  night  very  glad  it  has  come 
to  a  close 

Sun.  10 — Another  busy  day  trading  and  giving — got  a  good 
many  loafers  however  off  our  hands.  Put  up  an 
equipment  to  sent  to  Rose  and  another  to  Michell  in 

the  morning. 

Men.  11 — Started  two  Ox  Waggons  to  Mr.  Rose  and  two  Ox 
Carts  to  Michell.  In  the  afternoon  a  Wagn.  arrived 
from  Michel  with  200  Robes  and  a  little  later  another 
Express  from  Revais  wanting  two  additional  Wagns 
to  move  him  along  with  the  Gros  Ventres  again. 
Put  up  some  few  goods  for  Revais. — 

Tues.  12 — Started  two  Wagns.  to  Revais — Traded  some  18 
Robes  from  an  opposition  Indian  that  arrived  yes- 
terday. No  arrivals  today  further  than  one  return 
War  party,  so  got  all  our  writing  up  to  date. — 

Wed.  13 — Started  one  Wagn.  back  to  Michel  but  this  time 
with  no  goods  as  we  hear  his  Inds.  are  about  out  of 
Robes  and  he  only  remains  to  wind  up. 

Thurs.  14 — A  Waggon  arrived  from  Rose  today  and  one  from 
Baptiste  having  together  428  Robes  etc.  finished 
flooring  our  Kitchen  Dinning  Room. — 

Fri.  15 — Nothing  stirring.  Weather  very  mild  in  these  times, 
the  River  runs  pure  and  as  free  from  Ice  as  in 
Summer  and  today  after  Sun  set  our  Ther.  stood 
at  54°. 


December  1854 

Sat.  16 — Mr.  Culbertsons  B  in  L  started  and  took  with  him  a 
few  goods  for  trade — An  Indian  "Spotted  Cow"  ar- 
rived with  some  Robes  for  trade  also  a  large  party 
going  to  War  and  another  coming  from  it — Thus  it 
ever  is  with  these  dogs. 

Sun.  17 — Busy  trading.  In  the  afternoon  Cadot  arrived  from 
F.  Union  with  men  who  left  here  with  horses  17th 
ulto.  He  brings  no  letters,  as  Mr.  Clark^*'  accompa- 
nied him  so  far  as  Milk  River  and  will  be  here 
probably  in  the  morning. — 

M  Champaigne  arrived  having  wound  up  his  trade 
with  Pagans  for  the  present. 

Men.  18 — Waggon  and  Cart  arrived  from  Michels  with  balance 
of  his  trade  233  Robes.  Shortly  afterwards  Mr.  Clark 
arrived  and  in  the  evening  B  Champaigne  arrived 
stating  a  Wagn.  and  Cart  will  be  here  tomorrow  from 
Mr.  Rose — 

Tues.  19 — Wagn.  and  Cart  arrived  from  Rose  with  some  240 
Robes  etc.  etc.  Put  up  an  equipment  to  send  to  him 
in  the  morning  also  one  for  Baptiste  to  start  with 
for  Blood  Ind  Camp.  Our  two  Wagns.  dispatched 
12th  inst.  for  Revais  returned  today  having  been 
wandering  about  in  the  prarie  ever  since  with- 
out finding  their  destination. 

Wed.  20 — Started  Baptiste  with  1  Wagn.  containing  the  two 
equipments  put  up  yesterday.  Some  traders  arrived — 

Thurs.  21 — Put  up  an  equipment  for  Pagan  Camp  and  started 
M  Champaigne  therewith  in  an  Ox  Cart — Finished 
trading  with  those  of  yesterday — 

Fri.  22 — Two  traders  arrived  with  some  23  Robes.  Fixing 
up  Mr.  Clark's  things  for  him  to  start  immediately 
for  F.  Union.    Very  mild  weather. — 

Sat.  23 — Early  Mr.  Clark  and  three  men  started  with  a  band 
of  36  Horses  for  Fort  Union   Traded  with  our  friends 


December  1854 

of  yesterday  and  in  the  evening  the  Little  Dog  ar- 
rived with  a  few  more  Robes. — 

Sun.  24 — Early  a  man  at  long  last  arrived  from  our  Gros 
Ventres  traders  in  quest  of  goods  and  God  knows 
what.  Put  up  a  large  equipment  to  send  there  on 
Tuesday,  tomorrow  being  Xmas  Late  in  the  evening 
Mr.  Rose  arrived  from  his  Camp  stating  his  Wagn. 
will  be  here  in  the  morning. 

Men.  25 — Put  up  a  fine  equipment  to  start  with  Mr.  Rose  in 
the  morning — His  Wagn.  has  not  yet  turned  up  how- 
ever. In  the  evening  went  to  a  little  jolification  not 
only  on  a/c  of  the  Season  but  because  also  Mr.  Cul- 
bertson  intends  taking  his  departure  for  F.  Union 
in  the  morning 

Tues.  26 — Early  Mr.  Culbertson  and  family  also  Mr.  Tevis 
started  for  F.  Union — Started  1  Ox  Wagn.  and  1 
Ox  Cart  with  Equipment  to  Gros  Ventres  Mr.  Rose's 
driver  arrived  stating  his  Oxen  had  given  out  so 
sent  another  man  with  an  additional  yoke  and 
towards  evening  all  got  back  safely.  Mr.  Rose  started 
with  Mr.  Culbertson  to  accompany  him  so  far  as  the 

Wed.  27 — Early  Mr.  Rose  returned  and  immediately  started 
him  with  3  Horse  Wagns.  containing  Equipment  put 
up  25th  inst.    Hauled  two  loads  fire  wood. 

Thurs.  28 — Very  boisterous  and  disagreeable  day  Hauled  2 
loads  wood.  Fort  looks  very  empty  in  these  times. 
Three  Gros  Ventres  arrived  from  War  but  count 
no  coup — 

Fri.  29 — Wind  throughout  the  past  night  so  very  strong  as 
to  alarm  a  good  many  of  us.  Even  our  solid  Dobbie 
walls  shook  under  it,  and  the  whole  of  the  pickets  on 
the  S  W  side  were  blown  down.  Put  these  up  again 
but  the  wind  still  continues  so  strong  as  to  prevent 
our  other  out  door  work. 


December  1854 

Sat.  30 — Calm  but  very  cold,  Ther.  in  the  morning-  5  below 
zero — A  party  of  Pagans  with  some  few  Robes  and 
meat  arrived  to  trade.  Hauled  2  loads  firewood  and 
saws  going  well. 

Sun.  31 — Traded  with  our  Pagan  friends  when  a  party  of  5 
Blackfeet  arrived  with  a  good  many  robes  for  trade, 
the  same  number  also  went  to  the  opposition  house''^. 
They  however  put  oflF  their  trade  until  morning. — 

January   1855. 

Men.  1 — Traded  with  our  Blackfeet^-  and  two  others  of  their 
party  brought  down  their  Robes  from  other  Fort  and 
traded  here.  Very  cold  and  considerable  snow  fell. 
Gave  all  hands  in  the  fort  a  small  feast. 

Tues.  2 — More  snow  fell  throughout  the  night  and  Ther.  at 
10°  below  zero  and  on  this  we  have  not  a  stick  of 
firewood  in  the  Fort — Late  to  recover  our  Oxen  and 
it  was  dark  before  we  got  any  wood  home.  Our 
Blackfeet  also  keep  hanging  on  and  begging  much 
to  our  annoyance. — 

Wed.  3 — Still  more  snow  and  more  cold.  A  man  sent  by  M. 
Champaigne  was  found  by  the  Inds.  this  morning 
nearly  dead  had  him  brought  to  the  Fort  and  found 
him  only  a  very  little  frozen  on  the  hands  and  one 
arm — Champaigne  wants  a  Wagn.  to  fetch  him  home 
his  Ox  having  nearly  given  out  the  trip  being  too  far 
without  wood  to  risk  it — Shortly  afterwards  Cadot 
arrived  from  Milk  River  with  letters  from  Mr.  Cul- 
bertson  &  Revais. 

Thurs.  A — Started    a    Wagn.    to    Champaigne.     Very    cold    and 
Snow  very  deep. — 

Fri.  5 — In  the  afternoon  our  Wagn.  returned  having  been 
unable  to  get  along  on  a/c  of  the  Snow.  Ther.  in  the 
morning  26^  below  zero. 


January  1855. 

Sat.  6— Again  started  two  men  and  4  horses  to  Michels 
assistance,  but  this  time  we  send  no  Wagn.  as  per- 
haps they  can  get  better  on  with  the  Cart  they  have. 
In  the  afternoon  Mr.  Wray^^  arrived  badly  frozen 
from  the  Gros  Ventres  He  reports  he  has  left  one 
Wagn.  loaded  with  meat  at  Box  Elder  Creek^^  horses 
given  out,  in  charge  one  man,  plenty  timber,  and 
that  he  has  left  another  loaded  with  Robes,  6  miles 
on  the  other  side  Marias  driver  nearly  frozen  to  death 
and  no  timber  near.  Immediately  sent  Cadot  and 
one  Ox  driver  to  the  assistance  of  nearest  Wagn. 

Sun.  7 — In  the  afternoon  men  arrived  from  Wagn.  on  the 
Marias  and  bring  the  driver  thereof  very  badly 
frozen  in  left  foot,  we  think  he  will  loose  it — Men 
could  not  find  the  Oxen  and  abandoned  Wagn.  Robes 
and  all  to  the  mercy  of  the  passing  Ind.  This  is  most 
damnable. — 

Men.  8 — Before  daylight  started  Cadot  on  horseback  to  take 
charge  of  the  Companys  property  on  Marias  and 
shortly  afterwards  started  two  other  men  with  two 
other  Yoke  of  Oxen  to  haul  it  to  the  Fort  and  to 
hunt  for  lost  Oxen. — 

Tues.  9 — A  few  lousey  Pagans  from  Little  Robes^^  band  ar- 
rived with  a  horse  and  a  Robe  or  two  to  trade  and 
shortly  afterwards  Cadot  arrived  with  the  good  news 
of  having  found  the  Oxen  and  that  they  and  the 
Wagn.  would  be  here  towards  evg.  but  in  this  latter 
party  our  hopes  were  only  raised  to  be  blasted — 
The  Oxen  and  men  arrived  but  the  Wagn.  remains 
upset  at  the  Teton,  and  thus  again  is  this  valuable 
lot  abandoned  to  Wolves  and  Inds. 

Wed.  10 — Before  daylight  started  men  and  Oxen  after  upset 
Wagn.  and  about  noon  we  at  long  last  got  it  safe  in 
Fort.  By  it  we  received  251  Robes  but  cannot  say 
wether  any  have  been  stolen  or  not  until  other  Wagn. 
is  brought  in  as  Mr.  Wrays  a/c  comprises  both  loads. 


January  1855. 

In  the  evg.  M  Champai.e:ne  also  arrived  and  says  his 
Cart  will  probably  be  here  in  the  morning. 

Thurs.  11 — Started  an  Ox  Wagn.  to  Revais  with  a  few  goods, 
and  at  sametime  2  Yoke  of  Oxen  to  fetch  in  the 
remaining  Wagn.  on  the  way.  At  10  A  M  Michels 
Cart  arrived  and  by  it  received  96  Robes  etc.  Late 
in  the  evening  much  to  our  surprise  the  man  left  by 
Wray  in  charge  of  Revais  Wagn.  arrived  having 
abandoned  it  also  and  its  fate  is  even  more  uncertain 
than  the  last  brought  in  as  a  party  of  opposition 
people  have  since  passed  on  to  the  Gros  Ventres — 
Such  men,  Such  actings ! 

Fri.  12 — Started  a  man  on  horseback  to  take  the  place  of  the 
helpless  wretch  that  arrived  yesterday  Two  Pagans 
arrived  with  as  many  Robes  traded  and  put  out.  A 
little  Snow  fell  throughout  the  past  night — Much 
milder  than  several  days  ago.  Nine  sick  men,  or 
frozen,  about  the  Fort. — 

Sat.  13 — Man  who  abandoned  wagns  seemingly  brought  the 
horses  so  far  as  the  Marias  when  they  give  out  he 
says  and  as  a  matter  of  course  abandoned — Sent  him 
with  another  man  to  hunt  them  up  but  they  did  not 
find  them.  Cadot  killed  three  deer  yesterday  on  Teton 
which  he  today  went  after  and  brought  in. 

Sun.  14 — No  news.  Had  our  horses  brought  up  to  opposite 
side  intending  to  move  them  tomorrow  as  where  they 
were  they  strayed  too  much,  and  one  of  them  a  mare 
belonging  to  Mr.  Culbertson  is  missing.  A  Blood 
Ind  war  party  arrived  going  to  war. — 

Men.  15 — Sent  three  men  on  Teton  to  cut  knees^^  for  a  large 
y2  Keel37  ^  Mackwss  goat  we  intend  building- 
Hauled  one  load  fire  wood  and  one  load  coal — Sent 
Cadot  after  lost  horses  but  he  returned  late  without 
having  found  them.  He  brought  with  him  the  meat 
of  one  deer  he  had   killed — War  party   started,   not 


January  1855. 

however  without  a  good  deal  of  grumbling  and  some 
threats  on  act.  of  the  scarcity  of  provisions  in  these 

Tues.  16— Sent  an  Indian  to  Little  Robe  Camp  to  see  if  these 
Indians  had  not  picked  up  our  horses,  but  he  shortly 
returned  stating  he  had  met  with  a  party  of  Crows^^^ 
on  Marias  who  shot  at  him,  and  sure  enough  he  had 
a  wound  in  his  thigh  but  it  looks  very  much  as  if 
he  had  done  it  himself — Three  Wagns.  arrived  from 
Rose  bringing  us  596  Robes.  Men  again  went  after 
Knees  and  today  hauled  one  load  of  them  and  one 
load  fire  wood. 

Wed.  17 — At  long  last  our  waylaid  Wagn.  from  Gros  Ventres 
arrived  rifled  of  its  contents.  We  find  on  this  trip 
we  have  lost  as  per  bill  rendered  us  "1000  lbs.  Meat" 
75  Tongues=^9  7  \Yolf  Skins  28  Robes  and  a  few 
other  things — So  much  for  inificient  men.  Hauled 
one  more  load  knees  and  a  load  of  fire  wood. — 

Thurs.  18 — As  we  are  now  unable  to  cross  horses  to  band  on 
other  side  sent  those  on  this  side  12  in  all  to  Teton 
with  two  men.  Wagn.  from  Gros  Ventres  yesterday 
brought  one  horse  and  a  mule  which  they  left  on 
the  Teton  but  on  sending  for  them  this  morning 
and  after  a  whole  days  hunt,  they  were  nowhere  to 
be  found  and  we  suppose  a  war  party  that  passed 
that  way  yesterday  must  have  picked  them  up.  This 
is  just  a  little  bit  more  carelessness  of  these  d — 
foolish  men — Hauled  the  balance  of  knees  to  Fort 
today  and  one  load  firewood. — 

Fri.  19 — Sent  Cadot  on  Teton  to  hunt  and  to  look  for  lost 
Mule  and  Horse,  he  killed  one  Deer  but  did  not  find 
the  Mule  or  Horse.  Hauled  2  loads  firewood  and 
our  horse  guard  on  Teton  also  brot  us  a  Cart  load. 
Cold  and  threatning  Snow — 

Sat.  20 — Considerable  snow  fell  throughout  the  past  night  and 
again  our  River  has  closed  up  in  Front  of  Fort.  Cows 


January  1855. 

missing  today.    Two  Wagn.  load  and  one  Cart  load 
fire  wood. 

Sun.  21 — Some  more  snow  fell  throughout  the  night  and  morn- 
ing. Recovered  our  lost  Cows  in  the  afternoon  Mr. 
Burds  family  and  one  or  two  others  who  have  been 
out  hunting  for  the  past  15  days  or  so  arrived  with 
all  plenty  meat.  Report  Pagans  camped  on  Milk 
River  at  Revais  houses  with  all  plenty  meat.  Ice 
strong  enough  to  cross  horses  opposite  the  Fort. 

Men.  22 — Put  up  a  few  articles  to  send  in  the  morning  to  Pagan 
Camp  on  Milk  River  to  trade  meat  with.  In  the  after- 
noon B  Champaigne  arrived  and  says  Mr.  Rose  with 
his  Wagn.  will  Camp  tonight  on  Teton — hauled  two 
loads  firewood. — 

Tues.  23 — Started  Cadot  and  two  men  with  equipment  put  up 
yesterday.  Sent  also  six  horses  to  help  Mr.  Rose 
along  but  he  has  not  yet  arrived.  Very  bad  travelling 
in  these  times  as  it  now  thaws  and  the  prarie  is  one 
entire  lake.  Hauled  2  Wagn.  and  1  Cart  load  fire 
wood. — 

Wed.  24 — No  Rose  not  even  a  leaf  yet,  and  we  cannot  con- 
jecture what  is  keeping  him.  Hauled  2  Wagn.  load 
firewood.  Our  two  saws  at  work  sawing  a  little  all 
the  time. — 

Thurs.  25 — Late  last  night  Mr.  Rose's  Wagn.  arrived  all  safe 
and  this  morning  he  and  Monroe  with  their  families 
cast  up.  Counted  Robes  125  in  all.  Traded  53  Robes 
from  3  Indians.     Two  loads  fire  wood. 

Fri.  26 — Ice  opposite  moved  ofif  but  the  river  soon  got  choaked 
up  and  water  commenced  rising  rapidly — A  lucky 
thing  for  us  to  have  our  boats  high  and  dry.  2  loads 

Sat.  27 — Started  M.  Champaigne  to  Pagan  Camp  on  Milk 
River  with  a  fine  large  equipment  and  we  trust  he 


January  1855. 

will  have  good  luck  in  his  trade — Indians  all  cleared 
out.  Not  a  bite  of  meat  now  in  the  Fort  and  what 
can  be  keeping-  our  Wagns.  at  Revais  is  more  than 
we  can   divine. — 

Sun.  28 — In  the  morning  a  man  arrived  from  Michel  and 
states  they  are  unable  to  cross  the  Teton  and  in  try- 
ing to  do  so  they  lost  the  lead  bars  to  one  of  the 
Wagns. — Gave  him  another  set  and  started  him 
back. — 

Men.  29 — Put  up  a  fine  equipment  to  send  to  Blood  Indian 
Camp  in  a  few  days.  Hauled  two  loads  fire  wood — 
In  the  Evening  M  Champaigne  returned  from  his 
Wagns.  half  dead  if  groaning  and  grunting  could 
make  him  so.  What  a  miserable  set  of  beings  we  live 
amongst  here — All  sick  or  pretending  to  be  so  about 
the  Fort  men  women  and  children.  Fine  pleasant 
day  River  open  and  free  of  running  ice  and  flocks  of 
Geese  and  Ducks  seen  flying  past. — 

Tues.  30 — Started  Mr.  Burd  to  take  the  place  of  M  Champaigne. 
Hauled  2  loads  fire  wood. 

Wed.  31 — A  messenger  arrived  from  Mr.  Burd  to  see  what 
was  to  be  done  as  the  Marias  was  too  much  flooded 
to  cross  it.  Also  a  messenger  arrived  from  a  Wagn. 
on  other  side  Marias  from  Revais  also  to  see 
what  was  to  be  done.  Sent  both  back  immediately 
silly  fools  to  do  the  best  they  could  to  get  across  as 
speedily  as  possible.  Sickness  prevents  our  starting 
Blood  Ind  Equip. 

February   1855 

Thurs.  1 — Tiresome  times  all  sick  Hauled  two  loads  fire 

Fri.  2 — Another  Express  arrived  from  Revais  in  quest  of 
provisions  for  trade,  and  in  the  afternoon  our  Wagn. 
from  other  side  Marias  arrived  and  the  men  with  it 



From  Rising  Wolf  by  J.  W.  Scluiltz.  I'ublislied  by  Houghton,  Mifflin 


February  1855. 

tell  us  Mr.  Burd  and  VVagn.  has  also  crossed.    Re- 
ceived from  Revais  106  Robes. — 

Sat.  3 — Started  Mr.  Rose  with  a  large  Equip  and  3  Wagns. 
to  trade  with  Blood  Inds.  and  Blackfeet  and  also 
started  a  Wagn.  with  a  supply  of  provisions  to  Gros 
Ventres  and  with  it  B.  Champaigne.  Hauled  one 
load  fire  wood. — 

Sun.  A — A  sick  Ind :  who  started  with  Mr.  Rose  yesterday 
returned  today.    Very  mild  with  slight  rain. — 

Men.  5 — Dull  times  and  very  mild.  Our  black  spotted  Cow 
gave  us  a  calf  last  night.  In  the  evg.  a  party  arrived 
from  war  with  a  number  of  horses. — 

Tues.  6 — Another  war  party  arrived,  and  all  of  them  crossed 
their  horses  today  to  this  side.  An  Indian  arrived 
from  Baptiste  with  a  found  horse  and  states  he  has 
been  a  good  deal  delayed  by  his  oxen  straying,  but 
that  they  are  all  found  and  still  going  ahead.  Hauled 
one  wagn.  load  wood. — 

Wed.  7 — Warriors  all  left.  Fine  pleasant  day  Nothing  how- 
ever stirring  which  renders  our  life  here  tiresome 
indeed.  Commenced  sawing  bottom  for  a  new  Boat 
^  Keel  y2  Mackinaw 

Thurs.  8 — Same  weather  and  almost  the  same  incidents  A 
party  of  Blood  Indians  arrived  from  war  with  24 

Fri.  9 — And  still  the  same.  Warriors  started  with  their 
horses.  No  loafing  in  these  times  there  being  nothing 
for  whites  or  Inds  to  eat. — 

Sat.  10 — Slight  snow  in  the  morning  which  turned  to  rain  and 
finally  cleared  off  towards  noon.  In  the  Evg.  Cadot 
arrived  with  two  Wagns.  loaded  with  meat.  Most 
acceptable  in  these  times  of  starvation. 

Sun.  11 — Nothing  of  moment  occurring.    Fine  pleasant  day. 


February  1855. 

Mon.  12 — Again  started  Cadot  to  Pagan  Camp  with  two 
Wagns.  in  hopes  of  getting  another  supply  of  meat. 
Hauled  one  load  of  Coal    Warm  pleasant  day 

Tues.  13 — Same  pleasant  quiet  times.  Warm  and  Geese  flying 

WeA  14 — The  "Big  Feather"**'  an  Indian  that  has  long  been 
sick  in  the  fort  started  for  Camp  nearly  recovered 
and  by  him  sent  Mr  Monroe  also  recovered  to  Mr. 
Rose's  assistance.  Opposition'*^  started  one  Waggon 
to  Gros  Ventres  and  two  arrived  from  Pagan  Camp 
without  loads  however — Hurra  for  us. — 

Thurs.  15 — Nothing  new  stirring.  An  Indian  solitary  and  alone 
arrived  from  war  with  three  horses.  Windy  and 
disagreeable. — 

Fri.  16— Fine  pleasant  day — Nothing  of  moment  stirring — 
One  load  fire  wood. — 

Sat.  17 — Still  pleasant  and  same  news. — 

Sun.  18 — About  noon  B  Champaigne  arrived  and  reports  a 
Wagn.  and  Cart  close  from  Revais  with  Robes  and 
meat.  Gros  Ventres  trade  getting  to  a  close  and  we 
are  most  thankful  of  it. 

Mon.  19 — Sent  a  man  to  meet  our  Gros  Ventres  Wagn.  with  a 
pick  axe  to  fix  the  road  on  the  hill  a  little  which  is 
in  bad  order.  Quite  a  change  in  our  weather,  snow- 
ing blowing  and  cold. — 

Tues.  20 — A  man  from  the  opposition  arrived  and  states  that 
our  Waggoner  wants  another  Yoke  of  Oxen  to  help 
him  along.  Colder  still  and  every  appearance  of  the 
River  again  closeing — Hauled  1  Waggon  and  2  Cart 
load  fire  wood. 

Wed.  21 — Sent  word  by  the  return  opposition  man  that  we 
were  unable  to  attend  to  our  Waggoners  case  and 
as  we  anticipated  without  any  assistance  our  Wagn. 
and   Cart  arrived  all   safe  with  a  tolerable  load  of 


February  1855. 

Robes  and  Meat — but  too  late  for  us  to  count  them. 
Ther.  5  degrees  below  zero. 

Thurs.  22 — Rested  our  men  and  Oxen  and  put  up  an  equipment 
to  send  to  Revais  in  the  morning.  Still  very  cold, 
and   firewood  at  a  premium     No   news. — 

Fri.  23 — Unable  to  find  our  Oxen  till  too  late  to  start 
Wagn.  for  Revais — About  noon  three  men  arrived 
from  Ft.  Union  with  three  horses — Mr.  Culbertson 
and  party  arrived  there  safe  25th  ultimo — Bufo. 
plenty  and  good  prospects  for  trade  in  the  lower 
country,  but  no  news  lower  than  Ft.  Union. — 

Sat.  24 — Started  our  Wagn.  to  Gros  Ventres  earh-.  Still  very 
cold — Ther.  5°  below  zero — Hauled  one  Waggon 
and  2  Cart  load  wood. — 

Sun.  25 — Cold  as  ever — River  stronger  than  it  has  been  this 
year.  Had  one  Cart  load  wood  hauled  notwithstand- 
ing the  day,  Mr.  Dawsons^^  family  being  very  sick. — 

Men.  26 — Considerably  milder  and  prospects  of  an  agreeable 
change,  the  wind  having  got  into  the  South — Hauled 
1  Wagn.  and  1  Cart  load  wood, — Hauled  also  some 
wood  on  Teton  for  our  last  Coal  pit^^  this  winter. 
Crossed  all  our  horses  from  other  side  on  the  Ice, 
found  all  right,  and  sent  them  out  on  Teton. — 

Tues.  27 — Fine  mild  day — Ice  melting  fast  and  snow  all  gone — 
Men  occupied  as  yesterday — Set  fire  to  our  pit  on 

Wed.  28 — Most  unexpected  sight — a  Bull  close  back  of  the  Fort 
being  the  first  we  have  seen  Killed  it  and  thus  the 
famishing  thousands  about  the  Fort  got  a  bite.  Work 
going  on  smoothly. — 


March  1   (1855) 

Thurs.  1 — Early  Paul  with  the  Ox  Waggon  arrived  from  Rose 
with  a  small  load  of  fresh  and  dry  meat  and  in  the 
evening  Mr.  Burd  also  arrived  with  a  fine  Waggon 
load  of  meat — Pretty  good  prospects  for  future  trade. 
All  well  with  the  exception  of  Mr.  Dawsons  wife*'* 
who  gets  feebler  and  feebler  daily. — 

Fri.  2 — Busily  engaged  writing  letters  for  below  as  tomor- 
row we  intend  starting  our  Express. 

Sat.  3 — Started  B  Champaigne  with  three  men  and  twelve 
horses  for  Fort  Union.  Fixed  up  our  stores  and  had 
fort  swept  out  etc.  etc. — 

Sun.  A — Fine  pleasant  warm  weather,  only  a  little  too  windy. 
No  news. 

Men.  5 — Put  up  a  few  goods  for  Pagan  Camp  and  sent  them 
per  M  Champaigne  in  an  Ox  Cart.  Some  few  N. 
Blood  Indians  arrived  with  a  good  many  Robes  say 
25  or  30  Packs,  every  one  of  whom  went  to  opposi- 
tion Fort,  much  to  our  chagrin — 

Tues.  6— Made  many  attempts  to  get  some  of  the  25  Packs 
that  went  to  other  Fort  yesterday,  but  thus  far  with- 
out success — A  man  arrived  from  Revais  and 
states  a  waggon  is  on  the  way  with  250  Robes  and 
that  he  still  has  150  Robes  behind. — He  wants  some 
more  goods. — 

Wed.  7 — Two  Wagns.  started  from  other  Fort  to  oppose  us 
at  Pagan  Camp.  Started  a  Waggon  to  Revais 
with  a  few  goods.  Men  sent  on  Teton  to  cut  logs 
to  lay  our  boat  on,  and  also  5  logs  for  a  small  Skiflf. 

Thurs.  8 — No  news.  Work  progressing  as  usual.  Very  pleas- 
ant day.  Mr.  Dawsons  woman  getting  very  low  in- 

Fri.  9 — Fine  pleasant  day — Without  incident 

Sat.  10 — Messrs.  Rose  &  Monroe  arrived  from  Blood  Ind 
Camp  with  two  Wagns  containing  the  Bain,  of  their 


March  1855. 

goods  and  235  Robes  the  Inds.  having  all  gone  lower 
down  Milk  River  and  speak  of  coming  to  the  Fort. 
In  the  evg.  the  Wagn.  also  arrived  from  Revais 
with    250   Robes.— 

Sun.  11 — Mr.  Dawsons  Wife  died  and  was  interred  back  of 
the  Fort. 

Mon.  12 — Disagreeable  cold  day  accompanied  by  Snow.  Hauled 
2  Wagn.  and  2  Cart  load  of  wood. 

Tues.  13 — Had  our  horses  moved  above  to  Pablors  (Pablois) 
Island. ^'^  Commenced  straightning  plank  for  bottom 
of  new  Boat.    Hauled  wood  as  yesterday. 

Wed.  lA — No  news.  Still  cold  and  snowing  a  little.  Work 
progressing  slowly. — 

Thurs.  15 — Very  cold  and  Ice  again  running  in  the  River. — 

Fri.  16 — A  Waggon  arrived  from  Michel  with  55  Robes  132 
Togs  (Buffalo  tongues)  and  some  meat.  Pretty  good 
prospects  for  a  big  trade  where  he  is. — 

Sat.  17 — Put  up  a  large  equipment  to  send  in  the  morning  to 
Michel — still  very  cold. — 

Sun.  18 — Started  3  Wagns.  to  Michel  with  equipment  put  up 
yesterday — Cold  as  ever 

Mon.  19 — The  "Painted  Lodge"  Pagan  arrived  with  some  25 
Robes  for  trade — No  change  in  our  weather  and 
firewood  in  great  demand. — 

Tues.  20 — Traded  with  "Painted  Lodge"  22  Robes  in  all.  Still 

Wed.  21 — The  Indian  started  back  for  Camp  this  morning. 
Commenced  laying  bottom  of  a  large  80  ft.  hermaph- 
rodite Keel  Boat^^.    Much  milder. 

Thurs.  22 — Another  pleasant  day.  A  man  at  opposition  Fort 
died  and  was  hurried  today  Work  at  Fort  pro- 
gressing smoothly. — 


March  1855. 

Fri.  23 — One  of  our  men  John  Adams  died  early  this  morning 
and  was  decently  interred  by  his  comrades  back  of 
the  Fort.    Still  at  bottom  of  Boat. — 

Sat.  24 — Cleaned  inside  and  around  Fort  Finished  bottom 
of  our  boat  and  turned  it  over.  Very  warm  for  the 
Season. — 

Sun.  25 A  party  of  Blood  Indians  arrived  for  trade,  headed 

by  Mr.  Culbertsons  Bro  in  Law,   Gave  them  a  salute 
and  hoisted  our  flag. — Mr.  Dawson  very  sick. 

Men.  26 — Traded  with  Blood  Indians  and  got  through  with 
them.  A  Pagan  arrived  to  call  us  to  Camp  on  Marias 
to  trade  meat  and  they  intend  coming  to  Fort  with 
their  Robes,  .  etc. 

Tues.  27 — Put  away  Robes  traded  yesterday  108  in  all.  In- 
dians all  cleared  out,  Put  up  an  equipment  to  send 
to  North  Pagan  Camp,  at  Clarks  Houses'*^,  where  we 
hear  there  are  20  lodges.  Commenced  planking  sides 
of  our  Boat.  Revais  arrived  with  3  Wagns.  con- 
taining 499  Robes  from  himself  and  70  from  M 
Champaigne.  In  the  evening  another  man  arrived 
express  from  M  Champaigne. 

Wed.  28 — Put  up  some  goods  for  Michel  and  started  a  Wagn. 
with  them  to  him. 

Thurs.  29 — Started  two  Wagns.  with  an  equipment  to  Clarks 
Houses,  charge  Revais.    Fine  pleasant  weather. — 

Fri.  30 — Another  Waggon  arrived  from  Michel  with  203 
Robes, — He  seems  to  be  doing  a  pretty  brisk  busi- 

Sat.  31 — Started  an  Ox  Waggon  to  Michel  and  as  he  does 
not  ask  for  any  more  goods  sent  him  only  a  little 
powder     Opposition  getting  short  of  goods. — 


April  1855. 

Sun.  1 — Pleasant  weather  but  notliinf^:  stirring. 

Mon.  2 — Swept  out  Fort.  A  band  of  Indians  the  "Big  Lakes^''" 
arrived  with  some  20  packs  Robes  for  opposition 

Tues.  3 — Got  a  small  share  74  of  the  Robes  that  arrived  for 
opposition  yesterday.  Nearly  done  with  our  big  Boat. 
Made  up  5  Packs  Beaver. 

Wed.  A — Two  Wagns.  arrived  from  Michel  with  400  Robes. 
The  "Painted  Lodge"  also  arrived  with  two  other 
traders  having  some  60  Robes  for  trade.  Made  31 
Packs  Robes. 

Thurs.  5 — Started  two  Wagns.  back  to  Michel  with  a  fine  load 
of  goods,  and  we  think  these  will  be  the  last.  Traded 
with  the  Painted  Lodge  73  Robes  in  all  and  he  put 

Fri.  6 — Some  North  Pagans  arrived  to  look  at  our  goods 
etc.  etc.  and  shortly  afterwards  3  came  to  trade. 
Traded  with  them  63  Robes.— Made  up  25  Packs 

Sat.  7 — North  Pagans,  some  Blackfeet  &  Blood  Indians 
arrived  and  are  camped  on  Teton  so  that  the  Fort 
is  full  of  loafers.  A  small  party  headed  by  the  White 
Cow  against  the  Bank'*^  arrived  from  whom  traded 
105  Robes  on  order  and  73  Robes  they  brought — 
A  wagn.  also  arrived  from  Michel  with  300  Robes. 

Sun.  8 — Some  Blood  Inds.  and  Blackfeet  arrived  from  whom 
traded  420  Robes.  A  slow  tedious  trade  as  we  were 
at  it  all  day. — 

Mon.  9 — Another  busy  day  trading  with  these  Indians  441 
Robes. — 

Tues.  10 — At  it  again  but  the  trade  is  now  about  over — 170 
Robes  today  Revais  also  arrived  with  246  Robes  he 
traded  with  North  Pagans  at  Clarks  Houses — 


April  1855. 

Wed.  11 — Commenced  caulking-  bottom  of  our  new  Boat  which 
we  have  put  off  on  a/c  of  the  Inds.  and  they  are 
still  pretty  troublesome.  Traded  from  them  today 
100  Robes.  Two  Wagns.  arrived  from  Michel  with 
500  R— 

Thurs.  12 — Pecotte  (Picotte)^'^  of  the  opposition  started  for 
below  in  a  small  skiff.  Indians  still  around  us  beg- 
ging and  trading  a  little —  Got  today  70  Robes. — 

Fri.  13 — Still  bothered  by  the  Indians  a  good  deal  traded 
Henrys-''^  from  them  today  some  30  Robes.  Today  they  raised 
boy  Camp.    In   the   evening-  the   Rising   Head^^   arrived 

born  from  Michels  Camp  with  some  40  Robes  to  trade. — 

Sat.  14 — Traded  with  Rising  head  when  he  immediately 
cleared  out  to  join  his  friends — Finished  our  New 
Boat,  a  fine  affair  and  launched  her — Now  nearly 
clear  of  Indians  except  a  few  loafers  to  whom  we 
have  given  their  walking  papers. — 

Sun.  15 — M  Champaigne  arrived  bringing  in  balance  of  his 
goods  and  277  Robes  and  now  we  may  consider  our 
trade  as  over  1020  Packs  Robes  this  year,  besides 
some  50  Packs  small  skins. — 

Men.  16 — Commenced  caulking  one  of  our  old  boats,  and  re- 
commenced Pack  making,  today  had  only  1  Table  at 
work  and  made  only  50  Packs.  Jackson^^  and 
Monroe  started  on  a  Beaver  hunt. — 

Tues.  17 — Made  up  160  Packs  Robes^-*  today.  Very  windy  and 
men  unable  to  work  at  Boats. 

Wed.  18 — Made  today  150  Packs  Robes.  Launched  another  of 
our  Boats.  Started  a  man  to  Camp  at  Bears  Paw 
after  an  Ox  left  there  in  winter  by  Revais  and 
which  we  hear  the  Indians  have  now  in  Camp. — 

Thurs.  19 — Made  97  Packs  Robes  and  9  Packs  small  skins. 
Started  Cadot  with  2  men  and  10  horses  after  meat. 
Sawed    some    plank    to    make    a    skiff    for    Revais. 

02  i 

xn  6 

W  I 

«  ': 

w  I 

pQ  : 

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April  1855. 

Fri.  20— Made  100  Packs  Robes  and  11  Packs  small  skins. 
Finished  a  skiff  for  Revais  and  commenced  caulking 
our  other  Boat — 

Sat.  21— Made  92  Packs  Robes  and  13  Packs  small  skins. 
Launched  our  last  Boat.  Revais  started  in  a  skiff 
on  a  Beaver  hunt.  Cadot  arrived  late  with  the  meat 
of  3  Bulls.   Hauled  two  loads  wood. — 

Sun.  22 — Dull  cold  lonesome  day.  Opposition  people  loading 
up  their  Boats  today  and  we  hear  are  to  start  in  the 
morning. — 

Men,  23 — Made  150  Packs  Robes.  Opposition  people  had  to 
unload,  their  Boats  being  inifffciently  caulked. 

Tues.  24 — Made  91  Packs  Robes  and  all  our  mixed  skins  which 
finishes  this  job  leaving  700  loose  Robes. — Opposi- 
tion Boats  started  for  below. 

Wed.  25 — Commenced  Pressing^^  our  Packs  and  today  pressed 

Thurs.  26 — Pressed  250  Packs  today.    Sent  Cadot  with  two  Men 
after  meat  on  other  side. — 

Fri.  27 — Pressed  250  Packs  again.  Cadot  and  men  returned 
with  the  meat  of  4  Bulls. 

Sat.  28 — Pressed  2  Packs  which  finishes  this  job  River  ris- 
ing gradually. — 

Sun.  29 — Balanced  mens  a/cts  and  hired  those  who  are  agree- 
able who  are  very  few. 

Mon.  30 — Hauled  dunnage  for  Boats.  Baled  Boats  out  and 
took  Inventory  of  Goods  etc.  left. 

May  1855 

Tues.  1 — Loaded  up  two  Boats.  Very  windy. —  (Total  eclipse 
of  Moon  this  evening) 


May  1855. 

Wed.  2 — Loaded  other  Boat,  but  the  strong  wind  prevents 
us  covering  them  properly. — 

wind  abating  got  everything  ready  by  night  for  an 
early  start  tomorrow ;  all  hands  slept  aboard  of  their 
respective  boats  tonight. 

Thurs.  3 — Rained  little  during  night,  boats  started  this  morn- 
ing at  4^  A.  M  got  Safely  round  the  point ;  only 
ten  men  left  in  the  fort.  Sun  rose  beautifully  this 
morning  every  appearance  for  the  boats  to  make  a 
good  run  today. — Two  men  left  for  Pagan  camp,  to 
look  for  an  ox  that  was  lost  in  the  winter ;  large 
War  party  of  Gros-vents  (Ventres)  arrived  @  fort 
this  evening — Wind  rose  about  9  A.  M.  and  con- 
tinued blowing  very  hard  all  day. 

Fri.  4^Beautiful  day. — A  fine  litter  of  Ten  Pigs  born  last 
night.  This  afternoon  Moreau  who  started  yester- 
day for  camp  returned  reporting  the  man  who 
started  with  him  gave  out,  he  left  him  on  his  way 
to  fort  @  Sand  Creek  about  20  miles  distant. — 1  load 
of  wood  hauled  to  day. — 

Sat.  5 — Fine  clear  day.  The  man  that  gave  out  on  his  way 
to  camp  came  in  after  midnight. — Grosvent  war  party 
left  this  morning;  cleaned  for  to  day. — Kept  horses 
between  the  two  forts  today ;  fearful  of  the  Gros- 
vent's  stealing  some  of  them. — Another  addition  of 
stock,  a  litter  of  three  young  pigs. — 

Sun.  6 — Most  Beautiful  warm  clear  morning,  slight  wind 
towards  evng.  All  quiet  about  Fort  to  day,  river 
appears  to  be  on  a  stand. — 

Men.  7 — Beautiful  warm  day,  Cadot  started  hunting,  also  two 
men  went  to  pagan  camp,  one  for  his  wife  the  other 
to  look  for  a  stray  Oxen. — Opposition  sent  out  hunt- 
ers to  day. — An  Indian  of  other  fort  brot.  in  Mr. 
C's  Sorrel  Mare  that  had  been  across  the  river  for 
some  time  to  the  fort  to  night  she  has  a  fine  colt 
about  a  week  old. 


May  1855. 

Tues.  8 — Very  fine  day  went  with  a  man  on  'i'eton  for  load 
of  wood  no  News  @  fort  to  day. — 

Wed.  9 — Beautiful  day,  towards  night  hunter  arrived  with 
meat  of  three  Bulls. — opposition  hunters  also  arrived 
to  day. — 

Thurs.  10 — Another  fine  day,  fixed  up  Govmt.  goods'*^  this 
morning. — No  news. — 

Fri.  11 — Fine  day  rather  windy,  Men  went  to  Teton  to  cut 
timber  to  make  a  skiflf  one  load  of  wood  hauled 
to  day. — 

Sat.  12 — Another  fine  day;  hauled  logs  to  build  Skiff,  no 
News ;  very  high  wind  after  Sunset  and  cloudy. — 
River  rising  gradually. 

Sun.  13 — Fine  day  Men  arrived  from  camp  who  started  on 
last  Monday ;  The  four  nations  are  together  below 
the  Little  Rocky  Mountains  and  are  moving  further 
down. — River  rising. — 

Men.  14 — Flying  clouds  all  day;  this  evening  @  4  o'clk  heavy 
Shower — one  saw  going,  making  boards  for  Skiflf. — 
river  rising  gradually — 

Tues.  15 — Very  rainy  disagreeable  day  no  out  door  work  do- 
ing.— River  rising  very  rapidly. 

Wed.  16 — Fine  clear  morning,  but  cloudy  and  showery  during 
afternoon  Men  Sawing  today,  a  load  of  wood  hauled 
for  use  of  fort, — River  rising    Clear  at  night 

Thurs.  17 — Beautiful  day.  The  Indian  who  went  hunting  with 
Mess.  Munroe  &  Jackson  arrived  @  fort  to  night 
(having  left  them  on  Missouri  this  morning)  for  pro- 
visions, reports  they  will  not  be  in  for  some  time 
yet ;     men  Sawing  yet ;     River  rising  rapidly. — 

Fri.  18 — Fine  clear  morning  Showery  &  windy  during  after- 
noon, river  rising  rapidly  finished  sawing  timber 
for  Skiflf  to  dav.— 


May  1855. 

Sat.  19 — Cloudy,  rainy  disagreeable  day — hauled  a  load  of 
wood,  moved  the  Kitchen  to  day. — Opposition  hunt- 
ers arrived  this  evening,  an  Indian  brought  us  a  load 
of  meat    river  on  a  stand. — 

Sun.  20 — Rainy  disagreeable  day  fort  full  of  water.  The  In- 
dian who  came  from  Jackson  left  this  morning. — 
No  News. — 

Men.  21 — Disagreeable  rainy  day.  No  out  door  work  doing. — 
No  News. 

Tues.  22 — Cleared  up  this  morning,  cloudy  at  night,  Express 
for  Jackson  returned  this  morning. — War  party  of 
Pagans  returned  from  Flat  Head,  lost  one  of  their 
party,  hauled  a  load  of  wood  to  day.  Made  & 
launched  our  skiflF  to  day — 

Wed.  23 — Clear  day.  Hunter  left  to  Surround^^  with  a  man 
and  two  Indians  across  river. — War  party  left  for 
camp  today — hauled  logs  in  fort  to  day  to  make  a 
foot  way. — also  took  apart  Govmt.  wagons. — Traded 
four  beaver  from  war  party. — Man  from  opposition 
came  down  to  stay  @  fort  tonight. — 

Thurs.  24 — Rainy  disagreeable  day — Hunter  returned  early  this 
morning  with  meat  of  4  Bulls — War  party  of  Pagans 
arrived  from  Flat  Heads  with  horses — Load  of  wood 
hauled  to  day. — 

Fri.  25 — Another  rainy  day,  two  loads  of  wood  hauled ;  Little 
Pagan,  came  to  fort  to  stay  to  day     No  News — 

Sat.  26 — Several  showers  to  day — one  load  of  wood  hauled. 
Two  Indians  &  families  came  from  camp  to  day. — 
Commenced  to  make  a  garden. — All  the  Indians  mov- 
ing down  Milk  River  on  their  way  to  Ft.  Union — 

Sun.  27 — Beautiful  day,  Indian  went  out  and  brought  in  meat 
of  two  Elk. — rainy  at  night,    river  falling. 


May  1855. 

Mon.  28 — Cloudy  morning,  clear  at  Noon  Cloudy  at  night. — 
Cadot  &  Man  started  for  Mountain  this  afternoon 
to  hunt,  crossed  two  wagons  to  start  for  timber  to 
Mountains  tomorrow — river  on  a  Stand. — 

Tues.  29 — Clear  day,  Started  two  wagons  (ox)  to  Mts.  Made 
and  finished  planting  garden.    No  News! 

Wed.  30 — Cloudy  morning  clear  at  night — At  noon  a  party  of 
women  (and  children)  were  crossing  in  opposition 
boat  when  it  Sunk  there  being  14  persons  in  her, 
they  floated  down  to  the  point  below,  when  they 
were  picked  up  by  our  boat,  being  more  frightened 
than  hurt. — War  party  of  pagans  arrived  from  Flat- 
heads  no  horses — This  evening  two  men  come  from 
other  fort  to  ours  to  see  if  we  would  hire  them,  they 
being  dissatisfied  above, — told  them  to  come  tomor- 

Thurs.  31 — Beautiful  day. — The  two  men  came  down  today  and 
hired  for  each  Twenty  dollars  per  Month. — Reed, 
two  notes  from  opposition ;  one  of  which  was  very 
insulting     Sent  answers  to  both. — No  News! 

June  1855 

Fri.  1 — Fine  clear  day — Cleaned  out  fort  this  morning — Men 
arrived  from  Mountain,  this  afternoon  ;  having  broken 
one  wagon  only  brought  one  load. — river  on  a  stand. — 
No  News! 

Sat.  2 — Beautiful  warm  day — Opposition  people  Started  for 
Mountain  to  make  meat ;  Load  of  wood  hauled  to 
day. — No  News! 

Sun.  3 — Very  windy,  Cadot  arrived  from  Mountain  this 
morning  with  the  meat  of  an  Elk,  deer  and  an  Ante- 

Mon.  A — Three  men  went  to  Mountain  to  bring  load  of  tim- 
ber, also  Hunter  &  four  Men  went  to  Bears  Paw  to 


June   1855. 

make  meat,  took  two  wagons  eleven  horses  &  Seven 
mules — Very  windy. — river  rising- 

Tues.  5 — Clear  day,  rather  windy.— Wagon  arrived  from 
mountain  with  load  of  timber  this  afternoon.  River 
rising. — 

Wed.  6 — Beautiful  day — brought  logs  across  river  this  morn- 
ing and  hauled  them  into  fort. — Windy  @  night. — 

Thurs.  7 — Clear  day. — Men  Sawing,  Commenced  hauling  gravel 
to  put  in  fort  one  man  commenced  making  dobbies 
War  party  arrived  @  other  fort  &  State  Indians  on 
Milk  River.— 

Fri.  8 — Beautiful  day  ;  rather  windy. — one  man  making  dub- 
bies.  A  war  party  of  Pagans  arrived  this  evening, 
state  plenty  of  bulTalo  this  side  of  the  Bears  paw 
mountain ;  hauling  gravel  in  fort — 

Sat.  9 — Clear  day,  hauled  a  load  of  wood  two  men  started 
across  river  to  hunt  this  evening. — 

Sun.  10 — Fine  day — War  party  left  this  morning  for  Flat 
heads. — river  rising 

Men.  11 — F'ine  day  rather  windy. — men  retd.  from  hunting  with 
two  cabree^^. — 

Tues.  12 — Beautiful  day.  Showery  during  the  evening,  clear  @ 
night,  men  Sawing,  one  man  at  dubbies. — 

Wed.  13 — Cloudy  with  Shower  of  rain  &  hail. — Men  Sawing — 
This  evening  a  party  of  P'lathead  Indians  came  on 
other  side  of  river  took  skiff  across  &  brought  Eight 
to  our  Fort  the  remainder  went  above  River  ris- 

Thurs.  14 — Cool  windy  day.— The  Flatheads  from  other  Fort 
visited  us  today ;  gave  them  a  present  of  Knives  & 
Ammunition,  they  report  there  are  two  of  the  Gov- 
ernment Men^^^  with  them  and  when  the  Governor 
comes  over  their  camp  will  accompany. — 


June  1855. 

Fri.  15— Fine  day— Flatheads  left  this  morning— Also  a  man 
from  our  Fort. — Bird's  Son^'^  &  two  Indians  came  to 
fort  &  report  the  N.  Pagan  Camp  they  having  some 
three  packs  of  Beaver  they  will  be  @  fort  in  a  few 
days— At  5  P.  M.  &  reported  Hunters  &  wagons 
with  meat  @  the  Marias  river  it  being  too  high  to 
cross,  Sent  the  Skifif  to  their  aid.— 

Sat.  16 — Fine  day  Wagons  arrived  about  4  o'clk  P.  M.  about 
6  o'clk  P.  M.  the  war  party  that  left  here  on  the 
5th  ulto  arrived  entirely  stripped,  they  being  chased 
by  the  Crows,  they  Subsisted  on  roots  for  18  days 
&  had  no  covering. — 

Sun.  17— Beautiful  day  all  quiet  about  the  Fort.— No  News.— 

Men.  18 — Fine  day. — Took  down  press,  also  the  pickets  around 
the  Smoke  house. — One  load  of  wood  hauled,  men 
Sawing. — Hunter  went  out  &  returned  with  meat 
of  one  deer,  also  an  Indian  brot  one  Antelope — No 
News. — 

Tues.  19 — Clear  day  Messrs  Jackson  &  Munroe  arrived  from 
their  hunt  at  Noon  bringing  Some  Seventy  beaver. — 
War  party  of  Gros  Ventres  left  for  Camp  to  day — 
Men   Sawing — River  falling. — 

Wed.  20 — Fine  day— Men  Sawing,  two  Men  at  dubbies  Op- 
position wagons  came  in  from  Making  meat. — Two 
Indians  arrived  from  N.  Pagan  Camp  &  report  the 
Camp  above  on  Teton,  will  be  at  fort  on  tomorrow. — 
they  left  at  night. — River  falling  rapidly. — 
Thurs.  21 — Rainy  disagreeable  day — Three  Men  at  dubbies  but 
had  to  stop  on  account  of  N.  Pagan  Camp  arriving 
and  Making  their  Camp  between  the  two  Forts, 
did  not  trade  any  to  day. — River  falling  rapidly — 

Fri.  22 — Clear  day. — Hunter  went  after  meat  on  other  side 
of  river. — Traded  some  forty  beaver  &  a  few  Skins 
to  day. — laying  planks  around  fort  to  day. — River 


June  1855. 

Sat.  23 — Beautiful  day,  very  warm,  hunter  returned  with  meat 
of  7  bulls. — traded  40  Beaver  from  Burd  to  day. — 
Load  of  wood  hauled  River  falling.— Indians  having 
returned  from  hunting  this  evening,  we  expect  to 
make  a  good  trade  to  morrow — 

Sun.  24 — Clear  Morning. — Six  bulls  killed  to  day  by  Indians 
one  behind  our  fort  and  five  on  prarie  above  other 
fort.— Cloudy  &  windy  @  Night  River  falling.— 

Men.  25 — Clear  Morning. — Tremendious  hail  storm  this  after- 
noon breaking  several  of  the  windows. — No  News! 

Tues.  26 — Clear  day. — Hauling  gravel  in  fort. — Men  finished 
sawing  to  day;  Cloudy  at  night. — Traded  a  horse 
to  day. — 

Wed.  27 — Rainy  day,  cleared  during  eve.  Cleaned  Stores. 
River  falling. — 

Thurs.  28 — Showery. — Hauled  12  loads  gravel  in  fort  to  day.— 

Fri.  29 — Clear  day — Hauled  two  loads  of  wood — Cadot  & 
Burd  left  for  the  Bears  Paw  Mountains,  to  trap 
Beaver  Camp  left  for  Mouth  of  Marias  river— At 
dark  three  Indians  came  to  fort  having  left  the 
war  party  that  started  from  camp  yesterday  for  the 
Snake  country. — 

Sat.  30 — Fine  day  :  Crossed  horses  opposite  fort  No  News.— 

July  1855 

Sun.  1 — July. — Beautiful     day — all     quiet     about     fort. — No 
News. — 

Men.  2 — Another  fine  day.  Two  men  @  Dubbies,  War  party 
Pagans,  arrived  from  Camp  at  the  Cypress  Mts*^*. 
they  having  arrived  from  below,  and  bring  very  un- 
satisfactory News,  the  Express  not  having  started 
up  to  the  1st  Ultimo.  River  falling. — 

Tues.  3 — Fine  day — Five  men  @  dubbies. — River  falling. — 

JAMES  BIRD  IN  1855 

Reproduced  through  the  court.'sy  <if  llouiiliton,  .Mifflin  ('oiupany. 


July  1855. 

Wed.  A — "Independence  Aniversary",  fired  3  Shots  ea.  at 
Morning  noon  &  Night;  war  party  returned  from 
war. — Fine  day;  river  falling. — 

Thurs.  5 — War  party  left  for  Camp — Four  Men  at  dubbies ; 
Clear  day — No  News  ! — 

Fri.  6 — Exceedingly  warm  day — Five  men  at  dubbies; 
Shower  @  night  and  very  Cool  with  high  wind. — 
River  falling. — 

Sat.  7 — Fine  Morning — Wray  &  Two  Indians  went  hunting 
to  day. — Commenced  painting. — 

Sun.  8 — Hunters  returned  (late  at  night)  bringing  parts  of 
three  Elk  &  an  Antelope,  having  left  the  rest  to 
return   &  bring  it. — 

Men.  9 — Fine  day  Men  went  to  Teton  for  a  load  of  hay  for 
dubbies,  two  men  making  dubbies — No  News! — 

Tues.  10 — Beautiful  day. — very  warm — Five  men  at  dubbies 
No  News. — 

Wed.  11 — Fine  day — Yellow  Hair«2  returned  from  Bears  paw 
with  meat  of  bull.  Hunter  &  two  men  went  hunting 
to  day. — Shower  at  night. — Five  men  at  dubbies 

Thurs.  12 — Clear  warm  day.  Four  men  at  dubbies. — Two  men 
left  for  Yellow  Stone  from  the  Opposition  Fort. — 
No  News! — 

Fri.  13 — Fine  day  Express  arrived  from  St.  Mary's^-*  with 
Govmt.  despatches  to  be  sent  below — report  Gov. 
Stevens  at  St.  Mary's  &  will  be  here  in  the  course  of 
two  weeks. — Four  Men  at  dubbies   River  falling. — 

Sat.  14 — Fine  day  Hunters  arrived  with  Meat  of  8  deer. — 
No  Buffaloes  Sent  a  man  with  an  Indian  as  express 
to  meet  the  boats.— River  falling  Three  Men  at  dub- 
bies— The  Government  Express  left  for  to  St.  Marys 
this  morning. — 


July  1855. 

Sun.  15 — Fine  cool  day — One  man  of  Gov  Stevens^*  Express 
returned  this  eve.  his  horse  having  given  out  at  Sun 

Mon.  16 — Clear  during  day — Men  filling  fort  with  Sand  to  day; 
one  load  of  wood  hauled — Rainy  at  night. — 

Tues.  17 — Cloudy  during  day  cleared  up  @  sundown. — Hunter 
went  out  this  morn  to  his  traps  &  Returned  with  meat 
of  a  deer. — No  News! — 

Wed.  18 — Fine  day  Indian  went  hunting  and  brought  in  meat 
of  two  Antelope  Hauled  a  load  of  lime  stone  to  day 
men  sawing. — 

Thurs.  19 — Beautiful  day  Hunter  started  hunting,  Indian  went 
out  &  brot  in  two  deer,  if  it  were  not  for  Indian  we 
would  be  poorly  off  having  no  provisions  and  the 
Hunter  being  too  lazy  to  hunt. — A  load  of  Limestone 
hauled  to-day. — men  Sawing. — Carpenter  fixing  the 
floor  of  new  kitchen,  no  dubbies  made  on  account  of 
other  work. — No  News. — 

Fri.  20 — Clear  day    Hunter  arrived  bringing  meat  of  two  Elk 
&  four  deer. — Men  sawing,    load  of  wood  hauled. — 

Sat.  21 — Beautiful  day  ;  men  sawing  one  load  of  wood  hauled. — 
Carpenter  finished  kitchen  floor. — No  News ! — 

Sun.  22 — Very  warm,  clear  day.  dull  about  fort  every  one 
crying  for  tobacco.    No  News. — 

Mon.  23 — Clear  warm  day  hauled  a  load  of  hay  also  a  load  of 
wood  to  day. — 

Tues.  24 — Fine  day     No  News. — 

Wed.  25 — Hunter  went  across  river  for  meat — Fine  day. — War 
party  of  Pagans 

Thurs.  26 — Fine  clear  day  Gov  Stevens  &  one  Man  arrived  @ 
fort  this  eve — Shot  the  Cannon  &  put  up  flag. — War 
party  arrived 


July  1855. 

Fri,  27 — Beautiful  day ;  the  Governors  train  arrived  &  camped 
on  teton  War  party  of  Grosventers  arrived  to  day — 
Burning  lime 

Sat.  28 — Very  warm — Cadot  Arrived  having  been  @  the 
Judith,  bringing  the  meat  of  ten  fine  fat  cow^s. — Being 
out  of  Provisions  Gov.  Stevens  left  fort  this  eve.  & 
went  to  his  camp  intending  to  remain  there. — 

Sun.  29 — Fine  day  War  party  of  Grosvents  returned  to 
camp. — ,    A  few  Indians  still  lounging  about  Fort. 

Mon.  30 — Clear  day. — Cadot  together  with  Indians;  men  & 
women  went  towards  the  Judith  to  make  meat ;  were 
visited  by  some  of  the  Govmt  people  to  day,  fine  day 

Tues.  31 — Cloudy  Cool  day,  Government  fixed  &  checked  their 
goods  to  day  War  party  arrived  from  Crows  this 
evening. — 

August,  1855 

Wed.  1 — Cool  rainy,  &  disagreeable  day. — Barnes^''  left  for 
Oppon  to  day. — Governor  paid  a  visit  to  day. — War 
party  arrived  from  Snakes  bringing  a  few  horses  left 
at  night. — 

Thurs.  2 — Very  heavy  showers  during  last  night. — Govn  Stevens 
came  to  fort  to  day  and  remained  all  night;  lent  him 
a  red  Cow  &  Calf  to  take  to  camp. — Cloudy  during 
morning   cleared  at  Noon. — 

Fri.  3 — Clear,  pleasant  day — Several  indians  arrived  from 
Camp — several  of  the  camps  at  the  bears  paw  Mts. — 
on  their  way  to  the  Judith  to  make  meat  Gov.  Still 
at  the  Fort.     No  News! — 

Sat.  A — Clear,  very  warm  Bercier  (express)  arrived  from 
Yellowstone  this  evening  to  opposition  fort,  brings 
letter  to  Gov.  Stevens. — Gov.  left  fort  for  his  camp 
this  evening 


Au^st  1855. 

Sun.  5 — Clear  exceeding  warm  to  day  Governor  came  to  fort 
this  morning  and  remains  all  night. — Indian  came 
from  Camp  this  afternoon  and  reports  three  lodges 
coming  to  fort  to  remain. — Cloudy  at  night. — 

Men.  6 — Showery — War  party  arrived  from  Snakes^®  with  a 
few  horses. — Gov.  Still  remains  at  Fort. — 

Tues.  7 — Cloudy  morning  clear  at  Noon  Cloudy  at  night — 
War  party  left  this  evening  Gov  Still  @  fort — White- 
washing houses   load  of  wood  hauled  to  day — 

Wed.  8 — Alternately  cloudy  &  clear  Mr.  Doty*^'^  arrived  at 
fort  from  camp  and  remains  during  night — Govn. 
Still  @  fort  Express  from  Mr.  Culbertson  left  Milk 
river  on  4th  Inst,  arrived  here  with  letters  &  des- 
patches this  morning. — Three  Lodges  came  from 
Camp  on  Judith  &  pitched  out  side  of  fort — One  load 
of  wood  hauled  to  day  intending  to  make  Coal. — 
Whitewashing  progressing. — river  rising 

Thurs.  9 — Clear  during  morning — rainy  at  night — Sent  an  ex- 
press conjointly  with  Gov.  Stevens  to  pagan  camp 
above  three  butes^^  for  horses. — Govn.  &  Mr.  Doty 
remains  at  fort.  Tv^o  Warriors  arrived  at  Fort  this 
eve.  from  Snake  Country. — Load  of  wood  hauled 
to  day — Continue  whitewashing  fort. — river  on  a 

Fri.  10 — Alternately  Clear  &  Cloudy  heard  from  hunters 
to  day  through  Col.  Crosby^^  who  left  there  yester- 
day they  will  return  in  the  course  of  a  week  a  camp 
of  Pagans  &  the  Whole  of  the  Grosvents  there  & 
plenty  of  buffaloes — Gov.  left  fort  this  eve.  for  his 
camp    Mr.  Doty  Still  remains    the  river  rising 

Sat.  11 — Showery. — Borrowed  3  lbs  tobacco  from  Governor 
Express  came  back  from  pagan  camp  having  met  10 
Lodges  the  rest  being  beyond  Cypress  Mts. — white- 
washing progressing. — Big  Snake'^''  arrived  at  fort 
this  eve. — one  load  of  wood  hauled. — 


August  1855. 

Sun.  12 — Clear  during  day,  Rainy  @  night  Whitewashing. — 
No  News. — 

Mon.  13 — Cloudy. — Jackson  arrived  @  fort  this  afternoon  & 
report  hunters  will  be  here  early  tomorrow.  White- 
washing— The  Govn's  blk  Smith  came  to  fort  to  re- 
main to  fix  horse  shoes  &  mend  wagons. — Indian 
arrived  from  Big  Snakes  Camp  &  report  they  will  be 
here  tomorrow. — 

Tues,  14 — Cloudy — Camp  of  pagans  arrived  this  afternoon  also 
Cadot  with  fresh  &  dry  meat — Whitewashing  pro- 
gressing Col.  Crosby  came  to  fort  this  eve  &  remains 
all  night — 

Wed.  15 — Clear  warm  day  Col.  left  this  Morg.  (Morning) 
Three  Grosvents  arrived  from  Camp  this  Morn.  & 
report  plenty  of  meat  in  Camp. — 

Thurs.  16 — Fine  day — Col.   Crosby  came  to  fort  &  remains  all 
night. — 

Fri.  17 — Beautiful  day — A  Culbertson  &  family  with  Col. 
Cummings  &  two  other  gentlemen  with  B  Cham- 
paigne  &  several  Indians  arrived  about  noon  today — 
hoisted  flags  &  fired  Salute — Liquor  being  plenty 
several  persons  of  the  Govorners  train  made  a  beau- 
tiful display  of  their  gentlemanly  deportment — then 
left  after  supper  &  all  was  quiet  again. — 

Sat.  18 — Fine  day. — Gov.  Stevens  came  to  fort  to  day  &  made 
a  fool  of  himself  by  seating  him  self  out  side  of  fort 
in  front  of  gate  causing  not  only  remarks  of  whites 
but  of  all  the  Indians — Burning  a  coal  Pit  out  side 
of  fort — Morreau  started  with  wagon  to  bring  one 
left  by  A  Culbertson  Esq.  @  Milk  River.— 

Sun.  19 — Michell  &  two  others  left  for  Gross  ventres  camp  for 
Mules  Stolen  @  Ft.  Union  last  winter — Weather 
Continues   good. — 


August  1855. 

Mon.  20 — Cadot  &  one  Man  went  hunting  to  day — Had  horses 
brot  up  to  day    find  one  missing — Fine  weather. — 

Tues.  21 — Very  warm  day  horses  sent  on  other  Side  opposite 
Ft  McKensie'i — Carpenter  fixing  Carts  for  trip  to 
Ft.  Union    No  News! 

Wed.  22 — Clear  very  warm — Carpenter  Mending  up  wagon 
for  trip  to  Ft.  Union. — 

Thurs.  23 — Clear  pleasant  day — Cadot  returned  @  noon  with 
meat  of  three  deer,  game  being  scarce  at  the  Moun- 

Fri.  2A — Cool  day  cloudy  during  evening. — Took  Coal  from 
Pit  amounting  to  11  barrels    No  News! — 

Sat.  25 — Cool  day — Hunters  started  out  this  morning  &  Re- 
turned with  meat  of  two  very  fat  deer. — one  load  of 
wood  hauled 

Sun.  26 — Beautiful  warm  day 

Men.  27 — Another  beautiful  day  Mr.  Munroe  left  to  day  with 
Gov.  people  as  interpreter  &  guide  to  Gros  ventres 
&  Blk  feet.— No  News!— 

Tues.  28 — Beautiful  day. — Gov.  Stevens  delivered  wagons  har- 
ness etc.  etc.  to  us  today  M.  Champgne  arrived  from 
Gross  ventres  Camp  this  evening  bringing  back  5 
Mules  that  were  Stolen  from  Ft.  Union  by  Gross 
Ventres  last  winter. — Fixed  up  6  wagons  to  start  to 
Ft  Union  for  the  outfit  of  this  place. — Grosvents 
plenty  of  meat. — 

Wed.  29 — The  day  Pleasant  and  clawday  Mr.  Ray  Started 
with  a  train  of  six  wagons  for  the  yellow  Stone  at 
y2  past  12  Mr.  Culbertson  Started  also  for  the  boats 
at  1  A.  M.  in  company  with  Some  of  Gov  Steavens 

Thurs.  30 — Clowday  and  rane  earley  2  grovonts  left  for  The 
camp  in  Companey  with  3  Pagans   Nothing   Nothing 



Reproduced  through  the  courtesy  of  Houshton,  Mifflin  Company. 


August  1855. 

More  transpiered  till  2  o'clock  Col  Crosby  left  for 
the  west  Side  of  the  Mountin  with  Pearson^2  i^te  in 
the  eavening  4  Flatheads  arrived  reports  acamp  of 
forty  lodges  Coming  to  The  Fort 
Fri.  31 — Weather  Mild  Mrs  Doty  and  Jackson^^  igf^.  for  the 
North  Piegan  Camp,  a  hunting  Party  of  Piegans 
came  in  from  the  Teton, 

Fri.  31 — Flat  Heads  who  came  in  yesterday  and  wer  to  return 
today  to  their  camp  today,  were  detained  in  consi- 
quence  of  having  their  Horses  Stolen  last  ngt  by 
some  Piegans. 

September  1855 

Sat.  1 — Morning  Cold  and  Cloudy,  by  11  ock.  am  cleared  up 
and  became  milder,  the  Big  Snake  came  in  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Judth  today  and  reports  having  seen  a 
war  Party  of  crow  Indians,  six  days  ago  Journeing 
up  the  Judth  he  also  reports  that  the  Boats'^  had 
not  pased  the  mouth  of  the  above  named  River,  when 
he  left  that  point 

Sun.  2 — nothig  of  Importeance  occured  today,  the  day  was 
Clear  and  hot.  until  6  ock.  P.  M.  when  it  clouded 
up  and  Threatened  us  with  a  severe  Storm,  a  war 
party  of  Blood  Indians  left  for  the  north,  the  waggon 
Returned  last  night  about,  11  Ock 

Mon.  3 — Warm  day  nothing  of  importeance  occurred, — 
Mounted  Two  Waggons,  Could  not  Rig  eany  morre 
in  Consiquence  of  not  getting  the  Whels  to  fit 

Tues.  A — The  day  was  clear  and  Pleasent  Nothing  werthay  of 
not  occured 

Wed.  5 — the  day  was  Cool  and  Pleasent,  the  Express  returned 
from  the  Boats  with  letters  from  Missrs.  Kipp'^'^  & 
Hatch'^^  the  Express  returned  also  from  the  Flat 
Heads,  who  wer  on  the  other  side  of  the  mountions. 


September  1855. 

Thurs.  6 — we  had  quite  a  refreshing  Shower  this  morning-. 
Cleared  up  a  2  ock  P  M  quite  cool. 

Fri.  7 — the  day  was  quite  unpleasent.  by  a  very  Heavy 
wind,  blowing  all  day.  Mr.  Chambirs'^'^  arrived  from 
Fort  Union  with  letters  to  Coin  Cumming.'^^  Mr 
Culbertson  and  others,  he  informs  us  that  the  Sioux 
ar  inclined  to  be  Hostile  tewards  the  whites  at  the 
Fort  and  are  committing  varrious  depredations  in 
that  vecinety  thay  had  Stolen  8  eight  Horses  from 
the  Company     Dr  Lansday'^^  left  fo  St  Maries  today 

Sat.  8 — the  day  was  cool  and  pleasent.  the  opposetion  Com- 
pany started  one  waggon  to  the  Yellow  Storne  the 
Indian  Hunters  came  in  today,  with  a  concridable 
quantity  of  Bull  Meat,  and  let  us  have  3  three  Horse 
loads,  5.  five  warers  came  in  today  from  the  lame 
Bulls^^  Camp,  thay  are  some  Bloods  with  them, 
thay  inform  us  that  that  thay  are  talking  about  going 
to  the  north  to  make  a  trade. 

Sun.  9 — Pleasent  day.  a  war  party  of  Piegans  arrived  to  day 
from  the  Snake  Country,  nothing  Els  of  importeance 

Men.  10 — Cold  with  a  heavy  rain  this  morning,  the  Eagle 
Chief^^  and  other  Gros  Vantre  left  this  mornig.  also 
a  war  Party  of  Piegans,  1ft  for  their  Camp.  Mr. 
Culbertson  Vaughan*^-  and  others  arrived  from  the — 

Tues.  11 — Weather  fine  Michel  preparg  to  go  down  to  meet 
the  Boat 

Wed.  12 — Michel  Champan — Chambers  and  an  Indian  left  in  a 
Skif  for  the  Boat  which  left  Fort  Un  on  27'  Augt — 
fine  weather     Traded  Two  Horses — 

Thurs.  13 — Nothing    doing — had    Two    Hogs    relieved    of    their 
nackers — Clowdy 


September  1855. 

Fri.  14 — Some  few  Gros  Venters  arrived  in  search  of  the  Two 
Elk^2  who  is  here  Very  sick 

Sat.  15 — Cadott  came  in  late  last  Night  with  a  Deer — Little 
Dog  retred  bringing  in  fiat  Head  Horses  stolen  by  the 
Piegans  which  are  on  Milk  River  with  plenty  of  Meat 

Sun.  16 — Clowdy  and  nothing  new 

Men.  17 — Sent  two  men  to  the  Mountains  to  get  timber  for — 
Mr  Vaughn  Kinerly^*  &  Willsen^^  went  with  them 
Clowdy  and  Rainy 

Tues.  18 — Rained  and  Snowed  all  Day  and  no  wood  in  the  Fort 

V/ed.  19 — To  Wagn  returned  from  the  Mts  with  Timber — 
Weather  Cleared  of  Cool 

Thurs.  20 — The    Journalist    leaves    tomorrow     morng    for    the 
Piegan  Camp  on  a  Meat  Trade 

Fri.  21 — Mr  Culbertson  started  to  the  Piegan  Camp  with  two 
waggons  to  trade  for  meat  to  feed  the  hands  on  the 
Cordelle  when  the  boats  shall  have  arrived — Mr 
Jackson  who  was  Sent  by  the  Commission  as  a 
messenger  to  the  Blood  Indians  in  the  North  returned 
to  day  about  3  o'clock  Mr  Bird  returned  with  him — 
He  was  unable  to  find  the  Principal  Camp  of  the 
Bloods  but  about  8  miles  from  the  Fort  overtook  a 
small  party  of  them — Three  Piegans  came  to  the  Fort 
to  day — In  the  evening  the  party  of  Bloods  seen  by 
Mr  Jackson  (consisting  of  three  men  &  three  women) 
arrived  at  the  Fort.  When  on  the  hill  back  of  the 
Fort  they  called  a  halt — commenced  firing  their  guns 
&  raised  their  colors  and  spread  them  to  the  breese. 
Mr.  Monroe  went  forth  to  meet  them  and  to  extend 
to  them  the  hospitality  of  the  Fort — They  report  their 
encampment  still  a  long  ways  off  but  making  their 
way  in  this  direction.  The  forenoon  was  clear  and 
pleasant  but  towards  night  it  clouded  up  and  looks 
much    like   rain — This   morning   per   request   of   Col 


September  1855. 

Cummings  I  took  a  letter  to  Mr  B  De  Rochis^  Bour- 
geois of  Fort  Cambell  authorising  him  (if  he  desired 
it)  to  send  out  to  the  Indians  to  trade  for  "Meat", 
An  important  event  which  I  forgot  to  mention  tran- 
spired to  day — It  was  that  a  yellow  bitch  belonging 
to  the  Fort  had  a  fine  litter  of  puppies — who  know 
but  that  some  of  them  which  now  lie  with  their  eyes 
unopened  may  in  their  day  prove  themselves  worthy 
of  the  travoise  About  sun  set  it  commenced  to  rain 
but  soon  ceased — 

Sat.  22 — It  cleared  ofiE  during  last  night — This  morning  was 
particularly  bright  pleasant  and  beautiful — During  the 
forenoon  the  men  of  the  Fort  were  engaged  in  clean- 
ing up  some  of  the  houses — Traded  for  three  packs 
of  Meat  from  the  Blood  Indians  who  came  to  the 
Fort  on  yesterday  Nothing  New  to  day — Every 
thing  in  the  fort  has  been  during  the  day  in  a  state 
of  quietness — the  weather  has  been  very  fine — 

Sun.  23 — This  day  has  been  remarkably  bright  clear  &  pleas- 
ant Early  in  the  morning  Mr.  Monroe  Sent  two 
pack  animals  with  Gov  Steven's  men  to  the  Marias 
after  fresh  buffalo  having  learned  by  some  Indians 
who  had  just  arrived  that  they  were  in  abundance  in 
that  vicinity.  All  the  Indians  who  could  raise  horses 
started  off  for  the  same  purpose — It  was  as  quiet  as 
usual  in  the  fort  during  the  whole  day  and  though 
it  was  the  Sabath  not  an  inmate  of  the  fort  attended 
Church — Late  in  the  evening  some  four  or  five  Blood 
Indians  arrived  from  the  North — They  paid  their 
respects  to  their  "Big  Chief"  Col  Cumming  soon  after 
dark  and  indulged  themselves  freely  in  the  use  of 

Mon.  24 — The  Morning  bright  with  a  strong  wind  from  the 
North  West.  Thermometer  at  Sun  rise  at  55°  The 
wind  continued  to  blow  very  hard  from  the  North 
west   during   the   whole   day   rendering   it  very    dis- 

J.k.A     Ir-     W^-^-i-      'Ac..- 

FORT  BENTON,  MONTANA.  ]VKE  10,  1S()(. 
From  a  sketch  by  ( Ji'aiiville  Stuart. 

--^^mm  :'''-■"'  -■""''^^mr^^^T^:: 


- -  ^-^Hn 

liWWf^t^;-'  •'     ■     ' 




From  a  sketch  by  Granville  Stuart. 


September  1855. 

agreeable  to  be  out  of  doors — In  the  evening'  two 
Peigan  Indians  arrived  at  the  Fort  from  the  Peigan 
Camp — No  New^s  in  the  Fort — Everything  as  quiet 
as  usual — 

Tues.  25 — The  wind  blew  hard  all  last  night  but  lulled  this 
morning  just  as  old  Sol  peeped  over  the  hills — The 
day  was  very  fine  the  sun  shining  forth  with  unusual 
brightness  making  quite  a  contrast  between  to  day 
and  yesterday  as  regards  the  weather — Early  this 
morning  Mr  Monroe  sent  an  Indian  to  drive  up  the 
horses  to  send  for  a  load  of  wood — It  was  sometime 
before  they  could  be  gotten  up  but  they  finally  came, 
when  Henry  &  Demos  took  the  wagon  and  George 
the  horse  cart  and  brought  in  wood  from  the  Teton — 
The  two  horses  sent  out  a  couple  of  days  ago  to  the 
Marias  for  fresh  meat  was  brought  back  to  day  well 
packed  with  fat  cow  meat  which  was  very  acceptable 
as  we  have  been  living  on  dried  meat  for  several  days 
passed.  The  Indians  who  went  out  after  meat  also 
returned  to  day  well  supplied.  They  killed  I  learn 
one  hundred  and  seventy  six  cows — If  this  aint 
Slughtering  buffalo  by  the  whole  sale  you  can  "take 
my  hat" — but  my  advise  is  "To  go  it  while  you  are 
young"  for  when  you  "get  old"  you  will  have  no 
buffalo  to  kill  as  Gov.  Stevens  railroad  hands  will 
consume  them  all.  It  being  his  project  to  feed  his 
hands  upon  them  so  soon  as  the  road  goes  into 
opperation  which  in  the  opinion  of  "your  humble 
Servant"  will  never  be. 

Wed.  26— The  day  has  been  very  pleasant — Nothing  of  im- 
portance transpired — Last  night  an  Indian  arrived  at 
the  camp  of  Gov.  Stevens  directly  from  the  Flathead 
Camp — He  reports  that  the  Peigans  and  Flatheads 
are  together  on  the  Muscle-Shell  making  their  way 
in  this  direction — George  Weippert  was  engaged  this 
morning  in   putting  dirt  on   top  of  the   Store  house 


September  1855. 

and   sweeping  out   the   same — A  war   party   of  five 
Peigans  arrived  at  the  Fort  late  this  evening — 

Thurs.  27 — The  morning  commenced  bright  and  beautiful — but 
a  little  after  noon  a  hard  wind  sprung  up  from  the 
north  east  and  before  night  we  had  a  slight  shower 
of  rain,  nothing  going  on  of  special  interrest — No 
News  from  any  quarter — Several  war  parties  came 
in  during  the  day 

Fri.  28 — The  morning  bright  and  pleasant — Last  evening  soon 
after  dark  the  war  parties  which  came  in  during  the 
day  assembled  in  room  within  the  Fort  and  had  a 
"grand  time"  singing  dancing  and  beating  on  the 
drum  our  old  Cree  friend  was  the  leader  of  the 
performance  Gov  Stevens  sent  a  man  to  the  boats 
this  morning — The  object  of  which  I  suppose  was  to 
find  out  the  position  of  the  boats  and  to  learn  the 
probable  time  of  their  arrival — The  day  has  been 
remarkably  bright  and  pleasant — Late  in  the  evening 
a  party  of  Pend  O  Reilles^^  arrived  at  the  Fort  from 
Deep  River^^  where  they  left  their  main  camp 

Sat.  29 — The  day  was  clear  but  very  windy — In  the  forenoon 
a  large  party  of  Gros  Vents  came  to  the  Fort — They 
had  a  good  supply  of  meat,  which  was  traded  for  by 
Mr.  Monroe — The  women  commenced  to  sweep  the 
Fort  this  morning  but  the  wind  blew  so  hard  that 
they  were  compelled  to  give  it  up — Late  in  the  evening 
it  rained  slightly — 

Sun.  30 — Morning  Commences  bright  and  pleasant — During 
last  night  it  rained — Messrs  Wilson  and  Kennerly 
arrived  at  the  Fort  this  morning  about  half  past  one 
o'clock — having  made  a  long  and  fatigueing  ride  from 
the  "Three  Butes".  They  left  Mr  Culbertson  yes- 
terday morning  who  probably  camped  on  the  Marias 
last  night  with  "Lame  Bull"  Chief  of  the  Peigans 


October  1855 

Mon.  1— Mr  C—  returned  to  day  leaving  the  Waggons  at  the 
Three  Butes 

Tues.  2 — Indians  arring  from  the  different  Camps  and  report 
Bufflo   plenty 

Wed.  3 — Express  arrivd  from  the  Boats  and  report  there 
being  at  the  Judith 

Thurs.  4 — ^*^Mr  Monroe  left  for  the  Camp  also  a  Government 
party   for  the   Boats 

Thurs.  18 — Wray  arrived  from    Ft.   Union   this   evening  with  6 
wagon  loads  of  goods 

Fri.  19 — Plenty    of    Indians    about    fort      cloudy      looks    like 
snow — at   dark   two  ox  wagons   arrived   from   boats 
at  the  Judith- 
Sat.  20 — One  loads  of  wood  hauled  to  day    slight  fall  of  snow 
last  night — Traded  a  few  robes  to  day. — 

Sun.  21 — Clear  beautiful  day. — Several  Indians  came  from 
treaty  to  day  laden  with  presents  and  highly  pleased. 
Slight  rain  last  night. — 

Men.  22 — About  3  inches  snow  fell  last  night — Several  indians 
arrived  from  treaty  ground  3  loads  wood  hauled  for 

Tues.  23 — Beautiful  clear  cool  morning — 3  loads  wood  hauled 
for  coal.  About  noon  to  our  delight  Mr.  Dawson 
arrived — Many  indians  arrived  from  treaty  :  few  robes 
traded. — 

Wed.  24 — Fine  day  coal  pit  set  up  &  fired  below  fort — Robes 
&  some  coffee  traded — A  wagon  left  for  Milk  river 
to  bring  the  one  left  by  Wray — also  men  sent  to 
meet  boat  to  aid  them  in  bringing  them  up. — 

Thurs.  25 — Clear    pleasant    day. — busy    trading    robes    &    other 
articles  to  day    also  a  small  amount  of  specie. — load 


October  1855. 

of  wood  hauled  to  day — News  from  boats,  at  or  near 
the  citadel^i  getting  along  slowly. — 

Fri.  26 — Cool  day — Trading  a  few  robes  etc. — coal  pit  pro- 
gressing.— Indians  leaving  the  Teton  river  &  moving 
towards  Milk  river. — 

Sat.  27 — Fine  day. — Robes  &  coffee  traded  to  day — Coal  pit 
progressing — Some  of  Gov.  Stevens,  men  leaving 
for  Washington  Terr,  their  home  to  day,  balance 
to  leave  in  a  few  days — No  News. — 

Sun.  28 — Snowy  disagreeable  day — a  few  robes  traded  today — 
Gov.  Stevens  left  for  across  Mountains  to  day,  boats 
some  ways  below  mouth  of  Marias,  and  getting  along 
slowly. — 

Mon.  29 — Snow  fell  yesterday  &  last  night  about  3  inches  very 
disagreeable  under  foot ;  a  few  robes  ;  also  some  beaver 
&  two  horses  traded,  clear  at  night. — 

Tues.  30 — Fine  day  indians  still  about. — Fixed  up  stores. — 
Express  that  started  yesterday  for  boats,  not  yet 
arrived. — Mr.  Doty  came  from  Government  Camp 
for  Arms,  Amunition,  etc.  on  acct.  of  an  outbreak  of 
indians^^  i^  Washington  Terr. 

Wed.  31 — Pleasant  Morning  Express  arrived  from  boats  bring- 
ing articles  sent  for. — Also  another  express  sent  for 
more  goods  required. — One  load  of  wood  hauled,  a 
few  robes  traded. — 

November  1855 

Thurs.  1 — Beautiful  morning.  Traded  a  few  robes. — Express 
that  left  yesterday  arrived  this  afternoon  accom- 
panied by  Major  Hatch — Agent  for  the  Black  Feet 
tribes. — Cloudy  evening — Boats  will  camp  near  mouth 
of  Marias  river. — 

Fri.  2 — Slight  fall  of  Snow  last  night     Cloudy  during  morn- 
ing but  clear  and  Cool  at  night. — One  Load  of  wood 


November  1855. 

hauled  to  day — Boats  camp  within   12  Miles  of  fort 
by  water. — 

Sat.  3 — One  or  two  Gros  Ventre  young-  men  arrived  their 
Camp  being  very  close,  and  only  we  suppose  await- 
ing the  arrival  of  the  Boats  to  come  all  here  in  a 
rush.  Very  strong  N.  W.  wind  which  must  have  much 
impeded  the  progress  of  the  Boats.    One  load  wood. — 

Sun.  4 — A  man  arrived  from  Gov.  Stevens  for  medicine  etc. 
one  of  his  party  being  very  sick.  A  number  of  Gros 
Ventres  also  arrived  from  and  in  the  evening  returned 
to  their  Camp.  Boats  now  in  sight  from  the  Bute, 
sleep  very  close  tonight  and  will  we  think  beyond  a 
doubt  bring  their  very  protracted  trip  to  an  end  early 
in  the  morning. 

Men.  5 — At  long  last  our  Boats^^  came  insight  but  were  unable 
to  cross  the  ford.  Dropped  down  to  foot  of  rapid 
again  where  we  unloaded  her  and  had  everything 
hauled  into  Fort  but  she  still  remains  there  on  ac- 
count of  the  wind.  Crossed  other  Boat  to  landing 
and  tomorrow  shall  unload  her,  and  we  hope  to  be 
able  to  fetch  up  Big  Boat.  This  is  the  longest  trip 
on  record. — 112  days  from  Fort  Union  which  includes 
11  days  detention  in  building  a  boat,  and  14  days  at 
the  Council  grounds — but  it  is  also  the  most  profitable 
one. — 

Tues.  6 — Unloaded  our  little  Boat  and  had  frt.  (freight)  hauled 
into  Fort — Hauled  also  one  load  wood  Hunting  lost 
horses.     Indians  loafing  in  great  plenty. — 

Wed.  7 — Took  masts  and  rigging  out  of  Boats  and  tied  both 
up  for  the  winter  below  the  little  Island  at  ford  and 
where  we  are  very  sure  they  will  not  be  injured  by 
the  Ice — Hauled  one  load  wood  and  started  all  our 
Horses  above  on  guard. — 


November  1855. 

Thurs.  8 — Arranged  all  our  stores  nicely — Started  Blacksmiths 
to  repairing  Wagns. — Men  to  building  Bastion  and 
Wall  at  Kitchen — rather  late — and  hauled  one  load 
wood.  Some  15  lodges  Blackfeet  arrived  to  see  the 

Fri.  9 — "Dobbies"  getting  on  well.  Clear  day  but  a  little 
cold.  Started  four  men  to  Mountains  for  a  few  logs 
and  five  to  the  Teton  to  make  a  large  Coal  Pit — 
Traded  105  Robes  and  a  good  deal  of  meat. — 

Sat.  10 — Snowed  nearly  all  day, "but  persevered  a  little  in 
our  building — Traded  95  Robes 

Sun.  11 — Clear  very  cold  day.  Traded  78  Robes  Gros  Ventres 
moving  camp. — 

Men.  12 — Men  returned  early  from  Mountain  with  the  logs 
required — Still  very  cold  but  going  ahead  with  our 
Dobbies — Geo  Weipperts  youngest  child  died  last 
night  and  was  this  morning  interred  back  of  the  Fort. 

Tues.  13 — Another  very  cold  day  with  slight  sprinkling  of 
snow.  Hauled  2  loads  wood.  Had  Ice  broke  round 
our  Boats  and  straightened  them  a  little. — 

Wed.  14 — Men  returned  from  chopping  wood  for  Coal  Pit, — 
Had  a  visit  from  Mr,  Clark  who  has  arrived  with 
13  Carts  loaded  with  goods  to  offer  another  opposi- 
tion to  us  in  trade,  still  getting  a  Robe  or  two  from 
the  Gros  Ventres  who  are  now  at  mouth  of  Marias — 
Hauled  2  loads  wood — 

Thurs.  15 — Cold  and  through  the  ])ast  night  a  little  more  snow 
fell — A  little  too  bad  times  for  dobbie  building  but 
still  we  persevere. — 

Fri,  16 — Had  Wagns.  Harness  etc.  all  arranged  for  men  to 
make  an  early  start  for  Ft.  Union  to  fetch  up  Corn 
of  which  we  are  much  in  want  Mr.  Clark  we  hear 
has  selected  a  sj^ot  on  the  Teton  where  he  intends 
to  winter. — 


November  1855. 

Sat.  17 — Started  6  Wagons  for  Ft.  Union  under  charge  of  Mr. 
Rose,  everything  in  excellent  order  and  we  have  no 
fear  they  will  make  the  trip  in  safety.  Hauled  2 
loads  wood — More  snow. — 

Sun.  18 — Some  Gros  Ventres  arrived  with  a  little  fresh  meat 
and  traded  from  them  some  24  Robes.  Another  slight 
fall  of  snow  and  very  cold. — 

Mon.  19 — So  very  cold  that  we  were  forced  to  discontinue  our 
building,  but  we  trust  to  resume  it  tomorrow.  Some 
two  Inches  Snow  also  fell,  and  what  first  fell  some 
8  days  since  still  remains.  Had  a  visit  from  Clark 
Hauled  2  loads  wood. — 

Tues.  20 — Much  milder  and  enabled  to  resume  our  building — 
Ice  running  plenty  in  the  river.  Hauled  2  loads 
wood. — 

Wed.  21 — Very  mild  and  snow  thawing.  Sent  4  horses  with  a 
couple  of  Indians  after  fresh  meat.  Messrs.  Wilson 
and  Dawson  with  Major  Hatch  took  a  few  miles  ride 
for  exercise  and  visited  Clark  on  the  Teton  at  his 
houses.  Building  coming  along  nicely,  but  we  are 
sorry  to  find  we  have  too  few  dobbies  to  finish  our 
Bastion.     Hauled  2  loads  wood. — 

Thurs.  22 — Again  mild — Ther  26  in  the  morning  Hauled  again  2 
loads  wood — A  few  Gros  Vs  brought  us  a  little  fresh 
meat,  and  in  the  evening  Lame  Bull  brought  us  a 
horse,  a  load  of  meat,  and  3  Robes. — 

Fri.  23 — Some  more  arrivals  from  Camp  with  meat  and  a  Robe 
or  Two.  Horses  sent  on  21st.  Inst,  after  meat  got 
back  today  well  loaded.  Hauled  2  loads  wood,  which 
will  be  the  last  for  a  day  or  two  as  the  Major  has 
permited  the  opposition  to  send  to  Cam])  after  meat 
and  we  must  not  loose  a  chance. — 

Sat.  24 — Started  two  Wagns.  to  Gros  Ventres  Camp  to  trade 
meat  under  charge   M   Champaigne   and   Revais  ac- 


November  1855. 

companied  him.  Some  Gros  Vs  arrived  with  some 
more  meat.  Building  drawing  to  a  close,  our  dobbies 
being  about   finished 

Sun.  25 — Star  Robe^'*  arrived  with  a  load  of  meat  and  put  out 
immediately.     Pleasant  day. 

Mon.  26 — No  arrivals  from  Camp.  Mr.  Wilson  took  a  ride  to 
the  Horse  guard  where  he  intends  sleeping.  Fin- 
ished our  Building  for  the  present  and  took  dowm 
scaffolding  the  adobes  being  all  used  up. — 

Tues.  27 — Michel  arrived  from  Camp  with  his  two  Wagns.  well 
loaded  with  fresh  and  half  dried  meat.  Hauled  one 
load  wood     Had  stores  arranged. — 

Wed.  28 — Collected  all  our  Cows  and  Oxen  and  found  one  Ox 
missing  which  cannot  be  far  away.  Whitewashed 
the  building  just  finished  and  started  men  building 
a  pig  pen  and  hen  house — Hauled  2  loads  wood. — 

Thurs.  29 — Recovered  lost  Ox.  Carpenters  Sawing  logs.  Black- 
smith tinkering  at  Bridle  Bits  being  out  of  Coal. 
Hauled  2  loads  wood. 

Fri.  30 — Finished  our  pig  pen  etc.  Swept  out  Fort  others 
hauling  in  dirt  to  level  it  a  little    2  loads  wood. — 

December  1855 

Sat.  1 — Had  men  to  fix  up  for  a  start  for  Mountains  on  Mon- 
day, as  we  want  about  100  logs  out  for  building  pur- 
poses.    Two  loads  wood. 

Sun.  2 — Eagle  Chief  arrived  with  some  10  Robes  for  trade. 
No  news. — Cold  and  Ice  running.— 

Mon.  3 — Hauled  one  load  Coal  and  one  load  Sent  9  Men  to 
mountains  to  get  logs  out  for  building  purposes  and 
for  Boats  should  we  need  them  and  there  is  every 
probability  we  will. — 






Reproduced  throug-h  the  courtesy  of  Houghton,  Mifflin  Company. 


December  1855. 

Tues.  A — Hauled  2  loads  wood.  Mild  and  an  occasional  Gros 
Ventres  arriving  to  trade.  Every  appearance  of  a 
good  trade  this  year. — 

Wed.  5 — No  news     other  2  loads  wood. 

Thurs.  6 — Major  Hatch  and  Messrs.  Wilson  and  Dawson  started 
to  select  a  spot  for  the  Ind.  Agency.  Slept  with  wood 
choppers  at  the  Mountains. — 

Fri.  7 — Examined  "High  Wood"  for  several  miles  below  the 
Narrows.     Slept  on  Belt  Mountain  Creek^^ — 

Sat.  8 — Visited  Missouri  Falls^^  and  slept  there. 

Sun.  9 — Returned  and  slept  on  High  Wood. — 

Men.  10 — Returned  to  Fort  and  found  a  lot  of  Blackfeet  await- 
ing the  Majors  arrival  and  a  few  Gros  Ventres  for 
trade. — 

Tues.  11 — Traded  a  little  meat  from  Blackfeet  and  on  receiving 
a  present  from  Agent  they  all  put  out  well  satisfied — 
Shortly  after  their  departure  a  war  party  of  about 
40  Blackfeet  arrived,  and  are  having  a  long  talk  with 
the  Major.  Little  Dog  and  six  others  also  arrived 
with  some  Togs  and  a  little  meat  to  trade. — 

Wed.  12 — Traded  with  little  Dogs  party  when  they  also  left. 
Hauled  2  loads  wood. 

Thurs.  13 — A  very  quiet  day  for  trade — Revais  our  hunter  arrived 
for  meat  for  men  at  Mountains.  Four  Pagans  arrived 
with  a  few  Robes  for  trade    Two  loads  wood. — 

Fri.  14 — Started  Revais  back  with  some  meat  for  men  at 
Mountains.  Traded  13  Robes  a  few  Wolf  skins  and 
some  meat  from  those  who  arrived  yesterday — A  few 
more  Inds  also  arrived  with  a  Robe  or  two  and  the 
Big  Snake  and  party  to  see  the  Major 

Sat.  15 — Skunk^"  and  one  or  two  Gros  Ventres  arrived  with 
some  meat  and  a  few  Robes.  Hauled  2  loads  wood 
and  one  of  Bark.     No  news — Cold 


December  1855. 

Sun.  16 — Some  Gros  Ventres  arrived  with  a  few  Robes,  and 
in  the  afternoon  Camp  of  "Little  Robes"  arrived  with 
their  Lodges  which  they  have  pitched  in  the  Prarie 

Men.  17— Busy  trading  Togs.  (Buffalo  tongues)  Meat  Wolf 
Skins  and  a  very  few  Robes.  Some  more  Gros  Vs 
also  arrived.  Threatning  Snow.  Hauled  two  loads 
wood. — 

Tues.  18 — Little  Robe  Band  moved  Camp  and  intend  settling 
for  the  present  at  Pablos  Island  to  dress  what  Robes 
they  have — Two  loads  wood  as  usual. — 

Wed.  19 Some  15  Lodges  of  Blackfeet  arrived  and  are  pres- 
ently camped  inside  the  Fort.  Very  cold.  The  River 
closed  today.  Gave  the  Blackfeet  a  feast  and  the 
Agent  did  so  also,  likewise  a  present  of  a  shirt  & 
Legns.  each  and  a  few  Blkts. — 

Thurs.  20 — Our  men  returned  from  the  Mountains  having  got 
out  100  Saw  Logs  besides  some  ps.  for  Oars  etc. 
Traded  113  Robes  from  Blackfeet  and  a  lot  of  meat 
when  they  all  put  out  for  Clarks  and  we  wish  him 
joy  of  his  visit. — 

Fri.  21 — All  quiet.  A  few  Gros  Ventres  arrived  with  one  or 
two  Robes  for  trade — Hauled  2  loads  wood. — 

Sat.  22 — The  Little  Grey  Head  and  a  good  many  other  Piegans 
with  the  Low  Horn^^  and  some  Bloods  arrived  with 
some  meat  and  Robes  for  trade  and  to  see  the  Major — 
Gave  them  all  a  feast — Hauled  4  loads  wood. — 

Sun.  23 — Traded  with  the  Indians  who  arrived  yesterday  some 
113  Robes  and  a  good  deal  of  meat 

Men.  2A — Most  of  Peigaus  left.  No  new  arrivals  Very  cold. 
Hauled  4  loads  wood.  2  of  which  from  other  side. — 


December  1855. 

Tues.  25 — A  Blackfoot  arrived  for  Teton  and  says  spotted 
Eagle''^  and  party  will  be  here  in  the  morning — Gave 
the  men  a  feast  as  usual. — 

Wed.  26 — Seven  Blackfoot  traders,  Spotted  Eagle  at  the  head, 
but  as  they  had  only  11  Robes  in  all  amongst  them, 
and  little  or  no  meat  we  presume  their  visit  is  chiefly 
to  the  Agent — Gave  them  a  feast  and  the  Agent  gave 
them  a  little  present.     Hauled  4  loads  wood. — 

Thurs.  27 — Traded  the  11  Robes  from  Blackfeet  and  after  an 
infinite  deal  of  begging  they  put  out.  4  loads  wood — 
still  very  cold — Tonight  the  Fort  is  free  of  traders 
or  loafers — 

Fri.  28 — Still  colder  with  slight  fall  of  Snow.  One  Gros 
Ventres  arrived  with  three  Robes  for  trade  Hauled 
4  loads  wood. — 

Sat.  29 — Major  Hatch  called  for  two  men  from  other  Fort, 
who  with  four  from  this  have  commenced  prepara- 
tions for  a  large  Ball  to  be  given  by  the  Major  on 
New  Years.  Two  Pagans  arrived  with  a  dead  Com- 
rade for  us  to  burry — the  Little  Antelope — Hauled  4 
loads  wood — 

Sun.  30 — All  quiet.  Another  heavy  fall  of  Snow — Cooks  busy 
for  New  Year  and  their  labor  begins  to  show. 

Men.  31 — Interred  "Little  Antelope"  in  grave  yard  back  of 
Fort  and  put  a  flag  over  his  grave  for  which  trouble 
and  expense  we  got  2  Bales  meat  and  a  fine  horse. 
Four  loads  wood. — 


January  1856 

Tues.  1 — Major  Hatch  new  years  party  came  off  last  evening 
and  as  the  provisions  are  very  plenty  will  be  con- 
tinued throughout  the  day  and  night — The  dancing 
amusement  was  varied  this  morning  by  a  lottery  got 
up  by  the  Major  49  prizes  and  1  blank — Price  of 
Tickets  nothing — Every  person  pleased  and  happy — 

Wed.  2 — Another  heavy  fall  of  Snow — Started  the  Machinery 
of  Fort  Benton  once  more — Four  loads  wood — Plenty 
meat  in  Fort,  plenty  Robes  in  Camp,  and  altogether 
a  fine  appearance  for  a  prosperous  and  happy  trade 
this  year. 

Thurs.  3 — Started  4  men  on  Teton  to  make  a  Coal  pit.  Hauled 
3  loads  wood.  Commenced  Letter  writing  etc.  for 
below.  A  few  traders  with  some  meat  today — Had 
visit  from  Clark  and  family,  who  slept  in  the  Fort. — 

Fri.  4 — Still  busy  getting  ready  for  express.  The  "Skunk" 
and  party  of  7  arrived  with  great  promises  only  for 
trade,    gave  them  a  smoke  and  a  little  feast. — 

Sat.  5 — Started  Mr.  Wray  and  one  man  with  Express  for  St. 
Louis  to  be  delivered  at  Ft.  Union  Very  mild  morn- 
ing and  snow  melting  very  rapidly,  but  about  noon  it 
changed  and  in  5  minutes  Ther.  went  below  Zero — 
Strong  east  wind,  we  never  experienced  such  a  sudden 
change — and  we  fear  for  the  consequences.  Three 
loads  wood. — 

Sun.  6 — Still  very  cold     plenty  Snow  throughout  the  night. — 

Men.  7— Hauled  3  loads  wood — Big  Snake  and  Red  Horn'*^*^ 
Peigans  arrived  with  35  Robes  and  some  6  Bales 
meat — traded  them  and  put  out — No  news. — 

Tues.  8 — Still  "almighty  cold"  and  snowing  a  little— No  traders 
today — One  of  our  Ox  drivers  sick  so  only  2  loads 

Wed.  9 — A  very  little  milder.  A  little  Robe  Ind.  passed  with 
one  Robe  to  trade  being  all  we  have  got  for  the  past 


January  1856. 

two  days.  Man  still  sick.  2  loads  wood.  Dull  lone- 
some times  and  lonj^ing  to  hear  of  our  Wagons  from 

Thurs.  10 — Much  milder  thoug-h  equally  lonesome.  Mr.  Rose's 
Woman  arrived  from  Camp  with  a  dead  child  born 
26  ulto.  for  us  to  bury.  Two  loads  wood.  Opposition 
men  started  out  hunting. — 

Fri.  11 — Another  mild  pleasant  day,  the  pleasantest  we  have 
had  for  sometime,  and  snow  begins  to  thaw  some. 
A  war  party  of  Blood  Indians  arrived  and  are  at 
present  in  the  Fort. — they  bring  three  horses  they 
say  they  found.  Traded  1  horse. — 2  loads  wood. 
Still  no  news. — 

Sat,  12 — Again  warm  and  pleasant.  Most  of  the  War  party 
left — Rotten  Belly ^"^  and  Pickon  arrived  with  a  good 
lot  fresh  meat  &  Robes  last  night,  which  they  traded 
today — Sitting  woman  arrived     2  loads  wood — 

Sun.  13 — Pickon  and  comrade  left  us, — Traded  with  Sitting 
Woman, i°-  but  he  still  loafs  on,  Some  other  Gros 
Ventres  arrived  with  meat  and  a  few  Robes,  traded 
and  left — The  Little  Robe  band  moving  Camp  from 
above  across  on  "Chantier''^^^  looked  in  to  loaf  and 
anoy  us  but  gave  us  no  Robes.  Same  pleasant 
weather — 

Men.  14 — Sitting  Woman  at  long  last  cleared  out.  having  begged 
us  all  tired  of  him.  Spotted  Calf  arrived  with  some 
fresh  meat — This  now  is  becoming  a  very  unaccept- 
able article  of  trade,  we  want  Robes. — 2  loads  wood. 

Tues.  15— Two  Elks— Bad  Head^o-*— Tobacco  Pants  etc.  etc.  ar- 
rived with  any  quantity  of  meat  for  trade  but  only 
some  7  Robes  amongst  them  all — Our  prospects  how- 
ever are  very  favorable  for  a  large  trade  this  year, — 
Plenty  meat  portends  plenty  Robes.    2  loads  wood. — 



January  1856. 

Wed.  16 — b'ort  cleared  out,  but  immediately  filled  up  again — 
Beardy  and  some  12  other  Gros  Ventres  arrived  with 
a  lot  of  that  now  dispised  article  Bufo.  meat  for 
trade — Two  loads  wood  and  had  a  cart  load  of  "grass" 
hauled  to  stuff  pack  saddles. 

Thurs.  17 — Traded  with  Gros  Ventres  but  most  of  them  still 
remain  in  Fort.  Wister  rode  out  to  Coal  burners  on 
Teton  to  hurry  them  along  as  we  are  now  getting 
short  of  that  article — Two  loads  wood. — 

Fri.  18 — An  express  arrived  from  Fort  Union  in  search  of 
horses  for  trade  etc.  P  Chine^"^  in  charge — Plenty 
Bufo.  in  lower  country  and  very  flattering  prospects 
for  trade — Mr.  Rose  with  our  Wagns.  arrived  at  Ft.  U 
16th  Dec.  and  was  expected  to  start  back  about  20th 
of  that  month.  Mr.  Bird  arrived  from  Bellies^*^^  river 
— Recovered  also  2  horses  which  have  been  lost  by 
our  express  man  Wray — 2  loads  wood — 1  load  bark 
for  Blacksmith. 

Sat.  19 — No  arrivals  from  Camp — 2  loads  wood  still  very  cold 
and  again  threatning  Snow. 

Sun.  20 — Lame  Bull  and  some  4  Peigans  arrived  with  more 
meat  for  trade  also  the  Rider^""  a  Gros  Ventres — 
Plenty  Robes  in  Camp ! 

Mon.  21 — Traded  with  Lame  Bull  and  party  when  they  started — 
Calfs  Robe^*'^  and  a  few  other  Blood  Indians  arrived 
with  a  very  few  Robes  and  plenty  meat — Started 
Revais  and  two  men  with  10  of  our  fattest  horses  and 
4  Mules  to  assist  Rose  Also  sent  3  men  on  Teton  to 
get  out  knees  for  a  Boat. — 

Tues.  22 — Hauled  half  a  load  of  Coal  and  half  of  Knees  from 
Teton.  Fine  pleasant  day — Traded  with  Calf  Robes 
party — No  arrivals  today     Hauled  2  loads  wood. 

Wed.  23 — Sitting  Woman  arrived  with  4  Robes  and  a  load  of 
meat.     He  brings  also  the  last  of  three  horses  we 




1   thiouuli   ihc  courtesy  ot    1  Icuulit on.  .Millli 


January  1856. 

sent  with  our  express  man  5th  Inst  and  which  must 
have  strayed  from  them.     No  news. 

Thurs.  24 — Sitting  Woman  started  back  No  arrivals  Another 
load  knees  and  Coal  and  two  loads  wood. — 

Fri.  25 — Hauled  balance  of  knees  for  a  90  foot  Mackinaw — In 
the  evening  a  Gros  Ventre  arrived  with  nearly  a 
wagon  load  of  meat  and  9  Robes.    No  news. — 

Sat.  26 — Traded  with  Gros  Ventre  when  he  started  Some 
Little  Robes  paid  us  another  loafing  visit  for  the 
100th  time — Two  loads  wood — Mild  and  pleasant. — 

Sun.  27 — Some  few  Gros  Ventres  with  plenty  meat  and  as 
usual  in  these  times  a  Robe  or  two  arrived  to  trade — 
getting  heartily  tired  of  this  meat  business. 

Mon.  28 — More  arrivals  of  Gros  Ventres  with  meat  meat — We 
do  wish  they  would  stop  it  but  it  seems  they  will  come 
with  it  notwithstanding  all  we  can  say — Two  loads 
wood — 

Tues.  29 — Big  Feather  Blood  Ind  arrived  with  9  Robes  and 
some  meat  of  course — Finished  sawing  knees  for  a 
new  Boat. 

Wed.  30 — Mr.  Culbertsons  B  in  L  arrived  with  some  10  Robes 
and  meat  meat  meat — 2  loads  wood  and  one  of  Coal. 

Thurs.  31 — A  whole  host  of  Gros  Ventres  arrived  last  night  with 
two  Mules  and  two  Horses  lost  by  Revais — Fort 
crowded — Traded  1  horse  a  lot  of  meat  and  a  few 

February  1856 

Fri.  1 — Mr.  C's  Brother  in  Law  started  back  for  Camp.  Fort 
entirely  free  of  Indians.  Hauled  1  load  of  Coal  and 
as  usual  two  loads  fire  wood. 

Sat.  2 — "Bad  Head"  arrived  with  14  Robes.  No  news.  Three 
loads  fire  wood. — 


February  1856. 

Sun.  3 — Two  men  arrived  for  the  opposition  house  from  be- 
low by  whom  we  learn  that  Rose  and  Wagons  are 
laid  up  below  Milk  River,  that  Wray  with  our  express 
had  been  met  this  side  of  the  Big  Bend^"^  22  days 
out  from  this — horrible !  and  that  Revais  was  met 
below  the  two  forks^^*^  having  lost  all  the  Mules  sent 
by  him  and  two  horses — still  more  horrible — !!  In 
the  evening  our  good  friends  the  Gros  Ventres  ar- 
rived bringing  us  one  of  the  Mules  lost  by  Revais 
and  the  only  remaining  one  is  also  in  Camp — Rose 
has  lost  7  of  his  horses. — 

Men.  4 — Made  a  present  to  our  friends  the  Gros  Ventres  when 
they  started — Another  arrived  with  14  Robes  and  a 
horse  for  trade — Hauled  2  loads  of  wood  and  one  of 

Tues.  5 — Traded  with  Gros  Ventres  who  immediately  left.  Mr. 
Dawsons  Comrade^^^  arrived  from  a  distance  of  some 
70  miles  bringing  one  Robe  d —  him.    3  loads  wood. — 

Wed.  6 — A  large  party  of  Blackfoot  traders  arrived  who  all 
went  to  opposition  Fort — Bad  Head  arrived  with 
some  8  Robes.     3  loads  wood. — 

Thurs,  7 — "White   Cow"    etc.    started — No   arrivals   today   and 
no  trade — two  loads  fire  wood  and  one  for  Coal  Pit. 

Fri.  8 — Several  Gros  Ventres  arrived  with  a  few  Robes  plenty 
meat  and  the  last  of  our  Mules  sent  by  Revais.  Mild 
and  snow  thawing  a  little — two  loads  fire  wood  and 
one  for  pit. 

Sat,  9 — Several  other  Gros  Ventres  arrived  and  the  Lame 
Hand  Peigan  with  a  good  few  Robes.  No  news. 
Still  mild  and  snow  gradually  lessening — Hauled 
wood  as  above. 

Sun.  10 Xiiolhcr  iniM  daw     Some  Gros  Ventres  arrived  with 

a  good  many  Robes  for  trade. 


February  1856. 

Mon.  11 — No  arrivals  today — Did  not  trade  one  Robe.  Hauled 
two  loads  fire  wood  and  one  for  Pit. 

Tues.  12 — Lame  Hand  arrived  with  some  20  Robes  also  one 
or  two  Gros  Ventres — Father  of  all  people^^^  arrived 
in  the  evg.  Blood  Ind.  Two  loads  sleepers^^^  for 
Boat  and  one  load  fire  wood.  Very  mild — Ther.' 
at  50.— 

Wed.  13 — Traded  with  Blood  Ind.  and  some  few  Gros  Ventres 
73  Robes  in  all — Hauled  3  loads  fire  wood — Expect  a 
large  band  of  Blackfeet  in  a  day  or  two. — 

Thurs,  lA — One  or  two  Blackfeet  and  a  few  Gros  Ventres  arrived 
from  whom  traded  144  Robes.  Revais  arrived  with 
Letters  from  Ft.  Union  and  from  our  Wagons  which 
are  still  below  Milk  River  and  have  lost  some  13  head 
of  Mules  and  Horses.  Sent  three  Wagns.  to  Moun- 
tains and  did  a  little  towards  cleaning  our  Fort. — 

Fri.  15 — A  large  party  of  Blackfeet  arrived  under  their  chiefs 
the  Old  Sunn. 11^  Big  Sun^^^  Bull  Sitting  Down  and 
The  tail  that  goes  up  the  Hill.i^^  being  their  first 
formal  visit  since  the  Canon  was  fired  on  them.  They 
were  well  received  firstly  by  the  fort,  and  secondly 
by  the  Agent  who  made  them  a  very  handsome  pres- 
ent. Traded  from  them  300  Robes  and  from  the 
Gros  Ventres  200 — a  pretty  busy  day  for  all  of  us. 

Sat.  16 — Traded  some  200  Robes  more  from  the  Blackfeet 
when  they  all  put  out  well  satisfied — Traded  also 
138  Robes  from  the  Gros  Ventres — Now  the  Indians 
begin  to  pour  in  from  all  quarters  and  we  may  say 
our  trade  has  fairly  commenced. — Hauled  one  load 
of  fire  wood. 

Sun.  17 — Some  more  Blackfeet  arrived  from  whom  traded  346 
Robes.  Started  a  band  of  27  Mules  and  Horses  to 
the  assistance  of  our  Wagons  and  for  Ft.  Union 
trade — Wagons  arrived  from  Mountains  with  10  logs 
and  2  ps.  for  Ooars  (Oars) 


February  1856. 

Mon.  18 — Had  logs  hauled  into  fort  from  other  side  hauled 
also  one  load  fire  wood.  Traded  624  Robes  from  All 
tribes  an  assortment  of  whom  we  now  have  around 

Tues.  19 — Another  fine  days  trade — 765  Robes  in  all — Hauled  3 
loads  Coal  and  a  load  of  wood     Very  busy  times. — 

Wed.  20 — Our  Stock  of  goods  begins  to  look  down  and  we  are 
already  short  of  many  articles — Traded  today  550 
Robes  making  in  all  at  present  traded  5586  Robes- 
Sent  three  Wagons  to  Mountains.  Hauled  balance 
of  Coal  from  Teton  and  commenced  on  another  Pit 
at  the  Fort. 

Thurs.  21 — Trading  again  today  with  all  nations  but  on  account 
of  having  to  cash  some  of  our  most  desirable  goods, 
trade  has  not  been  quite  so  brisk — traded  only  259 
Robes.  Much  colder  today  Hauled  one  load  wood. 
Men  working  away  at  pit — Carpenters  caulking  yawl 
and  sawing  plank. — 

Fri.  22 — Same  work — traded  today  273  Robes.  The  Ice  broke 
up  throughout  the  past  night  without  any  rise  in  the 
river  and  now  we  think  our  boats  are  saved. — 

Sat.  23 — Men  arrived  from  Mountains  with  10  ps.  1  Wagn. 
broken — Big  Snakes  band  arrived  also  a  few  Black- 
feet — Traded  in  all  435  Robes,  but  from  appearances 
we  think  the  opposition  must  have  doubled  this,  but 
we  are  out  of  all  our  desirable  goods. — 

Sun.  24 — Still  fine  pleasant  weather.  Trade  also  still  keeps 
brisk — 249  Robes  today — 

Mon.  25 — Little  Dog  arrived  and  got  through  with  him  and 
party — Endeavored  to  clean  up  our  Fort  a  little — 
In  the  Evening  commenced  snowing — One  load 
wood — Traded  622  Robes — 

Tues.  26 — Traded  with  Piegans  Bloods  &  Blackfeet  but  no  Gros 
Ventres  today  343  Robes — Hauled  3  loads  wood. 
Found  one  of  our  Oxen  with  its  tail  cut  oflF — 


February  1856. 

Wed.  27 — Some  Gros  Ventres  and  a  few  Peigans  traded  today 
212  Robes.    Ther  at  noon  15    Hauled  2  loads  wood. — 

Thurs.  28 — Traded  today  353  Robes — Still  very  cold.     Hauled 
three  loads  wood. 

Fri.  29 — Low  Horns  band  arrived  and  traded  from  them  and 
others  313  Robes.     Cold  as  ever.     Hauled  3  loads 

wood. — 

March  1856 

Sat.  1 — A  dance  by  two  Soldier^^'^  bands  today — Much 
milder — Saw  Geese  for  the  first  time — White  Eagle^^^ 
Gros  Ventre  arrived,  and  traded  from  him  and  others 
296  Robes.     Three  loads  wood. 

Sun.  2 — Still  cold  and  unpleasant.  Some  few  Blood  Inds  ar- 
rived— -Traded  in  all  193  Robes  being  the  poorest  day 
for  a  long  time. 

Men.  3 — Trade  still  duller  but  there  yet  remains  plenty  Robes 
for  us — traded  154  today — Hauled  2  loads  wood. — 

Tues.  A — Visited  by  nearly  all  of  the  principle  Gros  Ventres 
as  they  are  about  to  raise  Camp — Received  from 
them  59  Robes  and  2  horses  as  a  parting  present  but 
they  do  not  know  how  to  make  such  presents — their 
hearts  are  not  strong — Wound  up  the  ceremony  how- 
ever without  very  great  loss  to  the  Outfit.  Traded 
in  all  344  Robes  Hauled  our  logs  across  from  other 
side. — 

Wed.  5 — Another  busy  days  trade  414  Robes — Hauled  2  loads 
wood.     Mild  and  pleasant 

Thurs.  6 — Early  Maj  Hatch  and  friend  Wilson  started  for  Ft. 
Union  where  they  will  await  the  S  Boats  arrival — 
Gave  them  a  parting  Salute  from  our  Canon — Clarke 
also  started  for  below  having  sold  out.  Traded  418 


March  1856. 

Fri.  7 — Traded  with  Big  Feather  Blood  Ind  and  party — 
exactly  400  Robes  today — Hauled  2  loads  wood  and 
hunted  up  our  stray  Oxen     Warm  and  pleasant. — 

Sat.  8 — Mr.  Culbertsons  Bro  in  Law  arrived  on  a  visit,  and 
states  his  Camp  is  on  the  Teton  with  plenty  Robes. 
Traded  330  Robes — Had  our  Fort  swept  out  and 
hauled  one  load  wood. — 

Sun.  9 — Traded  with  some  few  Blood  Indians  368  Robes — A 
good  deal  colder — 

Mon.  10 — Got  276  more  Robes  from  Blood  Indians  Still 
colder — Sent  three  Wagons  to  Mountains  for  some 
more  logs. — 

Tues.  11 — Traded  with  Mr.  Culbertsons  Bro  in  Laws  party  384 
Robes  today.  Hauled  one  load  wood.  Much  colder 
and  snowing  a  little — A  few  more  days  trade  like 
the  present  and  we  will  be  entirely  out  of  goods. — 

Wed.  12 — A  poor  days  trade  only  75  Robes  in  all.  Men  returned 
late  from  Mountains  having  broken  one  Wagon, 
they  fetch  8  ps.  only — 

Thurs.  13 — Traded  from  Mountain  Chiefs^^^  party  today  213 
Robes.  Men  in  unloading  Wagns.  today  let  one  fall 
over  the  opposite  bank,  and  effectually  used  it  up 
also.  Discharged  one  of  the  men — Hauled  one  load 
wood.     Very  cold  and  plenty  Ice  running. — 

Fri.  14 — Still  very  cold  and  firewood  in  considerable  demand. 
Some  Blackfeet  Bloods  and  all  sorts  arrived — Traded 
216  Robes — Had  all  our  logs  crossed  from  other  side 
and  hauled  one  load  of  wood. — 

Sat.  15 — Blood  Inds  very  tardy  in  shifting  Camp  and  in  con- 
sequence much  trouble  with  them — Traded  today 
122  Robes— Nearly  out  of  Blankets— Hauled  logs 
into  Fort — and  had  Fort  cleaned — 


/  ■  .^/ 


a^  ^e-  ni 


Reproduced  through  the  courtesy  of  Houshton.  Mifflin  Company. 



March  1856. 

Sun.  16 — Some  N  Peigans  arrived  again  to  trade  and  from 
them  and  remaining  troublesome  Bloods  traded  260 
Robes — Very  much  trouble  by  loafers — 

Men.  17 — Three  Bulls^^o  Blackfoot  arrived  with  some  30  Lodges 
— their  trade  is  almost  over  however  but  they  keep 
oflfering  us  cords  P  flesh  (Parfleche)  etc.  etc.  for 
horses  and  such  like — Blood  Indians  finally  moved  off 
Started  two  Wagons  to  Mountains — Hauled  one  load 
wood — Mr.  Wray  returned  from  Ft.  Union  and  brings 
us  the  news  that  our  Wagns.  will  be  here  at  long  last 
in  about  7  days. — Traded  78  Robes. — 

Tues.  18 — Blackfeet  moved  off  after  considerable  begging — 
Traded  21  Robes  in  all — We  are  now  through  with 
our  trade  excepting  a  Camp  of  N  Peigans — "Bulls 
Head^^i — ^vho  are  waiting  our  Wagons  arrival — 
Possibly  however  all  may  yet  be  back  with  a  few 
Spring  Robes  to  trade  Amunition  etc. — Thus  far  we 
have  1316  Packs  Bufo.  Robes,  and  are  pretty  con- 
fident of  making  it  the  1500. — 

Wed.  19 — All  quiet  about  the  Fort  for  the  first  time  for  many 
a  day.  Arranged  Stores  for  the  reception  of  Com  p 
Wagons  and  preparatory  to  making  Packs — Sawing 
plank  for  a  new  Boat.  Cadot  arrived  from  Wagons 
and  started  back  again,  they  being  much  closer  than 
we  had  anticipated. — 

Thurs.  20 — Early  our  Wagons  5  in  number — 1  having  been  cashed 
by  the  way — arrived — they  have  had  a  long  and  most 
expensive  trip  of  it,  having  been  absent  since  17th 
Nov.  and  having  lost  17  Horses  and  Mules  on  the 
trip — So  much  for  Winter  travelling — Swept  out 

Fri.  21 — Rested  our  Wagoners  and  gave  them  a  feast, — Com- 
menced making  Packs  with  one  table  and  got  through 
with  40 — quarreled  with  one  of  the   men  and   gave 


March  1856. 

him  a  good  thrashing  and  his  discharge — Men  arrived 
from  Mountains  with  7  Ps.  one  Wagn.  broken  of 
course. — 

Sat.  22 — Started  men  back  to  Mountains.  About  noon  Maj 
John  Owens/22  trader  Flathead  country  arrived  v/ith 
several  others — Maj  Ov^ens  very  desirous  of  obtain- 
ing supplies  for  his  trade  from  this  side.  Hauled  1 
load  firewood. — 

Sun.  23 — All  quiet — Planing  and  talking  with  the  Major.    Very 

windy. — 

Men.  24 — Traded  with  a  few  Flatheads  who  arrived  with  Maj  O 
some  100  lbs.  Beaver  at  low  rates.  Commenced  mak- 
ing a  skiff  to  send  express  to  St,  Louis  under  arrange- 
ments with  Maj.  O.  Started  3  men  to  make  another 
Coal  Pit  on  Teton.  Hauled  one  load  wood.  Making 
Packs  with  2  Tables— 100  today.— 

Tues.  25 — Bulls  head  and  party  N  Peigans  arrived  to  trade. 
Our  Wagns.  returned  from  Mountains  with  8  ps. — 
Hauled  one  load  wood.     Made  100  Packs. — 

Wed.  26 — Started  Revais  and  two  men  in  a  Skifif  with  Express 
to  St.  Louis — Maj  Owens  and  party  also  started  on 
their  return.  Traded  385  Robes  from  N  Peigans — 
one  load  wood. — 

Thurs.  27 — North  Peigans  started  back — Started  two  saws  mak- 
ing plank  for  boat — one  load  wood    100  Packs. — 

Fri.  28 — All  at  work  one  way  or  another  and  in  nice  order. 
Made  77  Packs  Robes  and  5  Packs  Wolf  Skins- 
Started  2  Wagns.  to  Mountains — hauled  2  loads  fire 

Sat.  29— Made  50  Packs  Robes  and  5  Packs  Wolf  Skins- 
Swept  out  Fort  and  hauled  2  loads  wood. 

Sun.  30 — All  quiet — In  the  evening  our  Wagns.  returned  from 
Mountains  bringing  8  ps. — 


March  1856. 

Mon.  31 — A  band  of  N  Peigans  arrived  to  trade  and  sleep  in 
Fort.  Plenty  Bufs.  close  on  both  sides.  Hauled  our 
logs  into  Fort  and  1  load  wood.  Made  50  Packs  Robes 
13  small  skins. — 

April  1856 

Tues.  1 — Traded  with  N  Peigans  347  Robes  etc.  Made  50 
Packs  Robes,  hauled  2  loads  wood,  and  cleaned  up 
around  the  Fort. — 

Wed.  2 — Started  three  Wagns.  to  Mountains  for  logs  hauled 
one  load  fire  wood.  Made  up  50  Packs  Robes  5  Pack 
Beaver  and  1  pack  Grey  Fox — A  few  Peigans  still 
remain  in  Fort  and  a  few  have  started  after  Bufo. — 

Thurs.  3 — Baptiste  and  our  Ind  Horse  guard  arrived  from  Moun- 
tains with  a  good  lot  of  meat.  Bain,  of  N  Peigans 
moved  off.     Hauled  1  load  wood. 

Fri.  4 — Little  Grey  Head  arrived  with  some  4  or  5  Robes 
for  trade,  also  the  Red  Bull  with  a  horse  for  us 
One  load  wood. — 

Sat.  5 — Grey  Head  and  other  Ind  started  back.  Men  arrived 
from  Mountains  with  13  ps. — Put  up  our  new  press 
outside  of  Fort,  one  load  wood — Men  making  Packs 
as  usual — Cleaned  out  Fort. — 

Sun.  6 — Bad  Head  &  Low  Horn  etc.  who  arrived  late  last 
night  traded  a  few  Robes  2  horses  and  put  back  on 
their  return  early.    Big  Snake  and  five  others  arrived. 

Mon.  7 — Started  three  Wagns.  to  Mountains — Traded  1  horse 
and  some  Robes  from  Big  Snake  and  party  who  still 
loaf  on.  Yellow  Head^-'"*  arrived  from  Camp.  Hauled 
1  load  Coal  and  made  100  Packs. — 

Tues.  8 — Big  Snake  started  back  to  Camp — Arrived  Young 
White  Calf  and  friend — Hauled  1  load  wood  Made 
100  Packs. 


April  1856. 

Wed.  9 — Skunk  arrived  with  some  Robes  for  trade  Hauled  a 
load  of  wood — Made  100  Packs  Robes  Our  Horses 
arrived  from  Mountains  all  much  improved  since 
their  trip  from  Ft.  Union. — 

Thurs.  10 — Wagons  arrived  from  Mountains  with  11  ps.  Hauled 
1  load — the  last — of  our  Coal — Made  100  packs  Bap- 
tistes  B  in  L  arrived  with  a  few  Robes. — 

Fri.  11 — Very  disagreeable  cold  day — Snowing  &  raining  all 
the  time — A  considerable  number  of  Gros  Ventres 
Chiefs  and  Soldiers  arrived — Traded  from  them  some 
10  packs  Robes  entirely  for  provisions — Made  106 
packs  Robes  which  finishes  this  part  of  the  business 
making  1350  Packs  Robes  made  up  which  with  some 
loose  Robes  makes  us  over  1400  Packs  Robes  to 
date. — 

Sat.  12 — Started  three  Wagons  to  Mountains.  G  Vs  as  is 
their  custom  still  loaf  on — Skunk  and  other  Peigans 
all  started  back  to  Camp. 

Sun.  13 — Much  to  our  relief  Gros  Ventre  party  all  left  us.  Mr. 
Picotte  of  the  opposition  left  with  his  "Returns"  in 
three  Boats — Gave  him  a  passing  Salute  from  our 
Canon  being  we  suppose  the  first  time  an  opposition 
Bourgeois  had  such  an  honor  paid  him  by  this  Fort, 
but  both  houses  have  been  on  the  most  amicable 
terms  this  winter  both  having  done  a  most  satisfac- 
tory business 

Men.  14 — Very  high  wind — Commenced  on  the  only  Boat  we 
intend  to  build  this  year  85  ft  by  123/4  Hauled  up 
to  Fort  our  last  years  Boat  but  the  wind  blew  too 
strong  for  us  to  bring  up  the  large  Keel — Had  her 
cleaned  however — Men  arrived  from  Mountains  with 
15  ps. — Two  Peigans  arrived  to  trade  a  few  Robes. 

Tues.  15 — Traded  some  20  Robes  and  2  Horses  from  Peigans, 
who  still  loaf  on.  Had  our  Big  Keel  at  long  last 
brought  up  to  Fort.     This  is  her  first  visit  to  these 


April  1856. 

upper  regions  and  we  hope  it  will  be  her  only  one, 
as  she  is  by  far  too  big  for  our  river — Very  windy 
as  usual.  Crossed  our  logs  and  had  them  hauled 
into  Fort. — A  few  Gros  Ventres  arrived. — 

Wed.  16 — Traded  with  G.  Vs  some  18  Robes  and  1  Horse  when 
they  put  back. — Peigans  also  left  Commenced  press- 
ing our  Packs     115  today. — 

Thurs.  17 — Pressed  150  Packs  Robes.  Bufo.  very  plenty  quite 
close  on  both  sides — Sent  after  and  got  a  good  supply 
of  meat. 

Fri.  18 — Pressed  176  Packs — We  are  in  no  want  of  meat  yet 
Bufo.  are  so  very  close  we  can  scarce  keep  our  young 
hunters  in  bounds.  They  killed  four  Bulls  in  point 
opposite  today — A  young  Peigan  trader  arrived  with 
a  few  Robes.  Also  two  Gros  Ventres  arrived  in 
search  of  a  runaway  Woman. — 

Sat.  19 — Pressed  104  Packs — Swept  out  and  around  Fort — 
arranged  Stores — Hauled  one  load  wood — Finished 
and  turned  bottom  of  new  Boat.  A  Peigan  arrived 
with  a  few  Robes. — G  Weipperts  woman  died  in 
giving  birth   to  a  boy  last  night. 

Sun.  20 — Three  Lodges  of  N  Peigans  arrived  and  a  few  others — 
Very  windy  day,  and  had  to  drop  crossing  Inds.  for 
a  while.     Bufo.  still  very  plenty  quite  close. 

Men.  21 — Pressed  150  Packs — Traded  120  Robes — Another  very 
windy  day — Hauled  a  load  of  firewood.  Mr.  Bird 
and  family  arrived — Three  Cows  killed  in  sight  of 

Tues.  22 — Pressed  215  Packs — A  big  band  of  Bufo.  between 
the  two  Forts — rare  times  these — Hauled  one  load 
wood. — 

Wed.  23 — Pressed  only  131  Packs  today  ;  our  labors  being  inter- 
rupted by  a  band  of  Bufo.,  after  which  we  let  the 


April  1856. 

men  have  a  run — Four  Lodges  Gros  Ventres  arrived 
and  Camped  on  other  side.  Also  some  6  or  7  Peigans 
arrived  to  trade.    Pleasant  day 

Thurs.  24 — Snowed  all  day  and  in  consequence  had  to  abandon 
Pack  pressing  Traded  some  14  Robes  Hauled  one 
load  wood.     Men  spinning  Oakum. 

Fri.  25 — Clear  and  much  milder — Snow  nearly  all  gone  Pei- 
gans started  back  to  Camp.  And  in  the  evening  a 
few  Gros  Ventres  arrived.  One  load  wood,  and  spun 
up  last  of  our  Oakum. — 

Sat.  26 — Pressed  205  Packs  Robes.  Planked  up  sides  of  our 
new  Boat.  Little  Dog  arrived  from  a  visit  to  the 
Flat  Heads — Also  some  Peigans  from  other  side. 

Sun.  27 — A  few  more  Peigans  arrived — Traded  some  70  Robes. 
Bufo.  still  continues  plenty  and  close 

Men.  28 — Peigans  moved  off.  Pressed  103  Packs  Robes  and 
40  Packs  mixed  Skins  which  finishes  this  job  for  the 
present.  A  large  party  of  Gros  Ventres  arrived  with 
some  Spring  Robes  for  Sugar  etc.  but  as  we  are 
now  entirely  out  of  this  article  a  good  portion  of 
them  fell  to  the  opposition  house.  Big  Calf  Peigan 
arrived  and  found  his  enemy  the  Plenty  Eagles  in 
the  Fort  and  cut  him  badly  on  the  head.  The  former 
traded  and  put  out  immediately 

Tues.  29 — Gros  Ventres  all  started  back  early.  Had  our  meat 
pile  overhauled  and  found  a  good  deal  too  much  of 
it  spoiled — Cut  some  knees  for  a  skiff,  etc.  etc. — 

Wed  30 — Finished  our  New  Boat,  the  biggest  ever  made  here, 
and  raised  her  up  for  caulking — Made  57  Packs  Robes 
— Started  3  Wagons  to  Mountains — Hauled  1  load 
of  wood.     No  arrivals  today. — 


May  1856 

Thurs.  1 — Set  8  Men  to  Caulking  New  Boat  and  got  through 
with  half  of  it.  Put  up  our  Tongues  in  Bags  1581 
in  all  for  this  year,  but  we  have  sold  some  300  to 
different  parties.  Hauled  one  load  of  wood.  Sent 
after  and  got  6  loads  fresh  meat. 

Fri.  2 — A  few  Peigans  and  Gros  Ventres  arrived  from  whom 
we  traded  90  Robes  and  2  horses — Finished  Caulk- 
ing our  new  Boat  and  launched  her.  Men  arrived 
from  Mountains  with  8  logs  and  a  new  Mast.  All 
going  on  smoothly 

Sat.  3 — Chambers,  Chine,  and  13  Men  arrived  from  Ft.  Union 
to  assist  in  taking  down  Boats  etc.  Caulked  our 
Big  Keel  Boat  and  sunk  her.  Also  had  our  old  Boat 
hauled  out  and  put  on  the  Stocks  to  dry. 

Sun.  4 — Sent  Chine  and  others  after  meat  and  towards  evening 
they  returned  with  5  Bulls.  Bufo.  are  becoming  scarce 
in  the  vicinity — A  few  Indians  arrived  with  some 
Robes  and  1  Horse  to  trade. — 

Mon.  5 — Started  three  Wagns.  to  Mountains  for  the  balance 
of  our  logs  there — Pressed  51  Packs  Robes, — swept 
Fort  etc. 

Tues,  6 — Set  Fort  Union  men  to  covering  houses  with  dirt. 
Caulked  our  old  Boat  and  sunk  her — 

Wed.  7 — Started  Chambers  Wray  and  B  Champaigne  with  a 
band  of  39  horses  for  Fort  Union.  Men  arrived  from 
Mountains  but  bring  only  7  logs  having  broken  two 
Wagons.     Sent  after  fresh  meat — 

Thurs.  8 — Had  our  Boats  all  bailed  out  finished  covering  roofs. 
All  making  ready  for  a  start  on  Saturday — River 
rising — Took  Inventory — 

Fri.  9 — Commenced  loading  Big  Keel  and  got  nearly  through 
with  it  when  it  commenced  raining  and  stopped  us. 


May  1856. 

Sat.  10 — Rained  all  day.  and  impossible  for  us  to  work  at  any- 
thing. Bothered  besides  by  a  band  of  Peigans  who 
arrived  yesterday  to  dance. 

Sun.  11 — Fine  day  and  got  through  with  loading  all  our  Boats 
satisfactorily.  Men  sleep  on  Board  and  tomorrow 
intend  making  an  early  start  with  our  1540  Packs 
and  three  Boats. 

Mon.  12 — Fine  day  Our  Three  boats  started  for  the  Yellow- 
stone with  heavy  loads  and  full  crews,  had  the  fort 
cleaned  out,  received  a  band  of  Blood  Indians  and 
traded  a  fiew  robes  and  one  mare  from  a  Pagan — 

Tues.  13 — Weather  cloudey  wind  blowing  fresh  from  S.  E.  Sent 
three  Waggons  on  the  Teton  for  Coal  Wood,  had 
all  the  Waggons  not  in  use  stored  in  Robe  Ware- 
house, towards  evening  commenced  raining.  The 
Carpenters  at  Work  getting  the  Doughboy  tools 
ready.  The  Fort  full  of  Indians  Bloods  and  Pagans. 
Continue  to  trade  a  fiew  Robes.  G  Wipert  on  sick 
Wed.  14 — Weather  Clear  and  warm  Sent  three  Waggons  on 
the  Teton  for  Coal  Wood.  Commenced  putting  the 
pit  up.  Sent  the  hunter  with  one  man  and  five  horses 
for  fresh  meat,  the  carpenters  complected  the  Dough- 
boy tools  for  four  men,  The  Fort  crouded  with  In- 
dians    trade  a  fiew  robes — All  well 

Thurs.  15 — Weather  clear  and  warm,  wind  S.  W.  Sent  two 
waggons  for  grass  for  Doughboy  purposes  covered 
the  coal  pit.  The  carpenters  repairing  the  windows 
of  the  Fort.  The  Fort  full  of  Indians  The  evening 
closed  with  fine  weather    All  well 

Fri.  16 — Weather  clear  and  warm  wind  S.  E.  coal  pit  under- 
way The  hunter  returned  with  fresh  meat  found 
buflfelo  far,  had  the  dried  meat  overhauled  and  prop- 
erly Stowed  away.     The  Fort  full  of  Indians 


May  1856. 

Sat.  17 — Weather  clear  and  pleasant. — Mr.  C's  Brother  in 
law  starts  for  his  camp  with  several  other  bloods  and 
Blackfeet  After  a  six  days  loafing.  The  men  com- 
mence to  clear  their  places  preparatory  to  making 
doughboys.     All  well 

Sun.  18 — Weather  clear  and  warm.  This  day  sent  all  the  loafing 
indians  about  the  Fort  to  Camp  traded  a  fiew  robes, 
towards  evening  weather  cloudey  with  a  little  rain. 
The  hunter  brought  in  the  meat  of  an  Antelope,  This 
evening  the  men  mixed  their  mud  in  preparation  for 
making  doughboys — The  evening  closes  with  fine 
weather     All  well 

Men.  19 — Weather  clear  and  cool,  Four  men  making  dough- 
boys. The  two  carpenters  sawing  timber  for  the 
Bastion.  The  Blacksmith  and  one  man  tending  coal 
pit.  During  the  past  night  one  of  the  cows  had  a 
calf  The  men  made  451  doughboys  The  hunter 
brought  in  the  meat  of  an  Elke  and  a  Antelope,  The 
evening  closes  with  fine  weather    All  well 

Tues.  20 — Weather  clear  and  warm  wind  S.  E.  During  the 
past  night  the  Yellow  Head  with  a  fiew  other 
Pagans  arrived  from  the  Flathead  countrey  brought 
a  letter  from  Mr.  Owen.  Several  blood  Indians  ar- 
rived from  the  Pagan  camp.  Drawing  the  Coal  from 
the  Pit.  The  men  making  doughboys  made  this  day 
573  doughboys — The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather 
All  well 

Wed.  21 — Weather  clear  and  warm.  Sent  the  hunter  after  fresh 
meat  brought  in  the  Meat  of  three  bulls  The  men 
made  this  day  525  doughboys  crossed  a  number  of 
Indians,  The  Carpenters  at  work  sawing  timber  for 
the  Bastion,  The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather 
All  well 

Thurs.  22 — Weather  cloudey    wind  easterly — The  men  made  592 
Doughboys     had    Mr.    Dawson's    room    cleaned   out 


May  1856. 

and  the  carpet  put  in  the  warehouse  The  evening 
closed  with  cloudey  rainey  weather  The  carpenters 
at  work  on  the  Saws     All  well 

Fri.  23 — Weather  cool  and  cloudey  wind  Easterly  This  day 
the  men  made  819  doughboys  buried  two  Pagan 
children  brought  from  camp  one  of  them  the  child 
of  Kelchiponestas  Son/24  Who  brought  a  letter  from 
Mr.  Owen  of  St.  Marie  several  Indians  about  the 

Sat.  24 — Weather  Cloudey  The  Men  made  882  Doughboys. 
Crossed  a  blood  Indian  and  his  tent  to  the  South 
Side  All  the  Pagans  left  for  their  camp.  The  Oposi- 
tion  has  lost  fourteen  head  of  horses  suposed  to  be 
taken  by  the  North  Assnaboins  The  evening  closed 
with  heavy  rain    my  doughboys  will  suffer    All  well 

Sun.  25 — Weather  cold  and  cloudey  with  rain,  doughboy 
business  stoped  untill  it  clears  off.  two  Gosvonters 
arrived  from  their  camp  at  the  Woolf  Mountain  and 
crossed  to  the  Pagans  on  the  south  side  of  Missouri. 
The  oposition  found  their  horses.  The  evening  closes 
with  cold  cloudey  weather  thretening  rain — All  well 

Men.  26 — Weather  clear  and  pleasant  wind  westerly  Sent  a 
Waggon  to  gather  limestone  This  day  did  not  mould 
doughboys  on  account  of  the  rain,  the  men  made 
their  mud  preparetory  for  moulding  tomorrow,  The 
evening  closes  with  fine  clear  weather     All  well 

Tues.  27 — Weather  Clear  and  warm  men  made  649  Doughboys 
and  piled  up  the  dry  ones  sent  a  waggon  after  wood 
to  burn  lime  also  after  grass  for  doughboys — The 
hunter  brought  in  the  meat  of  one  Elk  The  saw  at 
work     the  evening  closed  with  fine  weather 

Wed.  28 — Weather  clear  and  very  warm  the  men  made  574 
Doughboys  sent  a  waggon  after  wood  The  evening 
closes  with  cloudey  weather  threatening  rain  All 


May  1856. 

Thurs.  29 — Weather  clear  and  very  warm  wind  easterly  This 
day  the  men  moulded  601  doughboys,  The  hunter 
brought  in  the  meat  of  two  Antelope.  Two  pagans 
arrived  from  a  Camp  of  Seven  lodges  camped  at  the 
foot  of  the  mountains  on  the  Missouri  traded  a  fiew 
beaver  and  some  dry  meat,  The  evening  closes  with 
a  heavy  Storm  of  Wind  and  rain     All  well 

Fri.  30 — Weather  clear  and  Warm  Wind  Westerly  the  men 
made  747  Doughboys  Sent  a  Waggon  after  hay  and 
limestone,  The  Pagans  at  the  Fort  left  for  their 
Camp,  did  not  loose  any  doughboys  by  the  Storm, 
The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather    All  well 

Sat.  31 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  This  day  the  men  made 
907  Doughboys  Sent  the  hunter  out  w^ith  one  man 
brought  in  the  meat  of  a  bull  and  a  cow  Commenced 
raining  covered  doughboys  This  day  Nenonesta 
blood  Indian  started  for  the  Flat  head  country  with 
his  wife  and  son  a  good  ridance  if  he  should  never 
return  The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather  All 

June  1856 

Sun.  1 — Weather  cloudy.  Towards  two  P.  M.  commenced 
raining  heaviley  and  continued  so  for  the  balance 
of  the  day.  Covered  the  doughboys  with  what  cover- 
ing I  could  raise,  The  evening  closes  with  cold 
cloudey  rainey  weather  with  every  aperance  that  it 
will  last.    All  well 

Men.  2 — Weather  cloudey  with  rain  The  men  cannot  make 
doughboys,  sent  a  Wagon  after  a  load  of  wood  Part 
of  the  oposition  fell  down  on  account  of  the  heavy 
wind  and  rains,  The  men  mixed  their  nood  (mud) 
for  making  doughboys  on  the  Morrow,  The  evening 
closed  with  cloudey  weather  thretening  Rain  All 


June  1856. 

Tues.  3 — Weather  clear  and  cool  wind  N.  W.  The  Men  made 
553  Doughboys  Commenced  burning  limestone  The 
Blacksmith  making  Tomehawks  The  Carpenters 
have  nearly  —  Completed  Sawing  the  timber  for  the 
Bastion,  The  hunter  brought  in  the  meat  of  an 
Antilop.  The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather  New- 
Moon  in  sight     All  well 

Wed.  4 — Weather  cool  and  cloudey  wind  N.  W.  This  day 
several  Flat  Heads  arrived  from  over  the  Mountain 
bring  no  news  of  importance  The  Men  made  506 
Doughboys  The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather 
All  well 

Thurs.  5 — Weather  Clear  and  pleasant  Wind  S.  W.  This  day 
the  men  made  490  Doughboys  Sent  the  Waggon 
after  a  load  of  Wood  finished  burning  the  lime,  The 
evening  closes  with  fine  Weather    All  well 

Fri.  6^Weather  clear  and  Warm  only  made  96  Doughboys 
have  been  delayed  on  account  of  the  scarcity  of  grass, 
have  the  Fort  cleaned  out,  The  evening  Closes  with 
fine  weather     All  well 

Sat.  7 — Weather  Clear  and  Cool  wind  blowing  a  gale  from 
S.  W.  The  men  made  546  Doughboys  this  will  finish 
doughboy  making  for  the  present,  put  up  three 
Waggons  to  send  to  the  Mountain  for  Scaffolding 
poles  and  timber  was  prevented  from  crossing  them 
on  account  of  the  wind  The  Flatheads  started  back 
for  across  the  mountain  Claimed  and  took  the  two 
horses  belonging  to  the  Government  The  evening 
closed  with  the  wind  blowing  fresh    All  well 

Sun.  8 — Weather  clear  and  cool  wind  blowing  :i  gale  S.  \\  . 
All  the  Indians  about  the  Fort  left  to  join  the  Flat- 
heads  at  the  Belt  Mountain,  two  Flatheads  arrived 
and  traded  their  beaver  at  the  Oposition,  The  eve- 
ning closes  with  the  wind  blowing  fresh     All  well 


June  1856. 

Mon.  9 — Weather  clear  and  warm,  This  Morning  Started 
Three  Waggons  and  four  men  to  the  Mountain  for 
timber  and  Scaffolding  poles,  Also  two  Men  on  the 
Teton  River  to  make  Charcol,  One  of  the  Sows  had 
six  young  pigs,  The  evening  closes  with  Cloudey 
rainey  weather     All  well 

Tues.  10 — Weather  cloudey  blowing  a  gale  from  N.  W.  with 
ocational  Showrs  of  rain.  Cannot  saw  timber  on 
account  of  the  wind  The  evening  closes  with  Stormey 
weather     All  well 

Wed.  11 — Weather  Cloudy  wind  still  blowing  heavy  The 
evening  closes  with  fane  calm  weather     All  well 

Thurs.  12 — Weather  clear  and  very  pleasent  The  hunter  brought 
in  the  meat  of  four  Antelop,  This  evening  our  three 
wagons  returned  from  the  Mountain  the  evening 
closes  with  fine  weather    All  well 

Fri.  13 — Weather  clear  and  very  warm  wind  blowing  from  the 
South — This  day  rafted  the  timber  and  hauled  it  to 
the  Fort  Stored  all  the  Waggons.  The  evening 
closes  with  fine  weather    All  well 

Sat.  14 — Weather  clear  and  warm  This  Scafolded  the  Bastion, 
A  number  of  Pagan  Indians  arrived  from  the  Flathead 
countrey  One  of  them  brought  a  letter  from  Mr. 
Owen  The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather  All 

Sun.  15 — W^eather  Clear  and  warm  wind  blowing  fresh  from 
S.  W.  This  day  traded  two  horses  and  a  fiew  Beaver 
and  robes,  descharged  the  hunter  for  neglect  of  duty 
Crossed  a  number  of  Indians  The  evening  closes 
with  fine  weather     All  well 

Mon.  16 — Weather  clear  and  very  Warm  Wind  S.  W.  This 
day  got  everything  ready  round  the  bastion  to  lay 
doughboys  Sent  two  men  on  the  Teton  to  put  up 
the    Coal    pit.      One    Waggon    hauling    doughboys. 


June  1856. 

Several  North  Pagans  arrived  at  the  Fort  on  dis- 
coverey  government  business — The  evening  closes 
with   fine  weather     All  well 

Tues.  17 — Weather  clear  and  warm  wind  blowing  fresh  from 
S.  W.  Commenced  laying  doughboys  on  the  Bastion 
Sent  a  Waggon  after  wood,  Crossed  a  number  of 
Indians  on  their  way  to  the  Pagan  Camp,  The  Rising 
head  North  Pagan  left  with  his  party,  The  evening 
closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 

Wed.  18 — Weather  clear  and  very  warm  wind  blowing  very 
heavy  from  S  W  Could  not  make  much  progress 
with  the  Bastion  on  account  of  the  wind  The  evening 
closes  with  fine  calm  weather    All  well 

Thurs.  19 — Weather  clear  and  warm  all  the  Men  at  work  on 
the  Bastion  The  evening  Closes  with  fine  weather 
All  well 

Fri.  20 — Weather  cloudey  with  continued  rain  could  but  do 
little  at  the  Bastion  Towards  evening  Mr  Wray 
arrived  from  our  Waggon  at  the  Mouth  of  the  Maria 
River  to  high  to  cross  request  boat,  This  day 
killed  a  Pig.  The  evening  closes  with  cloudey  weather 
all  well 

Sat.  21 — Weather  cool  and  cloudey.  This  Morning,  Sent  a 
waggon  with  our  boat  to  cross  our  goods  at  the 
Mouth  of  the  Maria.  The  building  going  on.  Towards 
evening  our  waggons  arrived  with  one  wheel  broaken 
Stored  the  goods  too  dark  to  check  The  evening- 
closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 

Sun.  22 — Weather  clear  and  warm.  This  day  checked  the 
goods  received  from  Fort  Union  found  Six  pair  3  pt 
Scarlet  blankets  missing,  the  balance  all  right. 
Towards  evening  the  weather  changed  to  very  cool 
with  hail  Mr  Munro's  brother  in  law  brought  in 
the  meat  of  two  cows — The  evening  closes  with  very 
cool  weather     All  well 


June  1856. 

Mon.  23 — Weather  Clear  and  Cool  wind  blowing  a  gale,  This 
day  traded  several  robes  and  beaver,  could  not  lay 
doughboys  on  account  of  the  wind,  Sent  a  Waggon 
after  fire  wood,    The  evening  Closes  with  fine  weather 

Tues.  24 — Weather  Clear  and  pleasant  Made  good  progress 
with  the  Bastion  Sent  the  Blacksmith  and  One  Man 
to  finish  the  Coal  pit  on  the  Teton,  Sent  a  waggon 
after  hay  and  poles,  put  one  man  to  make  Dough- 
boys, Sent  the  hunter  and  Mr  Wray  with  four  horses 
After  fresh  Meat,  Sent  four  horses  out  to  fatten  with 
Mr  Monroe's  brother  in  law.  One  black  One  Yellow 
One  Spotted  One  White  The  evening  Closes  with 
fine  weather 

Wed.  25 — \\'eather  clear  and  pleasant,  This  day  put  one  man 
making  Doughboys  Made  183 — The  hunter  returned 
with  the  meat  of  one  bull — put  up  a  good  piece  of  the 
bastion.  One  Waggon  hauling  Doughboys.  The 
evening  Closes  with  Cloudy  windey  weather  All 

Thurs.  26 — Weather  Clear  and  pleasant  This  day  made  218 
Doughboys,  Sent  a  waggon  after  fire  wood  The 
Mason  work  of  the  Bastion  progressing  Slowley  The 
two  men  on  the  Teton  Set  fire  to  their  Coal  pit.  The 
evening  closes  with  cool  cloudey  weather  and  a  little 
rain    All  well 

Fri.  27 — Weather  Cloudey  with  heavy  rain  Sent  the  hunters 
out  with  five  Mules  and  horses.  Made  Doughbovs 
spoiled  by  the  rain.  Worked  a  little  on  the  Bastion, 
The  evening  closes  with  cold  rainey  weather  All 

Sat.  28 — Weather  Cold  and  Stormey  with  heavy  rain  I  have 
lost  about  two  thousand  Doughboys  for  want  of 
covering.  This  day  Killed  a  pig  and  Salted  the  meat 
towards  evening  the  rain  Stoped  still  Cloudey  thret- 
ening  rain  if  it  Continues  will  loose  part  of  the 
Bastion    All  well 


June  1856. 

Sun.  29 — W  eather  Still  cold  and  cloudey  wind  easterly  river 
rising-  fast  During  the  day  rained  a  little  The  hunt- 
ers returned  with  Meat  The  evening  Closes  with 
Cold  Cloudey  weather     All  well 

Men.  30 — Weather  Stormey  wind  blowing  a  gale  from  S.  W. 
Sent  a  waggon  after  poles  for  the  Bastion,  Two 
men  on  sick  list,  The  Carpenters  made  Three  Wheel- 
barrows and  three  doughboys  moulds.  Cannot  work 
at  the  Bastion    The  evening  Closes  with  fine  weather 

July   1856 

Tues.  1 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm,  Sent  the  hunters  out 
brought  in  the  meat  of  a  Buffalo  Cow,  At  Work  on 
the  Bastion  Scaffolding,  The  evening  Closes  with 
fine  weather     Made  a  fiew  doughboys — 

Wed.  2 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm,  The  Bastion  going  up 
Slowly,  One  man  making  Doughboys,  The  hunter 
brought  in  the  meat  of  a  cow.  The  evening  closes 
with  fine  weather    All  well 

Thurs.  3 — Weather  Clear  And  Warm  This  day  got  one  corner 
of  the  Bastion  up  to  the  hight  One  man  making 
Doughboys,  The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather 
The  new  Moon  in  Sight,  All  well  The  Berrey 
brought   in   some   fresh   meat — 

Fri.  -1 — 'i'his  day  Weather  Clear  and  Very  Warm,  Gave  the 
men  a  feast  fired  the  Gun  and  hoisted  the  flag.  The 
evening  closes  with  Cloudey  Warm  Weather  All 

Sat.  5 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm,  This  Day  got  the  Bastion 
up  to  the  proper  hight  on  three  Sides,  Sent  two 
Waggons  to  the  Teton  for  Charcol  Sent  the  hunters 
after  fresh  Meat.  Sent  One  White  horse  out  with 
H  Monroe's  brother  in  law  to  the  Mountain  to  get 
fat,    The  evening  Closes  with  fine  Weather    .-Ml  well 




July  1856. 

Sun,  6 — Weather  very  Clear  and  Warm  The  hunters  returned 
with  fresh  Meat    One  Man  on  Sick  list    All  well 

Mon.  7 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm,  This  day  finished  the 
Bastion  to  the  Square  say  Twenty  One  feet  higli 
Cleaned  the  Fort  out,  The  evening-  Closes  with  fine 
weather  One  man  on  Sick  examined  the  dry  meat 
and  piled  it  up — 

Tues.  8 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  Bastion  nearly  finished, 
Several  Pagans  arrived  from  the  camp,  Sent  a 
waggon  after  wood,     One  man  on  sick  list — 

Wed.  9 — Weather  Cloudey  with  Rain,  Sent  the  hunters  out 
after  fresh  Meat  This  day  finished  the  Doughboy 
Work  of  the  Bastion,  Sent  two  Waggons  after  grass 
for  Doughboys  Traded  two  horses  from  a  Pagan  The 
evening  Closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 

Thurs.  lO—Weather  Clear  and  Warm.  This  day  gave  the  Men 
say  five  (of)  their  tools  for  Doughboy  making,  cleaned 
their  places  and  cut  hay,  Dr  Landis  arrived  from 
Saint  Maries  at  the  Oposition  Fort,  Several  Lodges 
of  Indians  around  the  Fort — The  evening  Closes  with 
fine  weather     All  well 

Fri.  11— W^eather  Clear  and  Warm  The  Men  Mixed  their 
Mud  this  evening.  Sent  two  Waggons  after  Wood, 
Several  Indians  left  for  the  Pagan  Camp     All  well 

Sat.  12— Weather  cloudey  This  day  the  Men  made  837  Dough- 
boys   The  evening  Closes  with  heavy  Rain    All  well 

Sun,  13 — Weather  cloudey  with  rain  covered  the  Doughboys, 
The  hunter  crossed  four  horses  and  mules  in  readiness 
to  Start  hunting  in  the  morning  The  evening  Closes 
with  Cool  Cloudey  Weather — All  well 

Mon,  14 — Weather  Cloudey  and  Warm,  This  day  the  men 
made  1140  Doughboys  The  Carpenters  put  in  the 
upper  floor  of  the  Bastion  and  Commenced  the  Roof, 


July  1856. 

Doctor  Lansdel  Started  for  across  the  Mountain  with 
two  waggons  The  evening  closes  with  cloudey 
weather    All  well 

Tues.  15 — Weather  Cold  and  cloudey,  The  Carpenters  com- 
menced putting  the  roof  on  the  Bastion,  The  men 
could  not  make  doughboys  on  account  of  the  Weather, 
The  hunter  returned  with  fresh  Meat,  Several  tents 
of  Indians  Arrived  from  the  Pagan  Camp.  The 
evening  closes  with  Cold  Cloudey  weather    All  well 

Wed.  16 — Weather  very  cold  and  cloudey  with  rain  All  work 
stoped,  A  Number  of  Indians  Pagans  arrived  at  the 
Fort  The  evening  Closes  with  Cold  Cloudey  Weather 
All  well 

Thurs.  17 — Weather  Clear  and  pleasant  the  Men  Made  1019 
Doughboys  The  carpenters  at  Work  roofing  the 
Bastion  Two  men  covering  Doughboys  The  Little 
Dog  Pagan  and  several  of  his  relations  arrived  on  a 
Small  trade  The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather 
All  well 

Fri.  18 — Weather  clear  and  Warm.  The  Men  Made  1311 
Doughboys — The  Carpenters  at  Work  on  the  roof  of 
the  Bastion  two  men  covering  Doughboys,  The 
Little  Dog  with  his  friends  left  for  Camp  After  trad- 
ing some  Meat  and  Robes,  The  evening  Closes  with 
cloudey  Weather,  This  evening  traded  a  White 
horse  runner  from  the  Blind  Pagan     All  well 

Sat.  19 — Weather  Clear  and  very  Warm  This  day  the  Men 
Made  708  Doughboys  Sent  Our  Waggon  after  Wood 
Cleaned  the  Fort  The  Grosvonters  raised  Camp  from 
the  Fort,  The  hunter  brought  in  some  fresh  Meat. 
The  evening  Closes  with  fine  weather    All  well 

Sun.  20 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm,  This  day  a  number  of 
Blood  Indians  arrived  at  the  Fort,  traded  a  fiew 
robes  and  meat — The  evening  closes  with  Very  Warm 
Weather    All  well 


July  1856. 

Mon.  21 — Weather  Clear  and  Very  Warm  this  day  made  a 
trade  of  some  robes  Meat  and  horses,  the  Men 
Making  and  piling  doughboys — The  Fort  full  of 

Tues.  22 — Weather  Clear  and  Very  Warm  This  day  The  Bloods 
and  Blackfeet  left  for  Camp,  Traded  several  horses 
and  Robes,  This  evening  an  express  arrived  from 
the  Boats  at  the  point  Frenchman^^s  requiring  a 
boat  Sixty  feet  long,  The  evening  closes  with  fine 
Weather    All  Well 

Wed.  23 — Weather  Cool  and  Cloudey,  put  up  three  Waggons 
to  get  timber  from  the  Mountain  getting  things  in 
preparation  for  sawing  the  boat  timber  The  evening 
closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 

Thurs.  24 — Wether  cloudey  and  pleasant — This  day  Started  three 
Waggons  to  the  Mountain  and  four  Men  for  boat 
timber,  four  men  at  work  on  the  Saws,  today  an 
Asnaboin  came  into  the  Fort  think  he  is  a  fool  had 
some  trouble  to  Stop  a  Blood  Indian  from  Killing  him 
The  evening  Closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 

Fri.  25 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  Four  men  on  the  Saws 
turned  oflF  Fourteen  planks  put  up  two  mor  logs 
on  the  pit — three  men  at  work  on  boat  nails  numbers 
of  Indians  arround  the  Fort,  Sent  a  waggon  After 
fire  Wood     All  well 

Sat.  26 — Weather  clear  and  Warm  four  Men  at  Work  on  the 
Saws.  One  Man  piling  up  Doughboys  Three  Men 
making  Nails,  The  Fort  full  of  Indians,  A  little 
traed  (trade)  going  on.  Sent  the  Assnaboin  back 
of  to  his  countrey  in  the  Night  The  evening  closes 
with  cloudey  weather     All  Well 

Sun,  27 — Weather  cloudey  with  heavy  Rain  continued  so  All 


July  1856. 

Mon.  28 — Weather  clear  and  cool,  The  Men  at  Work  on  the 
Saws  Sent  a  Waggon  after  Wood  The  evening 
closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 

Tues.  29 — Weather  Clear  And  Warm  This  Day  Shouquet 
(Chouquette)^26  Smith^^v  ^j^^j  ^n  Indian  with  Six 
Mules  and  a  horse  Started  to  meet  Mr  Culbertson 
on  Milk  River  with  letters  for  Mr  Dawson  &  Mr  C 
a  camp  of  North  Pagans  crossed  the  river  and  camped 
between  the  Forts  The  evening  Closes  with  fine 
Weather     All  well 

Wed.  30 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  This  day  finished  Sawing 
the  bottom  of  the  boat  The  Indians  traid  (trade)  a 
fiew  peltries     All  well 

Thurs.  31 — Weather  clear  and  Warm  This  day  the  carpenters 
started  for  the  Teton  with  two  Men  and  one  Waggon 
to  cut  nees  (knees)  and  other  timber  for  the  boat 
Two  of  My  Waggons  arrived  from  the  Mountain  with 
elleven  (eleven)  logs  and  all  the  men  and  cattle  One 
Waggon  brock  (broke)  down  at  the  dry  fork  with 
Seven  logs.  The  Indians  raised  Camp  The  evening 
Closes  with  Stormey  Weather  the  wind  blew  down 
about  twelve  pickets    All  well 

August  1856 

Fri.  1 — Weather  cloudy,  Sent  the  Men  after  the  brocken 
(broken)  Wagon  and  timber.  They  arrived  this 
afternoon  and  brought  the  wagons  into  the  Fort, 
Crossed  all  the  oxen  The  Fort  full  of  Indians  again 
The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 

Sat.  2 — Weather  Clear  And  Warm,  This  day  rafted  and 
hauled  the  timber  into  the  Fort  Sent  two  Waggons 
on  the  Teton  for  the  Carpenters  returned  brought 
in  all  the  nees  (knees)  and  other  timber  for  the  boat, 
The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 


August  1856. 

Sun.  3 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  This  day  Killed  the  old 
sow  and  Salted  her,  A  Number  of  Pagans  arrived 
to  trade  The  evening-  closes  with  Stormey  weather 
All  well 

Men.  A — Weather  Clear  and  Warm,  This  day  the  Carpenters 
and  two  Men  at  Work  dressing  plank  for  the  boat 
four  men  at  Work  on  the  Saws  Sent  two  Men  on 
the  Teton  with  a  Waggon  for  timber  to  lay  the  bottom 
of  the  boat  on  the  evening  closes  with  fine  Weather 
All  well 

Tues.  5 — Weather  clear  and  very  Warm  All  hands  at  work 
on  the  boat  dressed  the  bottom  ]>lank  and  sawed 
the  bars.  The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather  All 

Wed.  6 — Weather  clear  and  very  warm  Commenced  laying 
the  bottom  of  the  Boat  and  spliting  the  knees,  fin- 
ished laying  the  bottom  of  the  boat  commenced 
sawing  the  Sides,  One  Man  Sick  The  evening 
Closes  with  fine  weather 

Thurs.  7 — Weather  clear  and  very  Warm,  This  day  turned 
the  bottom  of  the  boat,  four  men  sawing  the  Sides 
The  Fort  full  of  Indians  the  evening  closes  with 
fine  weather    All  well 

Fri.  8 — Weather  clear  and  very  warm  All  hands  at  work 
on  the  boat — fine  weather     All  well 

Sat.  9 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm,  Planking  the  Sides  of 
the  boat     Six  men  on  the  Saws     fine  weather 

Sun.  10 — Weather  clear  and  Warm — All  well 

Men.  11 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  This  day  finished  sawing 
the  sides  of  the  boat  traded  Considerable  Beaver 
from  the  North  Pagans    All  well 

Tues.  12 — Weather  Clear  and  Very  Warm  The  boat  planked 
up,     Whitewashing  the  Fort     finished  the  boat  with 


August  1856. 

the  exception  of  caulking,     The  Fort  full  of  Indians 
All  well 

Wed.  13 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm,  The  Boat  nearly  finished 
for  launching.     The   Fort  full  of   Indians     All   well 

Thurs.  14 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  This  day  the  boat  Started 
to  meet  Mr  Dawson  with  five  men  and  F  Wray  in 
charge     Major  Hatch  arrived — All  well 

Fri.  15 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  This  day  Mr  Culbertson 
and  party  arrived,  The  oposition  people  arrived  also, 
The  evening  Closes  with  fine  weather    All  well 

Sat.  16 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm,  Wind  blowing  fresh  from 
S.  E.     lots  of  Indians  about    All  well 

Sun.  17 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  Wind  S.  W.  We  had  a 
Sermon  from  the  Rev  Mr  Mackey^""*  in  Mr  Cs  room 
and  one  in  the  Indian  house  for  the  Indians 

Men.  18 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm,  Sent  a  Waggon  after 
wood  Commenced  building  a  necessary  with  Dough- 
boys    Sent  the  horses  on  the  Missouri     All  well 

September  1856 

'Wed.  3 — Weather  cloudey  A  Rose  returned  after  an  absence 
of  fifteen  days  found  the  Blood  Indian  and  Blackfeet 
Camps  and  deld  (delivered)  the  Words  of  the 
Agent — Mr  Culbertson  this  day  started  for  the 
Boats  with  the  Mules  and  Four  pack  horses  The 
evening  closes  with  cold  cloudey  weather — Several 
half  Breeds  from  the  Flat  head  countrey  arrived  to 
trade     All  well 

Thurs.  A — Weather  cloudy  and  cold  witli  rain  Traded  some 
Beaver  and  Bear  Skins  with  the  half  breeds  The 
carpenters  at  work  on  the  Bastion,  Sent  after  wood 
All  well 


September  1856. 

Fri.  5 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  The  Half  Breeds  left  for 
their  Camp  took  two  of  Major  Hatche's  horses  to 
exchange,  The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather  All 

Sat.  6 — Weather  clear  and  Warm.  This  Day  cleaned  the 
Fort.  The  Little  Dog  left  for  Camp.  The  Black- 
smith Shoed  three  of  Major  Hatche's  horses  The 
carpenters  finished  roofing  the  Bastion.     All  well 

Sun.  7 — Weather  cloudey     wind  blowing  fresh     All  well 

Men.  8 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  This  Day  put  up  three 
Waggons  Took  the  Scaffolding  of  the  Bastion  down. 
The  evening  closes  with  cloudey  weather     All  well 

Tues.  9 — Weather  Stormey  with  heavy  rain.  This  day  Mr. 
Culbertson  arrived  from  the  boats  left  them  at  Cow 
Island,  brought  three  Mules  and  four  horses  and 
four  Men,  The  evening  closes  with  cloudey  weather 
All  well 

Wed.  10 — Weather  clear  and  warm  Sent  two  Waggons  after 
Wood,  finished  Shoeing  Major  Hatche's  Horses 
this  day  traded  One  horse  and  a  fiew  Beaver,  The 
evening  closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 

Thurs.  11 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  wind  blowing  fresh.  This 
day  put  up  Six  Waggons,  hauled  up  the  small  boat 
ready  to  caulk  Cleaned  the  Fort,  Three  Lodges  of 
Indians  Camped  at  the  Fort  The  evening  Closes 
with  fine  weather     All  well 

Fri.  12— Weather  Clear  and  Warm— This  day  The  Flat  Head 
Camp  arrived  say  Twenty  five  Lodges  Traded  some 
Beaver  and  one  Horse  for  Major  Hatch     All  well 

Sat.  13 — Weather  clear  and  Warm  This  Morning  Sent  a 
band  of  horses  and  Mules  to  Fort  Union  in  charge  of 
L  Beliveau  and  two  Men,  Traded  Some  deer  skins 
with  the  Flat  heads     All  well 


September  1856. 

Sun.  lA — Weather  Stormey  wind  blowing  fresh  from  N.  E. 
All  well 

Men.  15 — Weather  cloudey  This  day  A  Culbertson  Started  for 
the  Judith  with  two  Wagons  and  his  bugey  The 
minister  and  his  Wife  left  with  him  Major  Hatch 
left  in  the  small  boat  with  One  Man  to  meet  the 
boats,  have  left  in  the  Fort  Three  Men  and  two 
families  The  evening  Closes  with  cool  weather  All 

Tues.  16 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  Wind  blowing  fresh  from 
S.  W.     All  well 

Wed.  17 — Weather  clear  and  pleasant  Four  Blackfeet  Young 
Men  arrived  from  their  Camp  report  them  far  ofT 
they  left  immediately  for  the  Judith.  This  day  bor- 
rowed 25  lb.  Flour  and  Ten  pound  sugar  from  Major 
Hamiltoni29    All  well 

Thurs.  18 — Weather  Clear  Calm  and  pleasant  Commenced  re- 
moving the  White  Store  into  the  room  ocupied  by 
Major  Hatch,  The  evening  closes  with  fine  Weather 
All  well 

Fri.  19 — Weather    Clear    and    Warm      This    day    commenced 
putting  the  goods  in  the  New  white  Store     All  well 

Sun.  20 — Weather  cool  and  cloudy  wind  S.  E.  blowing  fresh 
All  well 

Men.  21 — Weather  clear  and  Warm  This  day  removed  the 
harnis  and  other  articles  into  Chouquets  room  All 

Tues.  22 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  Wind  S.  E  This  day 
overhauled  counted  and  removed  the  robes  and  other 
l)eltries  into  the  robe  house  The  evening  closes  with 
fine  weather     All  well 

Wed.  23 — Weather  clear  and  very  Warm  Wind  S.  E.  This 
day  mooved  the  dried  Meat  into  the  lower  room  of 

FORT  BENTON    [Ol'RNAI.  91 

September  1856. 

the  Mens  row     The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather 
All  well— 

Thurs.  24 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm — repaired  the  Windows 
and  Steps.  Three  Indians  pagans  arrived  from  the 
Judith  on  horseback,  sayed  they  were  going  over 
the  Mountain  to  the  Flathead  country  appeared  to 
be  in  a  great  hurey  could  get  no  news  from  them 
The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 

Fri.  26— Weather  clear  and  Warm  This  day  several  Indians 
arrived  from  the  Treaty^'^^  report  our  Waggons  on 
the  road  to  the  Fort,  found  the  horses  and  brought 
them  to  the  Fort     All  well 

Sat.  27 — Weather  clear  and  Warm  This  day  several  Blood 
Indians  arrived  report  their  Camp  coming  in  left 
them  this  side  of  Sipres  (Cypress)  Mountain  a  short 
distance — keep  the  horses  in  Kips  point — The  evening 
closes  with  fine  weather    All  well 

Sun.  28 — Weather  clear  and  Warm  wind  S.  W  This  day 
our  Waggons  arrived  One  Toung  (tongue)  brocken 
Several  Tents  of  Pagans  camped  at  the  Fort.  The 
evening  closes  with  fine  weather     All  well 

Men.  29 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  Several  bands  of  Pagans 
came  and  camped  at  the  Fort  traded  several  robes 
and  some  other  furs  One  horse  Mr  Owens  and 
one  of  the  Fathers^^^  arrived  from  the  Flat  head 
country,  The  evening  Closes  with  fine  Weather  All 

Tues.  30 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  This  Day  sent  after  a 
load  of  wood  Traded  some  fiew  robes  and  other 
furs  One  Horse  numbers  of  Pagans  around  the 
Fort — The  evening  Closes  with  fine  weather  All 


October   1856 

Wed.  1 — Weather  clear  and  Warm.  This  day  sent  Howard'^- 
with  Mr  Owens  man^"^^  to  Sun  river  to  bring  down  his 
furs,  Traded  several  Robes  with  the  North  Pagans, 
The  evening  closes  with  fine  weather    All  well 

Thurs.  2 — Weather  cloudy  Wind  Easterly  This  day  traded 
a  fiew  robes  with  the  North  Pagans  The  evening 
closes  with  cloudy  weather     All  well 

Fri.  3 — Weather  cloudey  wind  Easterly  traded  Two  or 
three  robes  with  the  North  Pagans  the  evening 
closes  with  Cool  weather  The  oposition's  wagons 
arrived  from  Milk  river  had  one  horse  stolen  by 
the  North  Assnaboins — 

Sat.  -1 — Weather  Cloudy  Wind  blowing  fresh  from  S.  W. 
The  Blood  Indian  Camp  reported  on  the  Missouri 
river  below  Mouth  Maria  river,  Several  Grovonts 
arrived,  The  Indians  crowding  around  the  Fort  The 
evening  closes  with  cold  cloudey  weather     All  well 

Sun.  5 — Weather  cloudey  and  Cold  Wind  blowing  fresh  The 
Fort  full  of  Indians     All  hands  unwell — 

Mon.  6 — Weather  commences  with  Warm  S  Easterley  breeses, 
Mr.  Owen  and  Chouquet  Started  to  meet  the  Boats 
The  Blackfeet  Camps  arrive  on  the  Teton  river  today 
Most  of  the  Children  about  the  Fort  unwell 

Tues.  7 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  This  day  Mr  Owen's 
packs  arrived  and  stored  Sent  his  horses  to  the 
Card  Say  Seventeen  plenty  of  Indians  about 
the  Fort.  The  evening  closes  with  cool  cloudey 
weather — 

Wed.  8 — Weather  cloudey  wind  Easterly  Fort  full  of  In- 
dians. Commenced  raining  at  two  P  M  weather 
cold — people  of  the  Fort  unwell — 
Thurs.  9 — Weather  clear  and  pleasant  Wind  blowing  fresh 
from  S.  W.  Boat  reported  close  Sent  the  horses 
below  on  the  Oposite  of  the  river  The  evening  Closes 
with  fine  weather     All  well 



October  1856. 

Fri.  10 — Weather  Clear  Wind  blowing-  very  fresh  from  S.  W. 
Boats  cloas  (close)  The  Fort  full  of  Indians  All 

Sat,  11 — Weather  Clear  an<i  Warm  wind  lig;ht  from  S.  W. 
The  Boats  landed  below  the  Island  and  descharged 
some  freight  came  on  and  Stoped  just  below  the 
Fort — about  Sun  down  will  descharge  in  the  morn- 
ing   All  well 

Sun.  12— Weather  Clear  and  Warm  Wind  S.  W.  This  day 
unloaed  (unloaded)  and  Stored  Goods     All  well 

Mon.  13 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  This  day  feasted  the 
Blood  Indians  they  held  a  Counsal  with  Mr  Dawson 
and  apeared  to  be  satisfied  with  the  keeping  of  the 
goods  belonging  to  the  Government  at  the  Fort, 
Traded  some  fiew  robes     All  well 

Tues.  14 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  Trading  robes  from  Bloods 
and  Blackfeet  put  up  Mr  Owens  equipment  and 
opened  some  of  the  goods     All  well 

Wed.  15 — Weather  Clear  and  Warm  Wind  blowing  fresh 
Trading  a  fiew  robes  with  Blackfeet  and  Bloods  still 
puting  up  Mr  Owens  Goods  and  opening  equipment 
All  well 

Thurs.  16— Weather  Cloudy  Wind  blowing  fresh  Trading 
robes  opening  equipment  Fort  full  of  Indians 
brought  the  horses  in  to  the  (Fort)  this  evening 
All  well 

Fri.  17 — Weather  Clear  Wind  blowing  fresh  from  S.  W. 
This  day  Mr  Owens  Started  with  his  equipment  for 
Bitter  Root  Valey  loaned  him  two  Waggons  and 
four  Yoke  of  Oxen  as  far  as  Sun  river  and  two  Men 
Fort  full  of  Indians  bloods  and  Blackfeet — buried  the 
Little  Dogs  brother     Cleaned  out  the  Fort     All  well 

Sat.  18 — Yesterday  started  two  men  on  Teton  to  make  Coal- 
Today  Burried  Calf  Robes  Woman  Indians  all  sick 
and  still  loafing  around  Fort    Hauled  1  load  wood 


October  1856. 

Sun.  19 — Snowed  all  day.  Nothing-  of  moment  passing.  In- 
tended to  commence  building  tomorrow  but  we  fear 
this  weather  will  stop  us. — 

Mon.  20 — Still  snowing  and  it  now  lies  on  the  ground  to  the 
depth  oi  \y2  feet.  Barely  able  to  get  one  small  load 
of  wood  hauled.  Unable  to  do  any  other  outdoor 

Tues.  21 — Another  days  incipant  Snow — Such  a  severe  and 
early  storm  was  never  known  before — One  small 
load  of  wood — Mechanics  doing  what  little  they  can 
without  fires  in  these  cold  times. 

Wed.  22 — Still  snowing  and  it  now  lays  on  the  Prarie  to  the 
depth  of  3  Feet.  Impossible  to  haul  even  an  empty 
Wagon.  Such  a  heavy  fall  of  Snow  is  unprecedented 
at  such  an  early  season.  Doled  the  men  and  others 
a  scant  supply  of  wood  from  the  roof  of  our  old  store. 

Thurs.  23 — Ceased  snowing  though  it  appears  to  want  to  renew 
again.  Commenced  cleaning  out  the  Fort  with  all 
hands. — 

Fri.  24 — Clear  but  very  cold.  Still  cleaning  away  at  Fort. 
One  of  our  Coal  burners  arrived  from  Teton  with  his 
foot  froze — Several  Warriors  we  hear  are  froze  to 

Sat.  25 — Another  heavy  fall  of  Snow  today — Cleaning  out  Fort 
and  thus  far  got  it  about  half  done  with — Impossible 
to  haul  wood — and  we  are  burning  up  our  old  W 
House — slowly,  but  I  fear  surely. — 

Sun.  26 — Clear  and  pretty  mild — An  Indian  woman  brought  to 
us  for  burial — Visited  Mr.  Picotte  of  the  opposition — 

Mon.  27 — Put  men  to  cleaning  Fort  and  hurrying  woman  for 
which  last  service  received  a  horse — No  meat  and 
no  wood  and  impossible  to  get  any  in  these  times. 
Altogether  we  are  pretty  much  tried. — 


October  1856. 

Tues.  28 — A  \e)ung-  warrior,  frozen,  ;uul  thrown  into  the  Fort 
today  by  his  friends  to  die — He  lays  in  the  Indian 
House  in  great  agony — Men  still  cleaning  u]:) — 

Wed.  29 — Men  finished  cleaning  fort  of  snow  but  now  it  is  such 
a  mud  puddle  as  was  never  before  seen — A  band  of 
Nez  perces  arrived  from  whom  traded  124  Deer  29 
Beaver  etc.  some  Bear  Skins  etc. — The  "Little  Grey 
Head  arrived  on  a  travois  he  says  to  die — but  we 
have  some  hopes  of  his  case. — Warrior  still  alive. — 

Thurs.  30 — A  few  more  Nez  Perces  arrived  from  whom  traded 
some  12  small  Beaver  and  a  few  deer  skins — Our 
sick  warrior  removed  to  Camp  and  notwithstanding 
all  his  belowing  has  some  chance  of  recovery.  Mr. 
Rose's  Sister  in  Law  died  in  the  Fort  last  night  and 
was  interred  today — Opposition  Boat  arrived. — 

Fri.  31 — Still  cold  disagreeable  times  a  very  little  trade  with 
the  Blood  Inds.  who  are  now  getting  well  of  their 
sickness  and  talk  of  moving  Camp  soon. 

November  1856 

Sat.  1 — Hauled  1  load  wood.  No  word  yet  of  our  men  who 
went  with  Owens  2  weeks  since.  Removing  goods 
and  planning  to  enable  us  to  pull  down  old  log 
store. — 

Sun.  2 — Still  cold  but  Snow  nearly  all  gone.  Bothered  con- 
siderably by  Blood  Indian  beggars — Traded  some  6 
or  7  Robes  from  them  and  one  horse. — 

Men.  3 — Set  Sleepers  and  baled  out  Boats  preparatory  to  haul- 
ing them  out — Hauled  2  Wagon  load  of  Coal  at  long 
last — Much  bothered  by  Blood  Indian  beggars,  but 
we  are  happy  to  say  they  have  now  raised  Camp  and 
but  very  few  remain. — 

Tues.  A — Attempted  to  haul  boats  out  but  our  Oxen  would 
not  help  us  as  wanted — and  we  did  not  succeed — Sent 


November  1856. 

after  other  Oxen  but  they  were  not  found — Hauled 
balance  of  our  Coal  Yz  a  load.  No  word  yet  of  our 
men  with  Owens — Opposition  House  started  a  band 
of  27  horses  for  below. — 

Wed.  5 — At  9  last  nig-ht  our  men  arrived  from  Mr.  Owens. 
They  have  had  a  severe  time  of  it  as  Mr.  O  writes — 
Three  of  his  Oxen  having  strayed  ofT  he  sent  one 
of  his  Wagons  here — Hauled  our  Boats  out — Snowed 
all  day  and  very  cold — We  never  felt  or  experienced 
such  times — Nothing  but  a  Rice  diet — 

Thurs.  6 — Hauled  two  loads  of  wood — and  had  men  to  fix  up  to 
start  in  the  morning  to  the  mountains 

Fri.  7 — Very  cold  and  Ice  so  thick  in  the  River  as  to  prevent 
our  getting  the  Oxen  from  other  side.  Late  in  the 
evening  Mr.  Monroes  youngest  boy  died. — 

Sat.  8 — Hauled  2  loads  wood  and  started  men  to  Teton  to 
burn  more  coal.  Too  much  Ice  for  our  Mountain 
trip  yet  however — A  little  milder  towards  evening. — 

Sun.  9 — Pretty  mild  and  no  more  Ice  in  the  River — Crossed 
two  Wagons  and  our  men  for  the  Mountains  who 
camp  on  other  side  and  will  start  in  the  morning — 

Men.  10 — Hauled  two  Wagon  load  of  firewood — Towards  noon 
5  horses  we  started  for  meat  on  the  4th  inst  got 
back  with  about  one  decent  load  in  all  scattered 
amongst  them — So  much  for  Ind  hunters 

Tues.  11 — Other  two  loads  wood — Mild  and  pleasant  day.  Sent 
again  four  horses  after  meat  this  time  with  Mr.  Rose's 
f-in  law — A  few  Blood  Indians  also  brought  us  a 
little  meat. — 

Wed.  12 — Revais  with  four  Gros  Ventres  arrived  for  other  Fort 
with  a  little  meat.  We  hear  by  them  that  all  the 
Gros  Ventres  have  plenty  Bufo.  but  are  prevented 
coming  with  meat  on  a/c  of  the  wetness  of  the  ground. 
Hauled  one  load  wood. 


November  1856. 

Thurs.  13 — Revais  (a  free  man!)  and  his  friends  started  back  to 
Camp.  Our  choppers  from  Coal  Pit  returned.  One 
load  wood — Cleaned  out  our  Fort. — 

Fri.  14 — Took  down  and  reset  some  Pickets  to  enable  us  to 
start  building,  which  we  now  have  some  prospect  of 
doing  on  Monday.  Mild  pleasant  weather  and  ground 
drying  fast.     Hauled  one  load  wood. — 

Sat.  15 — Rose's  F  in  Law  returned  with  our  four  horses  well 
loaded  with  meat.  Man  got  back  from  Coal  Pit  with 
Wagon.  Buried  Mr.  Monroes  little  boy — Very  pleas- 
ant weather. — 

Sun.  16 — Another  pleasant  day,  but  very  foggy  until  noon — 
Opposition  people  crossed  their  Wagons  intending 
we  suppose  to  send  to  the  Mountains. — 

Men.  17 — Again  foggy  but  cleared  away  towards  noon — Took 
down  our  old  Smoke  house  being  the  first  dobie  house 
evrry  (ever)  errected  in  this  Country  and  found  most 
of  the  Adobis  quite  sound.  Dug  foundation  for  a 
wall — 137  feet  long  which  we  are  in  hopes  of  getting 
through  with  before  the  winter  sets  fairly  in — Hauled 
one  load  wood.  Reed,  a  little  fresh  meat — Opposi- 
tion people  started  to  the  mountains 

Tues.  18 — Our  hunter  from  the  Mountains  arrived  with  meat 
of  8  deer.  Reports  too  much  Snow  there  yet  to  admit 
hauling  out  logs.  Started  our  Wall  and  raised  all 
round  1  foot  or  3  Rows. — One  load  wood. 

Wed.  19 — Cold  and  threatning  Snow.  Another  foot  of  Wall 
and  one  load  wood. — 

Thurs.  20 — Much  pleasanter  Hunter  returned  and  Choquette  and 
B.  Champaigne  accompanied  him  Indians  in  our 
vicinity  raised  Camp  thank  god  Calfs  Robe,  Blood 
Ind  died  and  was  brought  to  us  for  burial — Another 
foot  of  wall. — 


November  1856. 

Fri.  21 — Sent  with  Lame  Bull  and  Rising  Head  6  Horses  to 
Camp  for  a  little  meat.  Opposition  3  Wagons  arrived 
with  Logs  from  Mountains — Another  foot  of  wall 
and  one  load  wood. — 

Sat.  22 — Two  Indians  arrived  from  Peigan  Camp  with  4  Robes 
3  Beaver  and  some  meat.  Slight  Snow  all  day,  which 
interrupted  our  building  Two  loads  wood,  and  raised 
flooring  of  old  store — 

Sun.  23 — Continued  snowing  and  very  cold.  Mr.  C's  Bro  in 
Law  arrived  for  the  lOOth  time  and  much  to  our  an- 
noyance, as  we  find  his  visits  expensive — 

Men.  24 — Ther.  5°  below  zero,  decidedly  too  cold  for  build- 
ing— Fixed  up  about  Fort  a  little  and  hauled  two 
loads  wood. — 

Tues.  25 — A  party  of  Flatheads  arrived  from  whom  traded  some 
deer  and  Beaver  Skins — Our  men  also  returned  from 
Mountains  and  though  they  have  chopped  all  they 
were  sent  for  they  report  too  much  snow  to  get  them 
out.     They  bring  in  only  six  logs. 

Wed.  26 — Mr.  C's  B  in  Law  started  back  with  a  loaned  horse — 
Two  traders — Feigans — arrived  with  some  meat — 
pulled  down  our  old  store — 

Thurs.  27 — Mr.  Dawsons  Comrade  arrived  with  a  lot  of  meat. 
Milder  than  for  sometime  &  again  started  at  our 
wall — Two  loads  wood. 

Fri.  28 — Again  very  cold  but  persevered  with  our  building — 
Skunk  arrived  with  a  fine  lot  of  meat — 2  loads  wood. — 

Sat.  29 — Another  Cold  day — Ther  at  10  all  day — kept  on  with 
our  Wall.  Some  8  Peigan  Traders  arrived  with  meat. 
Skunk  started  back — 2  loads  wood — 

Sun.  30 — Very  cold — River  closed  and  Peigans  unable  to  cross 
back — Traded  a  good  lot  of  meat  from  them 
See  new  book  for  1st  December,  1856 





Repi-oduced  through  the  courtesy  of  Houg-hton,  Mifflin  Company. 



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Journal  No.  5,  January  1,  1855 

January  1855 

Mon.  1 — Here  we  have  a  New  Year  upon  us  God  grant  that 
it  may  be  a  prosperous  one.  Not  only  to  the  Natives 
of  the  prairies,  but  the  White  men  that  are  in  this 
country,  as  also  all  others 

Our  little  band  of  Brothers  are  celebrating  the  day 
with  a  vengeance.  They  are  cooped  up  in  the  fort 
waiting  for  the  Dove's  heads  party  to  start  &  be 
killed  &  scalped  by  the  Sioux.  Six^^s  fondly  hopes 
that  something  dreadfull  will  befall  them  As  long 
as  they  are  in  the  Fort  the  Boy's  cannot  Feast 

Moakes^-*'^  has  come  with  his  pans  for  a  feast  for 
the  Boys,  he  says  the  last  of  the  Hounds  has  dis- 
sapeared  but  he  wont  commence  cooking  untill  such 
time  as  he  thinks  they  have  put  good  six  miles  be- 
tween themselves  &  Fort  Sarpy  Six  asserts  that  a 
Crow  can  smell  cofife  five  miles,  wind  fair  or  foul  A 
band  of  Buflo  came  in  the  prairie  but  we  could  get 
no  chance  for  a  shot  the  Crows  run  them  ofif,  who- 
ever heard  of  Fly  time  this  season  of  the  year. 

The  Crow  Nation  are  a  singular  set  of  people. 
Col.  Vaughn  told  them  to  stay  at  home  «&  not  trouble 
the  Sioux  without  they  had  provocation  for  so  doing 
which  they  pledged  themselves  to  do  &  now  look  at 
their  actions,  the  Sioux  have  kept  away  from  them 
so  far  and  the  probability  is  that  thier  intentions  is 
to  let  the  Crows  alone,  but  the  dogs  are  not  satisfied, 
they  must  hunt  them  up,  if  they  do  meet  with  the 
Sioux  my  wish  is  that  the  Crows  may  get  a  genteel 
drubbing  one  they  will  remember.  At  this  present 
time  they  are  one  hundred  Lodges  of  Crows  camped 
a  short  distance  above  the  Fort,  &  should  they  happen 
to  see  tracks  of  three  Sioux  in  the  vicinity  of  their 
camp,   nothing   could    prevent   thier   nmning   to   the 


January  1855. 

mountains,  they  fear  the  Sioux  so  much,  last  Winter 
they  run  from  us,  &  seen  no  tracks  "Oh  the  "Cow- 
ardly*' dogs 

A  cold  day  Still  suffering  with  the  rheumatism.  I 
have  no  chance  to  bathe  or  rub  the  place  is  to  small 
Scarcely  room  to  breathe,  for  Indians 

Tues.  2 — After  the  warriors  took  thier  departure  yesterday  & 
the  Boys  pretty  well  satisfied  with  themselves  & 
every  one  else  with  the  good  cheer  they  had  partaken 
commenced  looking  around  for  their  personal  effects, 
"When"  lo  &  behold  it  appeared  that  each  &  every 
one  of  them  had  unknowingly  a  substitute  on  the 
War  path  One's  Blanket  being  martialy  disposed 
had  trotted  off  in  quest  of  the  Sioux  Another's  Coat 
concluded  to  cover  the  shoulders  of  a  "Brave.  Big 
Six's^^^  Comb  was  under  the  impression  that  a  richer 
trapping  ground  could  be  found  elsewhere,  his  to- 
bacco had  no  idea  of  being  Smoked  in  a  white  clay 
pipe  by  a  Virginian  when  the  Natives  carried  large 
red  stone  pipes  with  stems  three  feet  long  &  dearly 
loved  the  weed,  a  parr  flesh^-^^  trotted  off  to  look 
after  the  mocasins  tin  cups  &  Knifes  Eloped  two 
Wolf  Skin  of  Valles  Vamosed  the  Ranche  &  your 
humble  Servants  Shirt  cut  stick  &  put  off  to  the  wars 
the  war  party  returned  the  cold  weather  put  a  damper 
on  the  red  "Sons  of  Mars,"  but  cold  had  no  efect  on 
the  representatives  of  F.  Sarpy  they  still  kept  on  the 
war  path,  if  not  they  certainly  would  have  returned. 
On  interrogating  the  Crows  about  each  of  thier  rep- 
resentatives, it  appall'd  the  Boys  to  hear  that  the 
Warriors  knew  nothing  of  the  Absconding  parties 
from  F.  Sarpy,  the  Boys  are  in  despair  they  are 
alarmed  for  the  safety  of  Brigadier  Coat.  Col  Blanket, 
Sergeant  Comb.  Corporal  Mug  &  the  rank,  in  No  3 
Bug  row  surmises  &  suspicions  are  rife.  Big  Six  is 
inflated  with  wonder  Some  times  he  thinks  they 
have  been  cut  off  the  Lout   (?),  rank  &  file     Again 


January  1855. 

he  thinks  the  Crows  have  overpow  them  &  taken 
prisoners  of  the  whole  party  At  times  a  glorious 
smile  flits  over  his  face  &  then  how  his  noble  coun- 
tenance glows  with  delight  the  Bloom  on  his  peach 
like  cheek,  he  jumps  up  &  with  a  knowing  wink  says 
we  will  get  them  all  back  it  is  only  a  trick  played  on 
us  by  the  young  bucks  The  devil  take  all  such  trick 
Say  I  The  last  few  days  has  been  very  cold  the 
river  full  of  floating  ice.  I  think  it  will  close  tonight. 
So  far  we  have  had  no  Snow  &  but  a  few  cold  days 
(Query)  What  has  come  over  Murrell^^^^  he  is  much 
colder  than  the  weather.  I  look  back  &  for  the  life 
of  me  I  can  see  no  cause  on  my  part  in  what  manner 
I  have  offended  him.  I  know  not.  Neither  am  I 
going  to  puzzle  myself  to  solve  the  mystery.  I  care 
not  So  far  I  have  pursued  a  strait  forward  course  & 
in  what  manner  I  have  offended  him  if  offence  they 
are — let  it  go  at  that  I  am  confidant  that  the  course 
I  am  pursueing  were  it  known  to  C.  &  D.^^^  would 
meet  thier  approbation 

Wed.  3 — As  I  predicted  yesterday  the  river  has  closed  up 
offering  a  good  bridge  for  crossing  Our  Noble  Crow 
Warriors  have  taken  their  departure.  Peace  be  with 
them  if  I  never  set  eyes  on  their  ugly  carcases  again 
I  shall  not  think  the  time  long. 

"What  noise  is  that  in  Ethiopia,  has  some  rascally 
savage  maltreated  the  Ethiop  or  his  wife.  I  will  step 
over  &  find  what  ocasions  those  sobs  of  distress.  I 
did  &  a  heart  rending  spectacle  did  I  witness.  A 
Husband  bereft  of  his  wife.  "Oh  "Shades  of"  Africa 
poor  Widowed  husband.  A  wife  torn  from  his  bosom, 
not  by  "death,  but  worse  far  worse  by  "Bucks  Young 
Crow  Bucks  At  that  the  worse  possible  kind  of 
bucks  .  .  .  (Several  lines  are  deleted  here,  being  too 
obscene  to  print.)  .  .  .  Big  Six  disinterested  good 
soul  that  he  is,  is  doing  all  that  lays  in  his  power  to 
console  the  Bereaved  husband  quoting  Scripture  to 


January  1855. 

Mosei-'^-  to  prove  that  his  affhctions  are  for  the  best 
"Oh  Six  you  do  not  how  I  loved  that  woman  I 
have  worked  for  her  cook'd  for  her  wash'd  for  her, 
done  every  thing  mortal  could  do,  but  no  it  wont  do 
Six  sugested  that  perhaps  his  color  did  not  suit  Mose 
Became  indignant  &  replied  that  he  was  lighter  than 
an  Indian,  if  I  was  not  says  he  could  I  get  as  light 
a  child  as  that  "Oh  says  Six  doubts  exist  about 
your  being  the  Father  of  that  child,  where  is  the 
kinks  I  can  see  none  the  child's  hair  is  straight  & 
your  hair  is  wool,  dont  say  so  Six  dont  trifle  with 
the  feelings  of  a  man  in  misfortune  &  that,  a  man 
the  same  as  yourself  away  from  "Old  Virginny  tis 
true  say  Six  that  I  have  a  warmer  feeling  for  Vir- 
ginians than  any  others  providing  their  Hair  is 
straight  but  let  me  sing  you  a  song 

They  stole  my  wife  away 

I  hear  a  voice  upon  the  Hill 

Me'  thinks  I  hear  it  still 

They  stole  they  stole  Mose  Squaw  away 

get  out  of  my  house  big  Six  &  dont  come  here  again 
Mr.  Meldrom^^^  (jo^t  make  fun  of  me  &  you  shant 
White  folks  have  no  feelings  for  a  man  of  color  or 
big  Six  &  Tetreaui54  would  not  all  the  time  be  singing 
where  you  gwine  I  am  gwine  down  thar  "Oh  "Mr. 
Meldrom  for  God  Almighty's  Sake  tell  me  how  I 
can  get  her.  take  ten  dollars  &  jump  on  that  horse 
you  can  catch  her.  "Oh  "My  "Wife  "My  Wife, 
bring  her  back  &  I  will  do  any  thing  for  you  I  will 
wash  all  winter  for  you  &  charge  you  nothing  just 
bring  her  back  to  me  that  is  all  I  want.  Mose  I 
would  not  go  for  a  hundred  dollars  well  I'll  go,  you 
had  better  not  if  you  want  to  save  your  wool  says  I. 
You  certainly  are  not  going  to  run  after  the  Slut  & 
make  her  come  in  the  Fort,  &  live  with  her  on  the 
same  terms  as  heretofore  No  indeed  Sir  I  am  done 
with  her  God  knows,     Why  I  would  be  worse  than 


January  1855. 

a  dog  if  I  would  do  so.  She  shows  plainly  she  likes 
Indians  better  than  whites  or  she  would  of  remained 
in  the  Fort  No  Sir  I's  done  I  washes  my  hands 
clar  of  the  Strumpet.  "Oh  I'se  gwine  down  thar 
some  time  during  the  night  Major  Mosier^^^  call'd 
me  I  went  out  there  was  Mose  reading  or  rather 
shouting  a  passage  in  the  new  Testament  In  those 
days  came  John  the  Baptist  preaching  in  the  Wilder- 
ness, &c.  presently  our  ears  were  assailed  with  a 
very  unmusical  voice  singing  "Oh  then  we  will  be 
joy  full  &c. 

Thurs.  4 — Mose  comes  in  to  the  Majors  the  Major  being  a  kind 
hearted  man  asked  Mose  how  he  passed  the  night 
Oh  Mr.  Mosier  I  did  not  pass  it  at  all  but  kept  reading 
the  testament  &  singing  hymns  the  whole  during 
night  thinking  that  reading  the  Scripture  would  settle 
my  mind  but  it  had  no  effect  I  want  my  wife  &  if 
Mr.  Meldrom  dont  get  her  for  me  I  will  go  &  live 
with  the  Indians 

Fri.  5 — A  very  cold  day  large  bands  of  Bufiflo  on  the  op- 
posite side  of  the  river.  Valle  Lamarche  &  all  hands 
out  on  a  hunt  Valle  approached  &  kill'd  one  cow 
Faillant^^^  at  the  report  of  the  gun  took  after  the 
Band  on  foot  fired  in  the  band  some  five  or  six  shots 
without  effecting  a  wound  of  all  the  fools  I  have 
ever  seen  Faillant  bangs  all 

Sat.  6 — A  fine  day  Hunters  out  Valle  kill'd  three  cows  two 
Indians  arrive  from  camp  report  both  camps  running 
Bufflo.  Mose  could  stand  it  no  longer  fill'd  both 
pockets  with  sugar  &  cofifee  &  along  with  Mr. 
Pumpkins' ^'^  started  to  the  camp,  he  says  that  he 
will  have  his  wife  or  Blood 

Sun.  7 — A  pleasant  day  Men  stayed  at  home  as  good  chris- 
tians should  Mose  arrived  with  his  amiable  lady  as 
also  a  delegation  of  Crows  from  both  camps 


January  1855. 

Mon.  8 — The  Aniversary  of  the  battle  of  N.  Orleans  Our  men 
celebrated  the  day  by  pulling  bark  for  the  horses 
Pumpkins  arrived  as  also  those  inveterate  loafers 
Ebey  &  Brothers.  What  under  the  sun  can  induce 
Mr.  M.  to  treat  those  Dogs  so  well,  I  cannot  concieve 
that  hound  Ebey,  came  with  us  from  F.  U.  his  wife 
&  two  brats  were  hauled  up  in  the  boat  a  good  place 
in  the  boat  was  found  for  them  to  sleep  in  coflFe  & 
Bread  furnished  them  three  times  a  day  whilst  the 
poor  white  slaves  that  dragged  the  heavy  boat  had 
neither  bread  nor  coffee  nor  a  place  to  crawl  for 
shelter,  in  case  of  rain  during  the  night  the  Indians 
were  snugly  stowed  away  in  the  Barge  &  the  poor 
devils  of  Whites  laying  out  beneath  the  shelter  of 
the  canopy  of  Heaven  taken  what  cheer  providence 
&  Mr.  Meldrom  gave  them  without  a  murmur  of 
dissatisfaction,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  Benedic- 
tions on  the  devoted  head  of  Mr.  M.  something  similar 
to  "Sacre  Foin  Gass  &c.  When  the  boat  arrived  at 
Fort  Sarpy  Col  Vaughan  wished  to  send  for  the 
Indians  I  wanted  some  person  along  better  ac- 
quainted with  the  region  of  the  country  that  I  was 
to  search  than  myself  Col  V  offered  Ebey  an  enor- 
mous price  to  accompany  me  but  the  cowardly  dog 
would  not  go  under  any  consideration  on  my  return 
I  found  the  gentleman  in  the  fort  eating  Bread  & 
drinking  coffee,  he  had  grown  to  be  such  a  con- 
sequential person  that  his  squaw  could  not  go  to  the 
river  for  water  Mr.  Mosier  Superintendant  of  the 
Culinary  department  of  F.  Sarpy  had  to  furnish  the 
lady  with  water    Four  Dances  &  squad  departed 

Tues.  9 — A  fine  day  the  loafers  feasting  Bill  of  Fare  Fort 
Sarpy  Indian  table  Fresh  Meat  Boiled  to  be  eaten 
with  depouille^^^  it  makes  no  odds  how  fat  the  meat 
is  the  cold  depouille  if  not  given  is  called  for.  Coffee 
Hotel  Sarpy  gives  no  dinner,  in  lieu  of  which  a  rich 
dessert  of  sugar  &  Bull  Berries  is  given  about  12  M 


January  1855. 

Supper  Fat  meat  &  coffee  Sometime  in  the  night 
say  nine  O'clock  they  have  either  Rice  &  sugar  Berries 
&  sugar  or  pancakes  &  molasses  these  have  been  the 
edibles  that  have  been  daily  &  nightly  spread  before 
the  patrons  of  Hotel  &  their  name  is  Legion  they 
are  all  comfortable  bedded  robes  in  abundance  given 
them  to  sleer)  on,  &  ocasionly  some  are  missing  in 
the  morning 

Wed.  10 — Bear's  Heads^"*^  &  Gordon's  camps  came  in.  Oh 
what  a  prodigal  waste  of  everything 

Thurs.  11 — Fort  full  of  boarders.  Regulars  every  Mothers  son  of 
them  never  miss  a  meal  nor  pay  a  cent  the  Land- 
lord of  Hotel  Sarpy  gives  nine  days  for  a  week  & 
takes  trust  for  pay  &  if  he  is  not  doing  a  Hog  Killing 
buisiness  you  can  take  my  Hat 

Fri.  12 — I  should  call  this  a  dull  day  if  the  fort  was  not  so 
crowded  with  loafers  no  trade  going  on  but  lots 
of   grubbing 

Sat.  13 — hardly    room    to   breathe,    Oh    you    "pests 

Sun.  14 — A  dull  day  as  regards  trade  but  lively  in  other  re- 
spects. Gordon's  camp  treated  us  to  a  Scalp  & 
Squaw  dance,  the  roofs  of  the  houses  were  covered 
with  the  natives  witnessing  the  performance,  the 
Trophies  taken  in  the  battle,  a  full  description  of 
which  I  gave  in  No.  4  were  exhibited  as  also  the 
eight  scalps  taken  in  Gordon's  fight  with  the  Black 
Feet  On  the  whole  it  was  rather  a  fine  display  & 
pleased  Mr.  Meldrom  greatly.  A  cool  Fifty  came 
out  of  the  pockets  of  P.  C.  sr  &  Co.i^o  foj-  ^]^^^ 
dance — rather  a  costly  affair. 

Men.  15 — Bears  Head  seeing  that  the  other  camp  got  so  well 
jiaid  for  shaking  the  light  fantastic  toe  came  & 
gave  us  a  specimen  of  his  Camp's  Terphiscorean  Art, 
but  had  to  call  in  requisition  Princess  May  &  her 
Bosom    Friend   &   Maid   of  Honor   "E   "See   "Tah — 



January  1855. 

Those  ladies  from  the  Fort  were  the  observed  of 
all  observers  the  Princess  led  the  van  &  made  but 
two  or  three  circles  in  the  yard  of  the  Fort  when 
she  placed  her  divine  foot  in  something  of  a  dark 
brown  substance  that  emitted  an  odor  like  anything 
but  the  Otto  of  roses.  May  blushed  or  as  good 
tryed  to  blush  her  Lord  &  Husband  was  cast  down, 
the  Squaws  sighed  the  Bucks  laughed  &  Big  Six 
Shame  on  him,  bellowed  out  May  tramped  on  a 
green  tird,  however  the  miss  step  broke  the  Ball 
thus  depriving  the  Princess  of  bringing  out  her 
powers  of  fascinaton  before  her  loving  subjects. 

Tues.  16 — An  unpleasant  day  Mr.  M  has  an  idea  of  sending 
over  the  Mountains  My  being  indisposed  prevents 
me  from  being  one  of  the  party 

Wed.  17 — A  fine  day  A  few  robes  come  in  but  thrice  the  value 
goes  out 

Thurs.  18 — A  fine  day  Faillant  refuses  to  go  to  hunt  the  Crows 
I  wish  you  had  me  to  deal  with  you  good  for  nothing 
whelp  you  would  go  or  get  kicked  out  of  doors  Valle 
&  Stoupe  making  preparations  to  start  for  the  Moun- 
tain Camps 

Fri.  19 — A  few  Crows  came  from  Tongue  river  where  they 
had  been  hunting  Elk  report  that  they  were  chaced 
by  a  large  party  of  Sioux.  Gordon  moved  camp  He 
is  now  in  the  first  point  of  timber  above  the  Fort 
Bears  Head  still  opposite  to  us 

Sat.  20 — last  night  a  heavy  snow  storm  the  first  of  any  im- 
portance this  winter  A  large  part  of  Crows  started 
in  pursuit  of  the  Sioux  returned  with  the  intelligence 
important  to  us  that  the  Enemy  were  not  Sioux 
but  Blackfeet 

Sun.  21— Winter  has  come  at  last  A  bitter  cold  day  Indians 
out  on  discovery  returned  report  no  BufTaloa  close 
My  pen  refuses  to  write  what  is  to  come    Oh  the 


January  1855. 

ways  of  this  wicked  world,  thou  Vile  Seducer  man 
could  you  not  of  spared  "Her.  Oh  Frailty  thy  name 
is  Women.  What  shall  I  utter  those  damning  words 
the    Princess    has    fallen    aye    fallen     the    Seducers 

tongue  was  too  much  for  her 

(Remainder  of  paragraph  deleted.  Too  obscene  to 

Goods   Fort   Men   &   trade    the   Boss 

was  merely  her  substitute 

..the  Other  Men  in  the  Fort  she  call'd 

her  slaves.    I  gave  the  lady  once  a  private 

kicking  for  calling  men  her  slaves,  whether  she  told 
her  Buck  or  not  I  do  not  know  if  she  did  he  took  it 
kindlv.  for  I  heard  no  more  of  it 

Men.  22 — I  find  this  morning  that  Murell  not  being  satisfied 
with  one  whore  house  has  converted  the  Store  in  to 
another  this  wont  do.  I  must  tell  my  Employers 
lock  a  Buck  &  Bitch  in  the  Store  all  night  the  goods 
all  open,  the  Fort  full  of  Indians  the  windows  of  the 
Stores  hasped  on  the  inside  they  can  easily  pass 
what  goods  they  like  out,  this  is  the  first  ofifense  of 
the  kind  that  I  have  known  him  guilty  of  but  Mr. 
Lamarche  says  that  the  like  is  done  often  to  his 

Tues.  23—1  find  this  morning  that  Murrell  took  to  himself 
another  wife  last  night  A  dirty  little  lousy  slut  that 
was  ofifer'd  to  me  last  fall.  I  enquired  of  her  Mother 
what  she  reed  for  her  she  told  me  One  Horse  one 
Gun  one  chief's  coat  one  N  W  Blkt.  one  Indg  B. 
Blkt  two  shirts  one  pr  leggings,  six  &  half  yds  Bed 
ticking  one  hundred  loads  Ammunition  twenty 
Bunches  W  Beads  ten  large  Plugs  Tobaco  &  some 
sugar  coffe  Flour  &c.  Oh  says  the  Old  Crone  I  am 
rich  now.  I  am  a  chief  for  all  this  not  one  single 
copper  is  charged  to  his  a/c.    An  honest  man.    The 


January  1855. 

new  Madam  gave  her  coronation  Feast  it  was  well 
attended    lots  of  Grubbers. 

Wed.  24 — The  new  Madam  out  in  her  finery  A  Scarlet  dress 
with  Six  Hundred  Elk  teeth  Murrell  traded  four 
hundred  Elk  teeth  for  one  Bunch  containing  two 
hundred  for  which  he  paid  an  In.  Blue  Blkt  for  I 
offered  him  twenty  dollars  cash  he  refused  &  said 
he  wanted  them  to  give  to  his  squaw.  So  P.  C  jr  & 
Co  loses  a  cool  twenty  by  that  opperation.  Murrell's 
Mother  in  Law  Wolf  Skin  as  the  Boys  call  her  has 
put  up  a  lodge  in  the  Fort.  P.  C  &  Co  has  another 
family  to  clothe  &  feed  at  their  Expense 
Fort  full  of  Indians  filling  their  guts  &  receiving 
presents,  a  warm  day. 

Thurs.  25 — robes  come  in  tolerable  brisk  I  see  Mr.  M  dont  want 
me  in  the  store  whilst  trading  I  suppose  I  know  too 
much  of  the  Crow  language  to  suit  his  way  of  trade. 
Another  pair  slept  in  the  store  last  night 

Fri.  26 — A  disagreeable  day  raining  trade  tolerable  brisk. 
W^iat  a  waste  of  goods 

Sat.  27 — Gordon's  camp  moved  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river  we  have  now  in  the  Store  one  hundred  & 
sixty  packs  of  robes  but  they  have  took  all  of  our 
Original  Stock  of  goods  to  get  them,  if  it  was  not 
for  the  Slack  I  do  not  know  what  would  become  of 
Murrell,  his  whole  equipment  gone  &  the  above 
number  of  packs  the  returns  his  resources  not 
equivalent  to  his  liabilities 

Sun.  28 — Bears  Head  camp  moved  on  Emmells  creek^^i  a 
short  distance  ofT  Bufflos  plenty 

Men.  29 — A  great  many  Indians  in  the  Fort  today  Gordon's 
camp  split  those  that  had  robes  to  dress  cross'd  & 
ioin'd  Bears  Head  the  others  moved  up  the  river. 
Rotten  Hand  Brot  me  a  splendid  Otter  quiver,  I 
wanted   it   for   Mr.    Dening  &  was   about  getting  it 


January  1855. 

when  Murrell  came  along  &  traded  it  at  an  enormous 
price  I  told  him  who  I  wanted  it  for  says  he  I  want 
it  for  Col  Vaughan  Mr.  Dening^'^^  jg  poor  pay  he 
pays  in  paper  &  the  Col  pays  in  whiskey  he  has 
now  for  Col  Vaughan  stuffed  three  Big  Horns  one 
he  paid  Valle  ten  dollars  the  other  two  cost  the 
price  of  four  robes  each    All  without  charge 

Tues.  30 — no  Indians  in  the  fort  commenced  making  packs. 
Caught  the  new  Madam  stealing  sugar  caught  her 
by  the  arm  &  showed  her  the  door  she  went  off 

Wed.  31 — Cold  day  made  a  few  packs  too  cold  to  work.  Men 
got  Fire  wood. 

February  1855 

Thurs.  1 — A  beautiful  day    made  a  few^  packs 

Fri.   2 — Nothing  worthy  of  recording 

Sat.   3 — Cleaned  up  store  &  ware  house 

Sun.  A — A  party  of  Crows  arrived  from  Knot  on  the  Hands 
camp  report  that  Traders  from  the  Platte  has  been 
with  them  all  Winter  the  Sioux  Friendly  with  the 
Crows  they  know  nothing  of  the  other  Bands  Knot 
on  the  Hand  is  moving  down  Tongue  river  &  will 
be  in  this  spring  early 

Men.  5 — Nothing  transpired  of  note 

Tues.  6^Tetereau  Valle  Faillant  &  Squaw  left  for  Ft  Union. 
As  also  the  party  from  Knot  on  the  Hand's  camp 

Wed.  7 — the  Ice  broke  in  the  river  opposite  the  Fort  Above 
the  ice  is  still  firm 

Thurs.  8 — Some  Crows  came  from  Bears  Heads  camp  Brot  a 
little  meat  &  a  few  Tongues  Most  of  the  Meat  after 
trading  it  goes  to  Old  Wolf  Skins  lodge  her  &  her 
Brats  must  have  good  Fat  Meat  to  Eat  &  the  men 


Reproduced  from  the  4<ith  annual  report.  T. 
Buieau  of  American    lOthnolosy. 


February  1855. 

poor  dry  meat  without  Fat  poor  as  I  am  I  would 
freely  give  one  hundred  dollars  to  see  Mr.  Culbert- 
son  in  Fort  Sarpy  Forty  Eight  hours  just  to  strait 
up  matters  &  things  at  Fort  Sarpy 

Fri.  9 — Mr.  Meldrom  left  for  the  camp  he  told  me  he  was 
going  for  meat  yes  it  is  meat  but  it  is  squaw  meat 
&  Mag's  meat  at  that  since  she  has  been  gone  he 
has  acted  more  like  a  crazy  man  than  one  posses'd 
of  sanity 

Sat.  10 — Five  young  Bucks  arrived  from  above  being  part  of 
Sets  every  way's  party  that  turned  back,  how  the 
new  Queen  did  try  to  show  off  her  title.  Her  Majesty 
told,  or  rather  ordered  the  cook  to  provide  cofTe  & 
Berries  for  them  I  devilish  soon  countermanded  the 
order  &  gave  her  to  understand  that  for  the  time 
being  I  reigned  in  Fort  Sarpy 

Sun.  11 — Mr.  Meldrom  arrived  &  as  I  predicted  Brot  Miss 
Mag  &  some  Crows  with  a  few  Tongues  &  a  little 
meat  However  the  meat  done  us  no  good  it  all 
went  into  Wolf  Skin's  lodge,  the  Old  Bitch  reported 
me  to  the  Boss  for  not  obeying  her  daughter's  orders 
As  a  sensible  man  he  said  nothing  to  me  Mr  M 
says  that  twelve  Horses  were  stolen  from  the  Crows 
by  Assinaboins.    Showery  day 

Mon.  12 — the  Indians  that  came  with  Mr  M  left  loaded  down 
with  goods.  When  is  this  profuse  waste  going  to 
end  I  have  never  seen  any  thing  to  equal  it  More 
Indians  arrived 

Tues.  13— River  broke  leaving  Four  Dances  High  Pumpkins^*'-'^ 
&  several  more  Crows  here  A  Squaw  &  Buck  Brot 
two  young  calves  &  two  ribs  to  trade  for  which  two 
pr  leggings  two  shirts  six  yds  calico  Ninety  strands 
Beads  &  ten  plugs  Tobaco  were  given  in  exchange 
pretty  well  paid  for  when  you  take  in  to  considera- 
tion the  meat  cofTe  &  sugar  eaten  bv  them   during 


February  1855. 

a  week's  stay    I  am  duty   Bound  to   report  matters 
it  is  my  duty 

Wed.  14 — St  Valentines  day    Fort  full  of   Loafers 

Thurs.  15 — Four  Dances  &  Squad  took  their  departure  &  came 
near  taking  every  thing  in  the  store  with  them  from 
what  I  can  see  goods  cost  nothing  no  Indian  is  re- 
fused give  me  what  you  like  &  take  what  you  want 
is  the  motto  of  Ft  Sarpy 

Fri.  16— Five  or  six  Crows  came  Brot  a  few  robes 

Sat.  17 — Indians  to  &  from  the  camp  got  a  few  robes 

Sun.  18 — Our  men  headed  by  that  renowned  Hunter  & 
Voyager  Bix  Six  started  on  a  hunt  returned  Killing 
a — Nothing 

Men.  19 — rather  a  dull  day    nothing  stirring 

Tues.  20 — Birth  day  of  the  Imortal  Bix  Six  &  one  of  the  coldest 
days  of  the  season 

Wed.  21 — Sent  Lamarche  &  two  men  on  Tongue  river  for  a 
horse  we  had  secreted  in  cache  returned  with  the 

Thurs.  22 — Birth  day  of  the  Father  of  our  country  Six  says  that 
he  came  very  near  being  born  on  Washington's 
Birthday  but  his  Mother  was  in  too  great  a  hurry 
&  I  dont  blame  her  for  trying  to  get  rid  of  him  as 
soon  as  possible,  for  if  he  was  as  much  in  her  way 
as  he  is  a  nuisance  to  others  here  the  sooner  she 
was  clear  of  him  the  better.  Coflfe  &  meat  for  eight 
Brats  that  have  just  arrived 

Fri.  23 — A  cold  day    Fort  full  of  grubliers 

Sat.   24 — Mrs.  M  the  Second  is  in  a  sad  situation 

(Several  lines  of  this  paragraph   deleted.    Obscene. 
Adds  nothing  to  the  context.)  

Doct  Long  Elk^''"*  has  taken  the  case 


February  1855. 

in  hand  his  first  fee  one  Gun  one  Blkt  shirt  leggings 
Brass  Kettle  Tobaco  &c.  what  his  second  will  be 
time  will  tell 

Sun.  25 — Fort  full  of  loafers  Feasting  &  lounging  in  the  houses 
Every  pan  plate  &  cup  is  Brot  in  requisition  three 
or  four  times  a  day  to  feast  Brats  &  Whores  Boys 
&  Squaws  are  the  favorites  but  few  men  of  note 
get  fed.  the  Horse  Guard^^^  has  but  three  cups  of 
cofifee  this  winter  &  them  I  gave  him  he  is  a  Chief 
&  leads  a  camp  of  Fifty  Lodges 

Men.  26 — Fort  full  of  loafers    cold  day 

Tues.  27 — Bears  Heads  camp  sixty  lodges  arrived  &  camped 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  Mr  Bad  Shape  & 
family  put  up  in  the  Fort  his  calculation  is  to  re- 
main &  go  down  in  the  Boats  &  send  his  horses  by 
the  white  men  they  go  down  woth  the  Company's 
horses  the  danger  of  a  trip  to  F  LTnion  is  too  great 
for  an  Indian  to  perform  if  an  Indian  would  get 
kill'd  it  would  be  dreadfull  but  a  white  man  or  two 
that  is  nothing  so  Murrell  thinks 

Wed.  28 — Indians  out  hunting  returned  with  plenty  meat  Fort 
full  of  Loafers  &  whores  Doct  Long  Elk  has  call'd 
in  the  professional  services  of  Doct  Fool  to  assist 
him  Doct  Fools  first  fee  one  three  point  W  Blkt 
one  shirt  one  pr  leggins  Tobaco  Knife  &  Ammuni- 

March  1855 

Thurs.  1 — Nothing  worth  note  with  the  exception  of  Drs. 
Long  Elk  &  Fool  had  each  a  squaw  in  the  store 
last  night 

Fri.  2 — trade  tolerable  lively  Indians  speak  of  leaving  us 
shortly  the  sooner  the  better  for  I  have  never  seen 
Indians  completely  spoil'd  untill  now  Princess  Mag 
slipt  the  cable  last  night    I  was  at  the  gate  putting 


March  1855. 

the  Indians  out  for  the  night  when  she  started  I 
Halloed  &  asked  her  if  she  was  coming  back  that 
I  was  going  to  lock  up  No  says  she  I  have  had 
enough  &  got  enough  out  of  that  old  fool  dog 
"Sap-Kat  "A  Hook  that  was  true,  for  what  she 
wanted  for  herself  to  gamble  or  give  she  had 

Sat.  3 — Murrell  looks  cast  down  I  cannot  simpathise  with 
him  of  the  two  Mag  is  the  better.  Oh  what  a  night 
I  would  put  the  Indians  ou.t  of  the  gate,  they  would 
climb  the  pickets  come  in  put  them  out  again  the 
Old  Man  stormed  the  Indians  laughed  and  made 
sport  of  him.  I  went  ofif  to  bed  &  left  them  to  settle 
it  among  thier  selves  the  indians  have  never  troubled 
me,  in  fact  take  the  Crows  in  the  right  way  &  they 
are  good  people  but  to  coax  &  pay  a  Crow  to  go 
out  of  the  Fort  will  not  answer. 

Sun.  4 — A  cold  day  I  really  feel  sorry  for  the  Old  Man  the 
Indians  treat  him  too  bad 

Men.  5 — the  Crows  this  morning  had  found  a  horse  kill'd 
near  the  camp  the  whole  camp  started  in  pursuit 
of  the  perpetrators,  of  the  deed  Some  Crows  from 
Tongue  river  report  seen  sign  of  Sioux  Fort  full 
of  women  &  children  badly  scared. 

Tues.  6 — Oh  what  a  night  squaws  screaming  Brats  bawling 
&  dogs  barking  I  never  saw  a  place  completely 
crammed  before  In  the  night  a  report  come  that 
Four  Dances  camp  was  surrounded  by  Black  Feet 
then  such  a  shout  or  cry  enough  to  rend  the  heavens 
I  defy  the  whole  tribe  of  Assynaboin's  dog's  to  equal 
the  Old  Fort  shook  till  the  Bark  fell  from  the  pickets 
the  war  party  that  left  say  25  returned  Brot  nothing 
stated  while  in  Gordon's  camp  a  party  of  Crows 
from  Rotten  Tails'"*'  camp  arrived  from  F  Benton 
had  stolen  eight  horses  &  seven  mules  from  some 
white  men  that  were  out  hunting  some  of  the  In- 
dians that   started  out   this   morning  have   returned 

Kiiiz  Jotinial,   Bureau  of  American    Kthiiology.   RuUeti 


March  1855. 

&  are   on  the  other  side   of  the   river   cannot  cross 
the  Ice  has  broke. 

Wed.  7 — the  Indians  still  on  the  other  side  rain 

Thurs.  8 — Bears  Head  &  party  of  one  hundred  &  thirty  or 
forty  men  returned  they  overtook  the  Enemy 
down  on  a  little  fork  near  Jabots^*"'"  houses  they 
were  but  seven  Blood  indians  As  soon  as  they  dis- 
covered the  Crows  they  charged  on  them  but  the 
Crows  were  too  many  twenty  to  one  is  too  great  a 
power  however  brave  Bears  heads  party  kill'd  the 
whole  seven  not  one  escaped  to  tell  the  news.  Bears 
Head  told  me  that  four  of  the  Blood  Indians  fought 
like  Heroes,  three  made  no  fight  whatever  but  got 
kill'd  like  squaws  One  said  he  was  a  chief  for  the 
Crows  to  come  on  it  was  good  to  die  &c.  Bears 
Head  got  two  men  badly  wounded  one  his  son  in 
law  the  other  a  nephew  of  Pumpkins,  Big  insides 
son,  I  think  it  is  probable  both  will  recover. 

Fri.  9 — the  Fort  full  the  halt  the  lame  &  the  Blind  came  in 
the  fort  &  Danced  before  Old  Wolf  Skins  lodge, 
sang  &  dancd  the  old  Hussy  out  of  Beads  & 
Domestic  or  rather  it  came  out  of  the  pockets  of 
P  C  jr  &  Co  About  the  worth  of  an  X  away  down 
below,  in  the  afternoon  the  Beauties  of  the  camp 
decked  in  thier  Holiday  rigging  came  &  treated  us 
to  a  dance  Bears  Heads  son  in  law  on  Horse  Back 
led  by  his  Father  in  law  Pumpkins  nephew  on  horse 
Back  led  by  Pumpkins  were  on  the  ground  the  scalps 
&  trophies  taken  were  exhibited.  Bears  head  made 
a  speech  Old  Murrell  made  a  speech  he  said  that 
the  Blackfeet  were  dogs  his  heart  was  good  when 
he  heard  of  their  being  kill'd  &co  &co  After  he  was 
through  he  presented  a  squaw  with  a  dress  &  ninety 
strands  of  Beads  Old  fellow  thinks  I  goods  are 
scarce  &  you  might  have  saved  them  t^-  traded  for 
robes  Bix  Six  the  damned  fooll  steps  in  to  the  ring 


March  1855. 

with  three  dollars  worth  of  beads  &  kisses  Miss 
Tramps  on  her  foot  a  dirty  lousy  whoring  slut  oh 
the  Fool 

Sat.  10 — The  very  day  that  I  have  been  looking  for  the 
camp  moved  I  would  like  to  see  Mr.  C  &  Mr. 
Spyi68  j^ere  to  see  how  his  Agent  Acts  it  would 
answer  as  well  to  through  the  goods  in  the  prairie 
as  to  give  them  as  he  does  squaws  &  children  get 
the  most  Old  Wolf  Skin  wont  remain  in  the  Fort 
with  me  she  is  off  with  the  camp  Mr.  M  has  traded 
another  horse  for  her  &  I  have  just  put  u])  ten  lbs 
coffe  fifteen  lbs  sugar  &  a  bale  of  depouy's  for  her 
at  this  present  time  there  is  not  as  much  fat  in  the 
fort  as  she  took  with  her    All  right 

Sun.  11 — Mr  M  left  leaving  me  in  a  critical  position  in  the 
first  place  the  Stores  are  unsafe  in  case  of  rain  Our 
provisions  scant  &  forces  small,  we  have  not  over 
seventy  lbs  sugar  About  twenty  lbs  Flour,  poor 
dry  meat  &  no  fat,  &  his  orders  not  to  use  any 
Flour  at  all  perhaps  I  may  obey  him  but  I  doubt 
it  if  I  feel  like  eating  a  little  bread  I  will  be  apt  to 
break  my  orders  in  that  case  &  he  &  I  for  it  on 
his  return 

Men.  12 — I  arranged  store  &  ware  house  we  have  but  part 
of  one  Box  Tob  1>4  Keg  Powder  10  guns  (5  badly 
used  by  Indians)  30  prs  3  pt  Blkts  20  pr  W  20  I  B 
Blkt  10  Blue  Blkt  18  Scan  &  25  Hudson  Bay  Blkts. 
no  cloth  of  any  description  not  one  kettle  not  a 
knife  not  a  foot  of  Beads  wire  but  200  lbs  Beads 
No  colored  Beads  Not  a  single  1  ])t  Blkt  goods  all 
gone  &  but  two  hundred  packs  of  robes  I  call  this 
trading  with  a  vengeance  It  is  just  as  the  Mountain 
folks  told  me  when  I  was  on   last  fall  they  said   it 

was    no come    they    would    get    nothing    the 

the  Banks  would  get  all  &  it  is  too 

If  they  do  come  how  am  I  going  to 


March  1855. 

out  of  the   scrape    I   told   them   th 

(Corner  of  page  torn  off)  had  goods  here  sent  them 
from  thier  great  Father  &  now  there  is  nothing 
for  them  to  trade  let  alone  rec  gratis  Murrells 
Friends  &  relations  have  got  all  Elackfeet  hover- 
ing around  the  Fort  a  couple  of  shots  dispersed 

Tues.  13 — disagreeable  day    Snow  and  rain 

Wed.  lA — Cold  &  Blustry    put  up  a  few  packs 

Thurs.  15 — Cold  &  Windy     done  nothing 

Fri.  16 — Made  a  few  packs  &  arranged  press 

Sat.  17 — A  very  cold  day  Chas  Carter^^''  arrived  from  F.  Un. 
brot  no  letters  Says  Mess  Culbertson  &  Clark  are 
at  F.  U.  From  Carters  Story  it  appears  that  Carter 
got  into  a  difificulty  with  a  man  by  the  name  of 
Brown  &  that  he  kill'd  Brown  in  self  defence  Men 
here  that  were  acquainted  with  Brown  give  him  a 
bad  name,  they  say  he  was  of  a  quarrellsome  dis- 
position &  Bears  the  name  of  a  petty  Thief.  Os- 
born^'^  says  that  Brown  was  drumed  out  of  the 
U.  S.  Service  at  Fort  Belknap^"^  Belonged  to  the 
Fifth  Infantry 

Carter  arrived  in  a  pitifull  condition third 

day  from   F.  U.  broke  the  tube  of gun  & 

from  that  time  eat  nothing 

Blowed   a   perfect   Hurricane 

Cold  Windy  &  Snow    done  nothing  (Corner  of  page 


Tues.  20 — My  Birth  day  this  day  1  am  Thirty  five  years  of 
age  hauled  wood  for  baggage  in  looking  for  my 
Journal  No  four  I  find  that  it  is  missing.  I  am 
sorry  for  the  loss  as  it  contained  sketches  &  notes 
of  my  trips  to  little  Powder  river  in  search  of  the 
Crows  Winter  of  1852  &  3— My  trip  to  &  from  the 


March  1855. 

Grosventres  Spring  of  1853.  My  trip  to  &  from  F 
Benton  the  same  Spring,  two  voyages  up  &  down 
the  Yellowstone  by  water  Trip  fall  of  1854  in  Search 
of  the  Crows  &  my  last  trip  to  &  from  F  Union  by 
land  it  also  contained  sketches  of  doings  at  F  Sarpy 
I  have  an  idea  where  it  went — but  let  it  go  let  the 
Gall'd   Jade   wince   our   withers   are   unwrung 

Wed.  21 — Big  Six  this  day  imortalised  himself  he  kill'd  a 
Goose  the  only  game  of  any  description  that  ever 
he  kill'd — Except   Lice 

Thurs.  22 — A  fine  day    press'd  packs 

Fri.  23 — put  by  packs  &  secured  them  from  rain  Ass  Small 
furs  heard  the  report  of  two  shots  in  the  point  above 
one  shot  in  the  point  below  Shortly  after  seen  four 
Indians — Blackfeet 

Sat.   24 — Commenced  sawing  side  plank  for  Boat 

Sun.  25 — A  Beautifull  day    Very  lonesome 

Men.  26 — \'ery  windy    could  do  nothing  out  of  doors 

Tues.  27 — A   Blustery  cold  day    Snowed   considerable 

Wed.  28 — Another  stormy  day  One  cow  came  in  the  prairie 
Carter  kill'd  her    she  was  very  poor 

Thurs.  29 — Sawed  curbs  for  Boat    very  windy 

Fri.  30 — dried  wolf  &  deer  skins   finished  sawing  curbs 

Sat.  31 — March  is  determined  to  keep  up  its  Blusty  reputa- 
tion   as  the  saying  is  it  went  out  like  a  Lion 

April  1855 

Sun.   1 — A  dull  quiet  day    nothing  doing 

Men.  2 — too  much  wind  to  saw  puled  Bark  Chas  Carter  cut 
himself  very  badly 

Tues.   3 — Another  windv  dav    Worked  a  little  abo\it  the  fort 


April  1855. 

Wed.  4 — Nothiiii^  done    Blowed  a  Hurricane 

Thurs.  5 — Made  &  Pressed  a  few  packs  Beat  Bii?  Six  out  of 
two  &  a  half  dollars  shooting  the  Target  was  a 
small  pup  tyed  one  hundred  yards  I  bet  Six  Five 
dollars  to  Fifty  cents  that  he  could  not  hit  the  pup 
Six  shot  three  times  &  miss'd  he  became  excited  & 
bet  me  one  dollar  that  I  could  not  hit  the  pup.  I 
shot  &  struck  puppy  &  beat  Big  Six  out  of  two  & 
half  which  he  must  certainly  pay  the  odds  were  too 
great  too  much  risk  to  plead  the  Baby  Act 

Fri.  6 — A  windy  day    sent  for  a  steering  oar  for  keel  boat 
got  an  excellent  one    No  sign  of  Mr.  Meldrom 

Sat.   7 — Sawing  &  doing  little  jobs  about  the  fort 

Siin.  8 — A  windy  ugly  disagreeable  day 

Men.  9 — Stormy  day    Snowed  considerable    done  nothing 

Tues.  10 — Mr.  Lamarche  &  all  hands  out  to  look  for  a  horse 
We  had  in  Cache  returned  with  the  horse — kill'd 
two  cows  Brot  the  calves  &  skins — Meat  to  poor 
to  bring 

Wed.  11 — The  time  advances  &  no  appearance  of  Mr  M  & 
having  nothing  for  the  men  to  do  I  set  them  to 
dressing  plank  for  boat  Altho  contrary  to  Mr  M's 
orders  but  when  he  left  he  had  no  idea  of  us  having 
a  Carpenter — A  party  of  twelve  Crows  arrived  the 
Boy  Chief  Grey  Chief^^^  &  ^.^e  White  Bear  are  in 
the  party,  they  saw  nothing  of  Mr  M.  the  camp 
will  be  here  shortly  to  trade  they  had  scarcely  dis- 
mounted before  they  asked  me  about  their  presents 
the  Grey  Chief  was  one  of  the  party  that  I  brought 
in  last  fall  &  seen  what  was  left  for  them  I  told 
them  they  had  forfeited  thier  Annuities  by  failing 
to  come  in  but  that  if  they  would  come  in  with  thier 
trade  I  thought  Mr.  M  would  satisfy  them  either  at 
the  present  or  on  his  return  on  the  arrival  of  the 
Boat  this  Summer 


April  1855. 

Thurs.  12 — the  Indians  are  in  a  great  way  they  are  very  much 
dissatisfied  they  want  to  trade  with  me  in  preference 
to  waiting  for  Mr  M  I  told  them  that  if  they  would 
go  home  &  wait  untill  Mr  M  arrives  that  I  would 
give  them  a  good  present  they  hesitated  a  good 
deal  &  at  last  consented  I  promised  that  as  soon 
as  Mr  M  reached  here  I  would  go  &  bring  them  in 
I  have  put  away  goods  for  them  traded  a  few  robes 
&  meat 

Fri.  13 — Indians  still  remain  considerable  grumbling  I  do 
not  blame  them    they  have  been  badly  treated 

Sat.  14 — Indians  left  Except  the  White  Bear  he  still  remains, 
his  horse  being  too  poor  to  travel  they  left  under 
the  following  circumstances  If  I  do  not  go  for  them 
within  Ten  nights  after  they  reach  camp  they  are 
to  come  in  &  I  will  trade  with  them  they  would 
not  give  me  a  longer  period  they  say  thier  horses 
are  poor  the  grass  bad  &  too  close  to  thier  different 
Enemies  I  fondly  hope  Mr  M  will  reach  here  before 
that  time  the  Burden  is  rather  too  heavy  for  me 
to  bear 

Sun.  15 — I  am  uneasy  on  account  of  Mr  M's  not  coming  the 
White  Bear  tells  me  that  the  camps  that  he  is  on 
the  route  for  will  not  come  in  that  he  probably  re- 
turned with  but  a  few  Crows  &  was  overtaken  by 
Blackfeet  &  cut  off  of  this  I  am  not  alarmed  I  am 
under  the  apprehension  that  he  is  on  the  hunt  of 
Four  Rivers^'^3  &  ^t^ey  are  far  off  &  he  will  not  be 
able  to  be  in  time  for  Two  Face^'^-*  &  Boy  Chiefs 
trade  if  not  I  apprehend  difficulty  &  it  might  termi- 
nate seriously.  I  am  duty  bound  to  protect  the 
property  &  interests  of  my  Employes — Should  I 
risk  life  for  it  my  Employers  are  in  no  manner 
culpable  for  the  distruction  of  the  Indians  goods 
nor  in  this  particular  case  do  T  think  them  re- 

fA.%^'  •  ♦   • 


Kurz  Journal,  Bureau  of  American  Ethnolog-y,  Bulletin  115. 


April  1855. 

Mon.  16 — finished  sawing::    laid  bed  for  Boat 

Tues.  17 — Laid  bottom  of  boat    Made  &  press'd  a  few  packs 

Wed.  18 — A  very  windy  day  five  Bulls  came  in  the  prairie 
Lamarche  &  Carter  kill'd  them 

Thurs.  19 — Cold  blustry  day  Cut  the  skins  of  the  Bulls  kill'd 
yesterday  into  cords  I  have  cords  sufficient  to  tie 
all  the  robes  &c. 

Fri.  20 — Made  &  press'd  forty  eight  packs  robes  calf  &c  put 
up  curbs  on  Boat    No  sign  of  Mr.  Meldrom 

Sat.  21 — A  windy  day  Cover'd  with  Fat  Old  Limpy  three 
Crows  &  four  Nez  Perces  arrived  Say  camp  will 
be  in  on  Tuesday  next 

Sun.  22 — Fine  day    Indians  kill'd  a  cow. 

Mon.  23 — Crows  left  this  morning  Nez  Perces  remain  put 
away  goods  for  Mr.  Meldrom,  made  pretty  near  an 
equal  divide 

Tues.  24 — Boy  Chief,  Sets  Every  Way  &-  four  other  Crows 
arrived.  A  trading  party  also  arrived  traded  fifteen 
packs  Indians  much  dissatisfied  on  account  of  our 
scarcity  of  Tobaco  &  Ammunition 

Wed.  25 — Traded  in  the  forenoon  about  forty  packs  Soldiers 
stop'd  the  trade.  Call'd  me  to  council  told  me  they 
came  a  long  distance  to  support  us  that  in  coming 
they  had  lost  a  great  many  of  thier  horses  &  when 
they  did  come  we  had  no  Tobaco  or  Ammunition 
for  them  that  they  thought  it  a  hard  matter  to  be 
deprived  of  thier  Annuities  &  said  if  I  would  come 
down  in  my  prices  of  Blankets  they  would  be  satis- 
fied. As  I  had  but  few  left.  I  consented  they  gave 
me  twenty-one  robes  for  so  doing  Commenced  trad- 
ing   traded  briskly 

Thurs.  26 — Would  not  trade  as  it  was  raining  hard  clear'd  of 
11  A.  M.  traded  forty  four  packs  robes  &  one  &  half 
Beaver  goods  dissapearing  fast. 


April  1855. 

Fri.  27 — ^Finished  the  trade  &  gave  a  small  present  to  Two 
Faces  Band  gave  two  face  his  Medal  as  also  the 
suit  Col  Vaughan  gave  me 

Sat.  28 — Indians  speak  of  moving  camp  got  some  robes  on 
credit   for  which   I   gave  orders,   payable   on   return 

Sun.  29— Camp  moved  on  Tongue  river  Crows  would  not 
let  Two  Face  remain  Dick  paid  his  debts  like  a  man 
Mountain  TaiP'^  &  wife  remains  to  go  down  in 
the  Boat. 

Men.  30 — Made  packs  &  find  we  have  about  one  hundred  & 
eighty  packs  robes  four  packs  Beaver  Deer  Elk  &c 
A  sufficient  quantity  of  rawhides  &  Lodge  skins  to 
cover  both  boats  good  quantity  of  meat  &  parr  flesh 
got  all  the  Nez  Perces  Beaver  but  had  to  strip  myself 
&  squaw  of  our  clothing  to  pay  it.  My  trade  will  bring 
Mr.  Meldrom  out  of  the  brush  had  I  Tobaco,  Am- 
munition, Brass  Wire  Knives  Corn  Sugar  Beans 
Flour  Scarlet  &  Blue  cloth,  I  would  have  made  the 
trade  more  profitable — As  it  was  I  had  nothing  but 
Blkts  &  bed  Ticking  A  delegation  arrived  to  per- 
suade Mountain  Tail  to  go  back  to  the  Camp  they 
offered  him  three  fine  Horses  which  he  refused — 
he  has  but  one  Tongue 

May   1855 

May  1 — More  Crows  came  this  morning  after  Mountain  Tail 
he  drove  them  all  back  &  told  them  if  any  more 
came  he  would  club  them 

Wed.  2 — Big  Six  run  off  last  night  stole  all  the  Amnumition 
&c  he  could  lay  his  hands  on  I  could  have  sent  &; 
overtaken  him  but  as  he  was  only  a  nuisance  in  the 
Fort  T  thought  to  let  him  go  he  was  always  sick 

Thurs.  3 — A  Blustry  day  folded  &  press'd  fifty-two  packs 
robes  river  rising  rapidly  Our  Boats  are  all  ready 
for  caulking  but  T  have  not  force  enough  to  move 
the  keel   Boat  Col  Vaughan'"'' 

I'-oirr  s.\RP^'  jorRXAi.  12:^ 

May  1855. 

Fri.  4 — Made  and  press'd  P,eaver  Bear  Wolf  Deer  Elk  Big 
Horn  &  Antelope  Immediately  after  supper  sun 
about  one  hour  high  Michel  Stoup  &  a  Pagan  Squaw 
were  going  down  to  the  river  the  Squaw  about 
twenty  yards  in  advance  when  a  party  of  Black 
Feet  charged  &  kill'd  the  Squaw  three  shots  were 
fired  at  Michel  without  effect.  At  the  time  I  was 
lying  clown  in  my  room  had  a  severe  head  ache  I 
jumped  &  run  but  without  my  gun  thinking  it  was 
Mr.  Meldrom  coming.  Some  of  the  men  halloed 
Mr  M's  coming  As  I  got  to  the  corner  of  the  Fort 
three  Balls  pass'd  close  by  me  I  run  in  the  Fort 
snatched  up  my  gun  &  by  the  time  I  got  out  it  was 
too  late  the  Woman  was  kill'd  &  scalped  &  the  Hell 
Hounds  off.    A  wet  night 

Sat.  5 — A  wet  day  buried  decently  the  Woman  killed  yes- 
terday. Gave  the  Indian  in  the  Fort  a  small  present. 
Indians  much   alarmed 

Sun.  6 — A  long  day  All  of  us  on  the  tops  of  the  houses  look- 
ing for  Mr  M  or  the  folks  from  F  Union  in  the 
evening  hopes  run  high  seen  people  on  horseback 
coming  to  the  Fort  Mr  M's  coming  was  the  shout 
they  neared  us  &  much  to  our  dissapointment  we 
found  it  was  Indians  from  Two  Faces  Camp  they 
had  seen  or  heard  nothing  of  Mr  M.  it  appears 
from  thier  tale  that  in  the  Camp  Six  the  notorious 
villian  told  them  I  had  cached  nine  horse  loads  of 
good  at  the  month  of  Tongue  river  that  I  had  plenty 
of  Tobaco  &  Ammunition  &  they  came  for  some 
Myself,  Mountain  Tail  &  Mr  M's  Brother  in  Law 
satisfied  them  that  Six  was  a  liar  let  me  ever  get 
my  clutches  on  Mr.  Nokes^"  &  if  T  do  not  drub 
him  soundly  I  will  pass  for  the  greatest  calf  in 

Men.  7^'*' — Mr  Perault''"  cS:  six  others  arrived  from   Ft  Union 
poor  fellows  they  were  a  pitifull  sight    Everyone  of 


May  1855. 

them  naked  About  the  crossing  they  were  over- 
taken by  a  party  of  Sioux  numbering  over  two 
hundred  the  Sioux  all  mounted  &  well  armed.  Some 
of  the  Leading  men  rode  up  in  advance  &  told  the 
men  they  would  spare  thier  lives  but  they  must 
give  uj)  every  thing  it  was  with  great  difficulty 
that  the  friendly  disposed  Sioux  kept  the  others  back 
two  of  our  men  got  wounded.  All  of  them  more  or 
less  shot  at.  One  George  Shike  a  German  whom 
they  took  for  an  American  was  wounded  in  two 
places  &  three  balls  put  in  his  clothing  the  men 
were  robbed  of  thier  Guns  Ammunition  &  clothing 
poor  fellows  they  had  a  hard  time  of  it,  but  were 
fortunate  in  not  coming  across  Blackfeet  had  they 
of  met  Blackfeet  in  the  situation  they  were  in  with- 
out a  single  gun  to  defend  themselves,  all  would  have 
been  put  to  the  crudest  death.  Perrault  fortunately 
preserved  the  letters  for  F  Sarpy.  I  opened  Mr. 
Denings  to  Mr  Meldrom  &  told  Mountain  Tail  & 
the  others  the  danger  attending  thier  accompanying 
us  &  advised  them  to  go  home  directly  whilst  thier 
people  were  close  they  took  my  advice  &  started  in 
the  night  I  find  I  am  one  day  ahead  of  the  time 
caused  by  Carters  mistake.    I  was  right  before 

Mon.  7 — Correct  date,  the  Fort  rnion  men  all  stiff  unable 
to  do  any  work.  My  calculation  is  to  push  the  work 
have  the  Boats  in  readiness  to  start  at  a  days  notice 
&  then  in  case  Mr  Meldrom  does  not  come  I  shall 
remain  untill  I  find  it  would  be  dangerous  to  re- 
main a  longer  period — so  long  as  the  river  is  in  safe 
Boating  conditon  I  shall  remain  but  when  I  see  it 
to  commence  to  recede  &  that  the  cargoes  run  a  risk 
of  reaching  the  Point  of  destination  from  low  water 
I  shall  push  on 

Tues.  8 — Set  some  to  pick  Oakum  Others  preparing  the  Col 
Vaughan    for   caulking    Got    her    uji    without    much 


May  1855. 

difficulty    it  will  be  a  particular  job  to  make  a  safe 
boat  of  her  some  of  her  seams  are  an  inch  wide 

Wed.  9 — Commenced  caulking  &  find  we  have  not  Oakum 
to  caulk  her  bottom.  Making  use  of  Bale  cloths 
flour  &  sugar  sacks  &  Lodge  skins 

Thurs.  10— got  one  half  of  the  Vaughan  caulked  &  turned  over 
commenced   on   the  other  side 

Fri.  11— Last  night  the  river  rose  four  inches  finished  the 
Col  Vaughan  &  made  a  good  job  considering  the 
materials  we  had  to  work  with  we  have  put  into 
her  seams  one  &  half  Bale  Oakum  fourteen  Bales 
cloth  &  nine  good  Lodge  skins  fourteen  flour  & 
Sugar  sacks  She  is  well  greased  &  I  think  By  care 
&  good  management  she  will  carry  her  Cargo  safely 
down  the  Yellowstone  prepared  ways  to  launch  the 
Col  Vaughan  got  her  in  the  water  without  difficulty 

Sat.  12 — Commenced  caulking  the  new  Boat  I  was  in  my 
room  writing  About  12  M  I  heard  some  of  the  men 
sing  out  Indians  Mr  M's  Coming  I  rushed  out  of 
the  Gate  unarmed  &  at  a  glance  I  seen  they  were 
not  Crows  I  called  all  hands  inside  the  Fort  locked 
the  gate  had  the  Cannon  loaded  to  the  Muzzle  all 
ready  for  them  to  commence  the  attack  We  got  on 
top  of  the  houses  to  have  a  better  chance  looked 
around  in  every  direction  seen  Indians  Some  ap- 
proaching under  the  river  bank  others  surrounding 
the  Fort  here  was  a  Fix  regularly  trapped  a  Sioux 
Trap  at  that  I  was  under  the  impression  that  we 
would  have  a  bloody  fight  I  advised  coolness  & 
discretion  Ten  on  horseback  some  hundred  yards 
from  the  Fort  I  hailed  &  asked  what  they  wanted 
they  said  they  meant  us  no  harm  that  they  were 
looking  for  Blackfeet  &  came  to  shake  hands  with 
the  Crows'  whites  I  called  for  the  Partisian^so  ^q 
approach  &  I  would  talk  &  smoke  with  him  One 
would   not   come   without   the   whole   ten   on    horse- 


May  1855. 

back  I  told  them  that  they  might  come  but  that  if 
those  on  foot  came  closer  I  would  fire  they  hesitated 
some  time  at  last  came  on,  we  had  hardly  shook 
hands  with  the  chiefs  before  the  whole  party  ar- 
rived they  all  sung-  out  our  hearts  are  good  so  I 
took  thier  word  we  shook  hands  all  around  it  was 
the  same  party  that  robbed  our  men  on  thier  way 
up  I  conversed  with  them  about  one  hour  the  chief 
told  me  they  had  seen  a  woman  in  the  Fort  to  bring 
her  out  that  they  would  shake  hands  &  so  I  brought 
out  my  Squaw  they  shook  hands  &  left 

Sun.  13 — put  Osborne  on  the  night  watch  Seen  five  during 
the  night  Also  in  the  morning  seen  Indians  on  the 
opposite  side  I  am  in  a  critical  situation  I  have 
charge  of  an  immense  property  in  a  dangerous  coun- 
try only  fourteen  men  &  Eight  guns  Scarcely  two 
hundred  rounds  of  Ammunition  &  badly  Forted  I 
shall  certainly  leave  this  week  12  M  our  Sentry 
gave  the  alarm  of  Indians  on  Horseback  I  got  on 
the  Observatory  &  seen  that  it  was  Crows  &  that 
Mr  M  was  in  the  party.  Mr  M  in  good  health  the 
Crows  remained  but  a  short  time  &  left  for  home 

Men.   14 — Caulked  &  launched  the  new  boat    river  rising 

Tues.  15 — Rained  all  day    put  up  benches  in  boats 

Wed.  16 — Made  up  Elk  &  Fox  packs    rained  all  day 

Thurs.  17 — Took  Stock    men  working  at  the  Boats 

Fri,    18— Dunnaged  the  Boats    arranged  the  crews  &c. 

Sat.  19 — Loaded  up  the  Boats  fired  the  old  Fort  &  left  1  p.  m. 
run  again  a  strong  head  wind  passed  the  gap  & 
camped  early  at  the  mouth  of  Powder  river  BufTlo 

Sun.  20 — Made  a  late  start  on  account  of  high  wind  passed 
all  the  Rapids  &  camped  at  the  head  of  the  Big 
hill    rained  &  blowed  all  night 


May  1855. 

Mon.  21 — rained  untill  3  p.  m.  Set  in  to  snowing  Snowe<l  the 
whole  night    River  raised  14  inches 

Tues.  22 — A  bitter  cold  morning  Started  10  M  in  a  snow 
storm    camped  12  M  above  Jabots  houses   high  wind 

Wed.  23 — did  not  move  high  wind  &  a  heavy  snow  storm.  Mr. 
Meldrom   very  sick 

Thurs.  24 — A  clear  morning    Started  early  &  made  a  good  day 
Camped  in  Law's  Point 

Fri.  25 — Started  early  &  arrived  at  the  mouth  10  a.  m.  I 
went  to  Fort  LTnion  to  get  men  to  assist  in  bringing 
up  the  Boats,  found  CarafelP^^  very  sick  got  the 
Boats  up  before  dark,    rained  hard 

Sat.  26 — done  nothing    rained  all  day 

Sun.  27 — unloaded  and  reloaded  the  boats  started  about  1 
p.  m.    blowing  hard 

Mon.  28 — A  party  of  Pagans  arrived  led  by  the  little  dog  they 
say  a  large  party  of  Pagans  &  those  inveterate  dogs 
the  Blood  Indians  will  be  in  tomorrow  Look  for 
your  top  knots  Boys 

Tues.  29 — About  three  hundred  Pagans  &  Blood  Indians  ar- 
rived we  closed  the  gates  however  a  great  many 
got  in    I  suppose  about  sixty 

Wed.  30 — things  went  along  smoothly  traded  some  horses  & 
robes  in  opening  the  gates  to  let  the  traders  in 
Others  would  rush  in  Mr.  Dening  concluded  to 
leave  the  small  front  gate  open  the  Little  Dog's 
party  treated  us  to  a  dance  &  Whilst  our  attention 
was  on  the  dance  some  few  Blood  Indians  sliped  in 
to  one  of  the  house  where  an  old  Assinaboin  was 
sleeping  &  cut  his  throat  then  dragged  him  out 
about  forty  yards  from  the  front  Bastion  &  com- 
menced mutilating  his  body  in  the  most  horrible 
manner.      I    was   dispatched   to   take   charge   of   the 


May  1855. 

Bastion  1  had  four  men  with  me  right  under  my 
very  eyes  &  at  the  muzzle  of  a  Six  pounder  charged 
with  grape  &  canister  were  crowded  round  the  body 
of  the  poor  old  man  they  were  not  aware  of  the 
danger  they  were  in,  the  fuse  was  in  my  hand    one 

slight  move  from  me  &  all  would  be  over 

they  left  for  home 

Thurs.  31 — the  Pagans  left  except  the  Little  Dog's  son  & 
another.    Cleaned  up  stores  &c. 

June  1855 

Frid  May  1st — Note :  This  date  should  have  been  "Frid.  June  1st." 
Commenced  taking  Inventory  &  find  it  will  be  a 
considerable  job 

Sat.  2 — Going  on  with    Inventory 

Sun.  3 — A  beautifull  day     done  nothing 

Men.  A — Going  on  with  the  Inventory  they  are  an  immense 
amount  of  property  in   Fort  Union 

Tues.  5 — Started  with  a  band  of  twentyseven  horses  to  Fort 
Berthold^^-  Along  with  me  was  two  Spaniards  the 
Little  Dog  &  Son  &  another  half  Pagan  &  Blood 
Indian  Kill'd  two  cows  &  camp'd  about  ten  miles 
below  the   Bobires^^^ 

Wed.  6 — Made  an  early  start  run  &  kill'd  two  cows  Stop'd 
10  M  &  eat  Gathered  up  our  horses  &  started  12  M 
About  One  p.  m.  seen  Indians  on  horseback.  Caught 
&  saddled  up  each  of  us  a  runner  Started  the  Spani- 
ards to  find  who  they  were  I  remained  with  the 
horses  &  Indians  they  proved  to  be  Grosvonts  re- 
turning from  a  hunt  3  p.  m.  arrived  at  the  Dry 
fork  &  found  some  Grosvonts  camp'd  making  meat, 
the  took  &  hid  the  Indians  in  the  Brush  As  a  short 
distance  of  a  camp  of  two  hundred  lodges  of  Assyna- 
boins  are  camp'd  &  if  they  should  happen  to  come 


June  1855. 

across  the  Little  Dog  they  would  soon  make  Wolf 
meat  of  him.  Started  at  Sun  down  &  travelled  fast 
till  12.     Slep't  below  white  riv 

Thurs.  7 — Made  an  early  start  &  stopped  for  the  night  on  the 
Water  raises^^*.  About  1  M  I  was  call'd  by  a  Gros- 
vont  who  came  with  me  from  the  Dry  fork  &  told 
that  he  seen  three  Indians  pass  through  the  horses 
&  heard  them  talking  Sioux  I  did  not  believe  him 
but  however  in  as  dangerous  a  country  as  this  is 
it  behooves  every  one  to  be  on  his  guard.  I  saddled 
my  horse  &  counted  them,  found  none  missing  & 

Fri.  8 — Arrived  safe  at  Fort  Berthold  7  M  found  a  large 
delegation  of  Ricarees  &  Mandans  at  the  Village 
waiting  to  recieve  the  little  dog  about  midday  three 
Indians  that  had  been  out  looking  for  the  Grosvonts 
came  in  with  the  news  of  a  war  party  of  Sioux  on 
the  water  raises  the  deception  was  mutual  we  took 
them  for  Sioux    so  did  they  us 

Sat,  9 — A  wet  morning  cleared  up  12  M  I  started  for  Fort 
LTnion  2  p.  m.  had  with  me  three  men  Camped 
ten  miles  above  the  Water  raises 

Sun.  10 — Made  the  longest  days  travel  that  has  been  made 
in  this  country  to  my  knowledge  Camped  on  a  little 
creek  above  the  dry  Fork  in  the  night  heard  the 
dogs  of  some  camp 

Men.  11 — Saddled  up  started  early  proceeded  but  a  short  dis- 
tance &  discovered  the  Assynaboin  camp  got  to 
them  &  remained  all  day  one  of  my  horses  being  a 
little  lame  detained  me 

Tues.  12 — Started  late  cross'd  the  Bobires  12  M  at  the  red 
spring  I  discovered  sixteen  Sioux  on  horseback  but 
luckily  for  us  they  were  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river  &  the  Missouri  being  very  high  it  is  not  an 
easy  matter  to  cross  horses.     I  went  down  to  the 


June  1855. 

bank  of  the  river  &  tantalised  them  with  my  presence 
for  an  hour  or  such  a  matter  I  left  them  &  arrived 
at  Fort  Union  at  4  p.  m.  making  the  trip  in  eight 
days,  travelling  time  five  if  that  is  not  skimming 
the  prairies  I  dont  know  what  is 

Wed.  13 — A   Beautiful   day     Lounging  about  the   Fort 

Thurs.  14 — Accompanied  F.  G.  Riter^'^^  Esqr  to  his  garden  & 
was  surprised  to  see  vegetation  flourish  so  well  in 
this  out  of  the  way  part  of  the  world 

Fri.  15 — This  day  dined  sumptuously  on   lettuce   &  radishes 
the  first  I  have  eat  for  six  years 

Sat.  16 — A  wet  day    river  rising  fast 

Sun.  17 — Rain  in  the  fore  part  of  the  day  Commenced  re- 
pairing one  side  of  the  Fort    Self  on  night  guard 

Men.  18 — it  will  take  the  Balance  of  the  week  to  repair  the 
damage  done  by  the  wind  17  ult  Self  still  on  night 
guard  A  AVar  party  comprising  one  hundred  Black- 
feet  were  discovered   yesterday 

Tues.  19 — A  beautiful  day  Every  thing  tranquil  no  sign  of 
the  enemy 

Wed.  20 — The  old  Spaniardi*^*^  was  seen  by  Indians  whilst  out 
looking  for  the  Cattle 

Thurs.  21 — Some  Crees  &  Chippeways  arrived  brot  a  few  robes 
&  skins — traded  &  left  in  the  night 

Fri.  22 — Nothing  stirring     All  quiet 

Sat.  23 — A  rainy  day     no  sign  of  the  enemy 

Sun.  24 — A  large  party  of  Assynaboins  &  North  Crees  arrived 
traded  what  the}-  had  &  left  in  the  night 

Men.  25 — the  Enemy  hovering  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Fort  I 
dont  think  they  wish  to  kill  us  but  are  waiting  an 
o})p()rtunity    to    steal   our   horses 


June  1855. 
Tues.  26 — a  fine  day    everytbinq-  ([uict    very  warm 
Wed,  27 — Nothinj^:  stirring-    tine  pleasant  storm 

Thurs.  28 — A  heavy  rain  attended  by  thunder  &  Hg-htning 

Fri.  29 — A  dull  day,  cool  8z  windy 

Sat.  30 — All  the  squaws  out  on  a  service  berry  Imnt  returned 
loaded  with  fruit 

July  1855 

Sun.  1 — Squaws  &  Bucks  gathering  berries 

Men.  2 — Very  Cool     Hail  storm     Nothing  of  the  Steamboat 

Tues.  3 — four  of  our  folks  out  in  the  point  below  the  opposi- 
tion hunting  were  attacked  by  a  large  party  of 
Sioux  the  boys  threw  the  meat  of  thier  horses  & 
made  thier  escape  I  came  out  one  hickory  gun 
stick  &  gun  cover  loser  &  consider  myself  lucky 
that  I  did  not  lose  my  gun — As  the  person  that 
borrowed  my  rifle  has  a  habit  of  throwing  away 
guns  when  attacked  by  Indians  I  have  known  him 
to  lose  six  &  this  is  the  only  time  that  he  ever  came 
in  with  his  gun     Once  he  left  his  horse  trusting  to 

his  heels  being  the  swifter     "What  we 

have  here 

Wed.  4 — A  dull  fourth  No  sign  of  the  Steam  Boat  river 
very  low  and  the  prospect  is  that  if  She  dont  arrive 
this  week  that  in  all  probability  She  will  not  be  able 
to  reach  this  point  without  another  rise  &  that  we 
have  but  little  hope  for  Indians  discovered  prowling 
about  the  Fort  No  injury  done  as  yet  but  no  telling 
how  soon 

Thurs.  5 — A  beautiful  day     All  quiet 

Fri.  6 — four  Assynaboins  arrived  from  the  Wood  Moun- 
tain— report  the  camp  moving  this  way  during  the 
night  six  more  Assynaboins  arrived   We  were  visited 


July  1855. 

with  a  tremendous  storm  Wind  from  N.  W.  the 
enclosure  surrounding  the  mill  house  was  entirely 
blown  down 

Sat.  7 — Our  Hunters  started  out  this  morning 

Sun.  8 — Hunters  returned  with  meat  of  the  Bulls 

Men.  9 — I  &  two  others  started  out  hunting  ret.  with  the 
meat  of  two  cows  &  one  Bull  Found  Mr.  Denig's 
son^^^  &  two  others  from  the  Steamboat  She  was 
at  Fort  Berthold  when  they  left 

Tues.  10 — Making  preparations   to   recieve   the   Steamboat 

Wed.  11 — we  had  the  pleasure  of  greeting  the  arrival  of  the 
Steamer  St  Mary^^^  quite  a  number  of  gentlemen 
arrived  among  which  were  A.  Culbertson  Esqr  Col 
A.  Gumming,  Supt.  of  Indian  Afifairs  Col  A.  J. 
Vaughan  Ind.  Agt  &  Major  Hatch  of  the  Blackfoot 
Agency  &  several  other  gentlemen 

Thurs.  12 — buisy  unloading  &  recieving  goods  from  Steamer 

Fri.  13 — Ship'd  robes  &  peltries  the  Steamer  left  1  p.  m. 
Mr  E.  T.  Denig  left  on  a  visit  to  the  States  Joy  be 
with  him  may  he  enjoy  a  pleasant  trip  is  the  wish 
of  Riter  &  myself 

Sat.  14 — buisy  working  about  the  stores 

Sun.  15 — Gala  day  Indians  dancing  &  Self  took  a  small  blow- 

Men.  16 — rec.   Fort  Benton  goods 

Tues.  17 — finished  rec.  F.  B.  goods  &  stored  the  same  the 
Boats  left  for  F.  B.  Mess  Kipp  &  Dawson  in  charge 
Major  Hatch  Doct  Haydon^^^  &  several  other  pas- 

Wed.  18 — Knocking  about  the  Fort  getting  scythes  in  order 
to  commence  cutting  hay 


July  1855. 

Thurs,  19 — Putting  stores  &c  in  order 

Fri.  20 — Commenced  cutting  hay  between  the  two  forts  fine 

Sat.   21 — Still  cutting  hay 

Sun.  22 — took  a  genteel  Blow  out 

Men.  23 — finished  cutting  hay  at  this  point  cut  19  loads  of 
splendid  hay 

Tues.  24 — Started  a  short  distance  above  the  Fort  to  cut  hay 
cut  a  little  &  find  it  wont  pay  the  grass  being 
too  thin 

Wed.  25 — Cross'd  over  the  river  to  make  hay — Started  six 
scythes    cut  a  good  deal 

Thurs.  26 — finished  cutting  all  that  was  fit  to  cut  &  sent  word 
to   that   efifect 

Fri.  27 — Mr  F  Girard^^^  came  over  &  was  convinced  of  the 
worthless  quality  of  the  grass  but  desired  me  to 
keep  on  as  it  was  Mr  Culbertson's  positive  orders 
to  cut  everything  so  here  goes  obey  orders  if  you 
break  owners  has  always  been  my  motto 

Sat.  28 — Cutting  weeds  &  a  little  grass  mixed  but  a  small 
portion  of  the  latter  article  Cross'd  over  in  the  eve- 
ning and  found  that  Mr  Culbertson  Lady  &  party 
had  left   for   Fort   Benton 

Sun.  29 — Col  Vaughan  gave  us  a  small  blow  out 

Mon.  30 — Cross'd  over  a  horse  &  cart  to  haul  hay  Made  two 
small  stacks    three  mowers  cutting  above 

Tues.  31 — Hauling  &  stacking  hay  I  think  I  have  about  sixty 
loads  cut  such  as  it  is 


August  1855 

Wed.  1 — knocking  about  among  the  mowers  &  hay  haulers 

Thurs.  2 — I  find  it  very  slow  work  hauling  hay  as  the  grass 
was  cut  in  spots  here  there  &  everywhere — where 
ever  we  could  cut  an  armfull 

Thurs,  3 — Myself  &  two  others  working  at  the  hay 

Fri.   ■'1 — the   same  as  yesterday 

Sat.  5 — took  a  look  at  the  folks  cutting  above  they  make 
but  poor  headway 

Sun.  6 — I  heard  from  F  G  R  that  Mr  M  told  Mr  Culbertson 
that  the  Crows  scared  me  to  give  goods  to  them 
the   "Old  "Liar 

Men.  6 — rain    done  nothing  over  the  river 

Tues.  7 — Showery   in   the   forenoon 

Wed.  8 — Scatter'd  hay  immediately  after  we  were  done  it 
commenced  raining 

Thurs.  9 — A  showery  day     done  nothing 

Fri.  10 — rain'd  hard  all  day 

Sat.  11 — Showery  went  up  to  the  garden  sowed  some  radish 
seed  &  got  a  supply  of  vegetables  for  the  table 

Sun.  12 — fine  day  making  preparations  to  start  for  timber 

Men.  13 — Started  to  the  Point  of  timber  above  the  little  Muddy 
to  get  out  saw  logs  made  a  good  camp  &  prepared 
to  work  in  the  morning   Our  Hunter  did  not  come  in 

Tues.  14 — got  breakfast  early  &  started  my  men  out  Our 
hunter  returned  with  the  meat  of  a  fat  cow  cut 
forty  logs  &  got  out  twenty  curbs  men  work  excellent 
our  cattle  hard  to  manage  in  each  team  we  have 
one  yoke  of  unbroken  cattle  hauled  but  seven  logs 
with  both  teams 


August  1855. 

Wed.  15 — Perranlt  getting  out  curbs  three  men  chopping  & 
the  rest  assisting  the  teams 

Thurs.  16 — finished  cutting  timber  all  hands  except  Perrault 
cutting  roads  &  assisting  the  teamsters,  got  scared 
by  a  Bear 

Fri.  17 — Started  our  hunter  to  the  Fort  as  we  have  plenty 
of  meat  rec'd  express  from  Fort  commenced  raft- 
ing, lost  three  of  our  oxen  Suppose  they  have  gone 

Sat.  18 — finished  building  tvv^o  rafts  thirty-two  logs  in  each 
fifty  curbs  &  an  oar  for  the  Crow  boat  sent  the 
teams  to  the  Fort 

Sun.  19 — the  rafts  made  an  early  start  Myself  came  down 
on  foot  to  look  for  a  young  bull  that  was  lost  did 
not  find  him.  One  of  the  rafts  arrived  12  M  & 
stated  that  the  other  was  grounded  in  the  night 
One  man  arrived  from  the  raft  to  procure  assistance 

Mon.  20 — Sick — Started  five  men  to  the  raft  the  raft  arrived 
11  a.  m.    All  right 

Tues.  21 — Some  better  Assisted  to  caulk  the  Crow  boat  got 
her  in  the  water 

Wed.  22 — Loaded  the  Crow  boat  &  started  about  1  p.  m. 
hauled  one  load  of  hay  from  above  In  the  evening 
the  hunters  from  the  Crow  boat  returned  to  the 
opposite  side  of  the  river  as  also  two  Crows  they 
stated  that  they  had  kill'd  a  cow  &  were  returning 
to  the  boat  when  three  Sioux  charged  on  them  they 
threw  thier  meat  away  &  sloped — "Oh  the  Bitches, 
our  horses  stolen 

Fri.  24 — Commenced  Col  Vaughan's  boat  in  the  evening 
the  Brave  Hunters  two  Crows  &  one  Grosvont  ar- 
rived on  the  opposite  side  &  halloed  for  help  sent 
for  them  &  said  they  had  seen  two  Indians  &  Mr 
Meldrom  had  concluded  to  turn  back.    A  Brave  Act 


August  1855. 

Sat.  25 — tinished  the  Col's  boat  all  ready  for  caulking  Mr 
M's  Boat  arrived,  seen  some  Indians  over  the  river 
appear  to  be  crossing  on  to  this  side 

Sun.  26 — ^^^Early  this  morning  we  had  the  extra  pleasure  of 
grasping  the  hands  of  a  few  Sioux  A  party  was 
discovered  back  of  the  fort  All  hands  out  armed 
&  equipped  as  the  law  directs  Girard  Lophyr^^^  ^ 
myself  went  out  &  met  them  they  told  us  they  were 
from  the  Crows  &  was  on  the  look  out  for  Assyna- 
boins  they  said  they  seen  our  hunters  &  wanted  to 
shake  hands  with  them  but  they  run  off  they  report 
the  Crows  on  Powder  river  them  &  the  Sioux  have 
been  there  all  summer  but  have  parted  the  Sioux 
camp  are  at  the  thin  hills  they  stated  they  seen  the 
Crow  boat  &  were  going  to  buy  some  tobaco,  they 
are  friendly  with  the  Crows  they  also  report  that 
a  fight  had  taken  place  between  the  Crows  &  Black- 
feet  &  that  the  Crows  got  the  worst  of  the  battle, 
we  brought  five  in  the  fort  gave  them  a  cup  of 
cofife  &  a  small  present  Col  Vaughan  gave  his  red 
children  a  talk  &  when  through  they  sloped  for 
Dobey  town,  being  as  our  forces  here  were  strong 
they  behaved  well  but  had  we  been  the  weaker 
party  there  is  no  telling  what  might  have  happened 
an  express  arrived  from  Dobey  town^^^  stating  that 
CampbelP^'*  &  a  half  Breed  was  caught  out  from 
the  Fort  their  horses  stolen  &  themselves  stripped 
to  the  Buff     Unlucky  Dobey  town 

Men.  27 — Caulked  &  launched  Col  Vaughan's  boat  unloaded 
the  Crow  boat  reloaded  her  for  Fort  Benton  Self 
making  preparations  to  start  with  express  for  Fort 
Benton     I    intend   leaving  before   day 

Tues.  28 — Started  2  M  Day  broke  on  me  at  the  little  Muddy. 
Seen  the  opposition  folks  from  the  Blackfeet  Ar- 
rived at  the  Big  Muddy  10  a.  m.  Met  Le  Gras^^^  & 
the    Fool    Bear^^^    made   them   a   cup   of  coffe    they 

y>r    J^'  ->'     V  .  •'  V- 

Kui'z  Journal,  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  Bulletin  lir». 


August  1855. 

told  me  to  be  on  my  guard  as  six  young  Bucks  run 
off  to  war  they  advised  me  to  take  care  of  my 
napper^^'^  &  Horses  I  learn  that  three  horses  were 
stolen  from  Mr  Culbertson  left  &  shortly  after 
leaving  discovered  three  Bucks  following  me  kept 
on  at  a  smart  walk  until  about  four  O  clock  stopped 
&  let  the  horses  eat  a  couple  of  hours  started  again 
&:  kept  on  a  smart  pace  untill  an  hour  after  dark 
camp'd  eight  miles  below  tremble  river 

Wed.  29 — Made  an  early  start  my  horse  fell  with  me  but  done 
no  injury  Breakfast  at  Tremble^^^  River  saddle  up 
and  proceeded  but  a  short  distance  when  I  dis- 
covered an  Assynaboin  camp  of  about  thirty  lodges 
I  took  out  in  order  to  give  them  the  slip  however 
I  was  seen  by  a  party  of  men  &  women  on  thier 
way  out  to  cut  lodge  poles,  from  this  party  I  learned 
that  the  reason  the  three  young  men  stole  Mr  Cul- 
bertson's  horses  was  his  Brother  in  law  cut  a  hand 
of  an  Assynaboin  off  &  they  took  the  horses  for 
pay  moved  about  fifteen  miles  above  Tremble  river 
kill'd  a  cow  plenty  of  Buffaloa  camped  on  the 
creek  with  fine  water  grass  &  timber  I  do  not 
know   the   name   it   bears — (Quaken   Asp) 

Thurs.  30 — On  getting  up  this  morning  I  found  myself  com- 
pletely surrounded  by  Buffaloes  my  horses  were 
feeding  along  with  them  saddled  up  &  started  morn- 
ing cool  «&  very  misty  jogged  along  at  a  snail's  pace 
&  came  on  Milk  river  about  two  o'clock  p.  m. 
stopped  a  couple  of  hours  to  cook  &  let  my  horses 
eat.  I  have  come  here  in  a  remarkably  short  time 
&  hereafter  I  shall  take  it  easier  as  I  apprehend  but 
little  danger  from  this  out,  Buffaloes  very  plenty 
I  should  not  be  surprised  if  there  is  a  camp  on  Milk 
river  the  Buff  are  all  travelling  down  catched  up 
my  horses  &  travelled  at  a  slow  pace  camp'd  about 
four  miles  above  the  porcupine  in  the  night  we 
were  visited  by  a  shower  of  rain 


August  1855. 

Fri.  31 — Cool  &  ver\-  windy  took  Breakfast  about  seven 
O  clock  l')nffal(),  E1I<  Deer  cv  Antelope  very  plenty 
iioonM  at  camp  Pecan  [omul  Mr  Culbertson's  ba,q;- 
g'dge  waggon  here  I  find  from  a  card  left  on  a 
tree  that  they  passed  here  on  the  fifth  ult.  Seen  a 
party  of  Indians  on  horseback  1  am  under  the  im- 
pression that  1  was  not  seen  by  them  Kill'd  two 
Bulls  raised  thier  tongues  &  slept  on  a  small  creek 
plenty  of  sign  of  Beaver    Buflflo  in  abundance 

September  1855 

Sat.  1 — took  Breakfast  before  I  started  on  starting  I  dis- 
covered that  one  of  my  horses  was  sick  went  but 
a  short  distance  kill'd  two  cows  &  one  Bull  took 
meat  enough  for  a  couple  of  meals  my  horse  got 
some  better  eats  tolerable  well  made  another  start 
&  crossed  milk  river  took  across  &  cut  oiT  the  Big 
Bend.  Stopped  to  cook  supper  at  Empty  bottle  camp 
in  every  camp  Mr  Culbertson  slept  I  find  bottles 
powder  cannisters  &c.  had  he  left  a  bottle  full  of 
brandy  there  would  have  been  some  sense  in  it.  I 
am  confident  that  there  are  Indians  in  this  vicinity 
I  have  seen  good  signs  Bufifalo  raised  in  diflferent 
directions  I  hope  that  all  would  be  right  in  case  I 
should  meet  them.    Camped  after  dark  on  the  river 

Sun.  2 — On  getting  up  this  morning  I  was  a  little  surprised 
to  find  my  horses  missing  I  looked  well  for  a  couple 
of  hours  Examined  the  tracks  &  found  some  thirty 
or  forty  horses  had  passed  during  the  night  I  gave 
them  up  for  lost  returned  to  camp  &  hung  up  my 
saddles  &c.  on  a  tree  packed  myself  &  woman  & 
started  on  foot  I  had  proceeded  but  a  short  distance 
wdien  I  discovered  something  in  the  hills  beckoning 
to  me  I  immediately  went  &  found  three  Crow- 
Indians  they  had  passed  along  in  the  night  &  seeing 
the    horses    took    them    thinking    they    belonged    to 

1<X)RT  SARf^V  JOURNAL  139 

September  1855. 

Blackfeet  &  were  laying  low  to  take  thior  nappers 
from  them  as  they  would  come  out  in  the  morning". 
I  told  them  to  go  home  as  Government  was  about 
effecting  a  treaty  with  the  Blackfeet  they  gave  me 
thier  word  they  would  I  gave  them  the  news — they 
appear  very  sorry  and  blame  Mr  Meldrom  very 
much  this  has  been  a  remarkably  warm  day  one 
of  the  hottest  of  the  season  travelled  slow  took 
dinner  about  six  miles  from  where  I  slept  I  can 
almost  call  this  a  lost  day — however  I  consider  my- 
self very  fortunate  that  I  have  not  been  put  on  foot 
caught  up  my  horses  &  kept  on  up  the  river  a  little 
before  sundown  saw  a  fine  horse  in  the  hills  went 
to  it  &  with  but  little  trouble  caught  it  proved  to 
be  a  mare — she  is  a  noble  looking  animal  of  a  dark 
brown  color,    camp'd  at  sundown    grass  excellent 

Men.  3 — a  fine  clear  morning  started  early  cross'd  over  the 
river  killed  a  fine  cow  &  stop'd  to  breakfast  about 
9  a.  m.  Started  on  a  short  time  met  Mr  Wray  with 
six  waggons  on  his  way  to  Fort  Union  I  sent  my 
mare  by  him  to  Fort  Union  Killed  another  cow  & 
took  meat  enough  to  do  me  to  Fort  Benton  they 
tell  me  there  are  no  Bufflo  above  here.  I  also  learned 
that  Mr  Culbertson  had  left  Fort  Benton  to  meet 
the  Boats.  Mr.  B.  Champagne  &  Motsena  were  of 
the  party  wrote  a  few  lines  by  Mr  Wray  to  Mr 
Girard  camp'd  on  Milk  river    grass  excellent 

Tues.  4 — Made  an  early  start  travelled  briskly  untill  about 
eight  O  clock,  let  the  horses  walk  from  that  untill 
eleven  O  clock  took  dinner  a  short  distance  below 
the  two  little  rivers  I  have  not  seen  any  Buffalo 
since  yesterday  Started  at  about  two  p.  m.  it  com- 
menced clouding  up  &  thundering  picked  out  a 
good  place  &  camp'd  3  p.  m.  however  it  all  turned 
out  wind  no  rain — Camp'd  on  a  small  creek 


September  1855. 

Wed.  4* — Started  early  &  travelled  briskly  cross'd  below 
Champagne  houses^^^  let  my  horses  drink  &  feed 
a  couple  of  hours  Saddled  up  and  proceeded  but  a 
short  distance  when  Brick's^^o  horse  gave  evident 
signs  of  giving  out  I  have  not  packed  him  carrying 
all  our  meat  coffe  &  clothing  on  my  own  horse  since 
I  left  F  Union  Camp'd  about  three  O  clock  on  Eagle 
creek  water  &  grass  most  excellent  I  hope  this 
afternoon's  &  night's  rest  will  enable  him  to  per- 
form the  balance  of  the  journey  My  own  horse  ap- 
pears to  be  better  on  the  trip  he  is  a  most  excellent 
horse  but  rather  scary  for  the  prairie 

Thurs.  5 — made  an  early  start  took  breakfast  on  beaver  creek — 
about  ten  O  clock  commenced  raining  rain'd  hard 
untill  three  camp'd  in  the  prairie  about  ten  miles 
from  the  Marias 

Fri.  6 — Started  before  day  &  came  on  the  Marias  made  a 
cup  of  coffe  cook  some  meat  &  eat  shaved  &  shirted 
in  order  to  meet  the  Fort  Ben.  folks  Saddled  up  & 
started  Met  a  party  of  Indians  on  the  Crow 
ca-ja-na^oi  on  thier  way  out  a  hunting  Also  one 
white  man  belonging  to  Gov  Steven's  party  Arrived 
at  Fort  Benton  11  a.  m.  Seen  his  Excellency  Gov 
Stevens — Col  Cummings  Mess  Kennerly  &  Cham- 
pagne learned  that  Mr  Culbertson  had  gone  down 
to  meet  the  Boats — no  one  in  the  Fort  lonesome 

Sat.  7 — A  fine  day  cleaned  my  rifle  &  revolver  looking  for 
Mr  Munroe  to  come  in  from  the  Grosvont  camp 
Expect  Mr.  Culbertson  tomorrow  or  next  day  dur- 
ing the  evening  some  pagans  arrived  being  a  part 
of  a  war  party  on  thier  way  to  the  Crows  May  they 
come  home  the  worse  of  the  battle  is  the  fond  wish 
of  your  humble  servant 

*  The  writer  used  date  of  "4th"  twice. 


September  1855. 

Sun.  8 — A  beautiful  day  paid  a  visit  to  Gov  Stevens  the 
Gov  is  very  anxious  to  glean  information  of  the 
Crows  &  thier  country  gave  him  what  little  I  knew 
of   the   Agricultural    qualities   of   the    Crow   country 

Men.  10 — A  wet  morning  cleared  up  about  9  a.  m.  in  the 
evening  Mr  Culbertson  arrived  as  also  A.  Vaughan 
&  Willson  Esqr  bring  news  of  a  fight  between  the 
Grosvonts  &  Crows  of  which  five  of  the  latter  were 
killed.  I  presume  it  was  the  band  I  met  on  my 
way  up. 

Tues.  11 — Making  preparations  to  start  to  Fort  Union  intend 
going  by  water  in   a  small   skiflF 

Wed.  12 — Started  from  F.  Benton  at  half  past  eleven  a.  m. 
Camp'd  three  points  above  the  Marias  our  party 
consist  of  Mr  Champagne  Esqr  Bricks  a  young 
Pagan  &  myself    fine  days 

Thurs.  13 — Made  an  early  start  stopp'd  to  kill  some  meat  at 
the  three  Islands202  kill'd  a  deer  &  took  dinner  be- 
low the  Islands  a  strong  head  wind  the  whole  day — 
Camp'd   below  fine  horse   Island 

Fri.  14 — Started  early  had  got  but  a  short  distance  say 
about  two  miles  when  we  had  to  come  to  on  account 
of  wind  blew  hard  all  day  during  the  afternoon  I 
was  out  hunting  Antelope.  Mr  Champagne  &  the 
Pagan  were  asleep  Bricks  browning  coflFe  when  Mr 
Bear  paid  a  visit  to  the  camp  Bricks  threw  a  stick 
at  him  &  gave  the  alarm  to  the  sleepers  I  came  in 
at  that  time  the  young  Pagan  and  myself  started 
in  pursuit  &  killed  him  he  was  a  fine  roystering 
blade  of  youngster  &  made  a  good  show  for  a  fight. 
Hawkins-''^  sickened  him  &  three  rounds  from  Colts 
put  him  past  fighting 

Sat.  15 — rather  windy  however  not  enough  to  stop  us  At  the 
Citadel  seen  three  Pagans  they  had  been  on  a  hunt 
&  had  plenty  of  meat  report  the  Grosvont  camp  had 


September  1855. 

run  to  the  Muscle  Shell  for  fear  of  the  Crows  had 
killed  yesterday  two  Grosvonts  by  the  Crows  four 
Crows  three  men  &  one  woman  got  killed  below  the 
hole  in  the  WalP*''*  came  too  on  account  of  wind 
about  sundown  pushed  off  &  slept  in  a  Crow  fort 

Sun.  16— Started  &  had  a  fine  current  nearly  the  whole  day 
took  dinner  at  the  Old  Judith  Fort^^^^  camped  be- 
tween Adams  &  Rondin's  rapids^^e    killed  a  Bull 

Men.  17 — Rained  all  day  about  half  past  ten  came  across  two 
Boats  Mr  Dawson  in  charge — Stopped  a  short  time 
took  Mr.  Dawson  on  Board,  he  is  going  down  to 
meet  Mr.  Kipps'  Boat — left  Bricks  with  Rivier 
camp'd   at   Snake   Point^^'^ 

Tues.  18— About  two  O  clock  this  morning  commenced  snow- 
ing &  raining  the  hills  covered  with  snow  Started 
about  twelve  O  clock  M.  Come  too  at  Cow  Island^''^ 
laid  a  few  hours  for  wind  pushed  ofT — Stop'd  at  the 
head  of  Grand  Island^®^  Started  again  &  reached 
Mr  Kipp's  Boat  a  little  after  dark 

Wed.  19 — Snowed  all  night  cleared  off  at  nine  a.  m.  after 
dinner  all  hands  took  a  Bear  hunt 

Thurs.  20 — Foggy  morning  cleared  up  at  nine  a.  m.  Started 
again  left  Mr  Dawson  on  the  Barge  took  Mr.  Kipp 
on  Board  for  Fort  Union  made  eleven  points  & 
camp'd  early  in  a  beautiful  point  the  whistling  of 
the  Elk  kept  us  awake  all  night.    Kill'd  a  Bull 

Fri.  21 — A  Beautiful  day  Started  very  early  took  dinner 
after  making  six  points  camp'd  two  points  above 
Muscle  Shell— Kill'd  a  fine   Elk 

Sat.  22 — Started  early  &  had  a  good  current  nearly  all  day 
Made  eight  Points  &  took  dinner  Kill'd  two  Elk 
&  two  fat  deer  camp'd  above  Forchettes  point^'" — 
fine  dav 


September  1855. 

Sun.  23 — A  Beautifull  morning  got  along  slowly  but  little 
current  &  head  winds  made  four  &  a  half  points 
before  dinner  Started  &  a  little  before  sundown 
came  on  Mr  F.  G.  Riter's  Boat  just  at  the  round 
Bute2ii    all  well 

Men.  24 — 'hauled  out  our  skiff  left  Mr  Champagne — Dophin^i^ 
&  wife  &  child  as  also  Mr  Riter  came  on  board  for 
Fort  Union  made  two  points  &  came  too  on  account 
of  wind  Started  &  run  to  sundown  made  five  & 
half  points 

Tues.  25 — Blowing  a  gale  fixed  up  camp  I  went  out  on  a 
hunt — seen  plenty  of  Deer  but  had  no  chance  for 
a  shot— kill'd  a  fine  Elk    Friday  kiU'd  a  fat  Bull 

Wed.  26 — Started  early  made  four  points  &  took  dinner  killed 
a  cow  &  Bear  camp'd  one  point  below  the  Dry 
Fork2i3.    Made  seven  points 

Thurs.  27 — made  an  early  start  took  dinner  below  Milk  river 
killed  a  very  fat  cow  &  camp'd  a  little  above  the 
Porcupine  river  Bufflo  &  Elk  very  plenty  from 
Milk  river  to  the  round  Bute  the  distance  is  thir- 
teen points 

Fri.  28 — high  winds  from  the  N  E  remained  all  day  Killed 
the  fattest  Deer  I  have  ever  seen  it  is  impossible  to 
eat  anything  but  the  hams 

Sat.  29 — Started  early  made  four  points  &  took  dinner — 
Made  three  more  &  camp'd  killed  two  Beaver — I 
forgot  to  mention  that  yesterday  we  killed  a  Badger 
in  camp 

Sun.  30 — laid  by  all  day  for  wind  about  one  half  hour  before 
sundown  started  &  made  one  half  Point 

144  FORT  SARPY   lOl'RXAL 

October  1855 

Mon.  1 — Started  before  daylight  made  two  &  half  points 
came  too  to  get  dinner  blowing  a  gale  from  N  W 
at  half  past  three  made  another  start  made  four  & 
half  Points  camp'd  two  points  below  tremble  river 
killed  a  fine  Deer 

Tues.  2 — Started  before  day  got  two  points  &  discovered  a 
large  band  of  horses  drinking  got  on  the  other  side 
as  soon  as  possible  hailed  them  they  proved  to  be  a 
Crow  camp  of  one  hundred  lodges  put  out  my  man 
Friday  for  fear  of  Squalls  Mr  Riter  accompanied 
him  to  another  point  &  took  them  on  Board  I  am 
much  alarmed  for  my  man  Friday  I  was  opposed 
to  his  coming  with  us  &  if  I  can  get  him  home  safe 
I  shall  never  travel  with  a  Blackfoot  on  enemy's 
ground  Camp'd  below  Carafells^^*  houses  made 
seven  points 

Wed.  3 — High  winds  from  the  N  W  with  rain  unable  to 
make  a  move  wind  bound  close  to  the  Fort  is  very 
very  unpleasant  Especially  in  this  case  as  we  are 
entirely  out  of  coflfe  &  sugar  but  have  plenty  meat 
the  swell  of  the  river  foundered  our  boat  fortunately 
for  us  we  had  taken  every  thing  out  of  her.  four 
O  clock  p.  m.  Still  no  prospect  of  the  wind  abat- 
ing— had  the  wind  fallen  so  that  we  could  have 
made  a  point  or  so  today  we  could  easily  reach  Fort 
Union  in  another  day  by  hard  pulling.  Feasting 
on  Fat  Deer — Beaver  &  Cherry  Tea.  We  have  an 
excellent  encampment.  Completely  sheltered  from 
view  on  both  sides  of  the  River.  Killed  a  large  fat 
Buck  hauled  out  our  Skifif  &  bailed  her  out  the 
bottom  covered  with  sand  to  the  depth  of  six  inches. 

Thurs.  4 — Still  a  high  wind  from  the  N  West  unable  to  start 
plenty  of  meat  but  nothing  else  last  night  the  water 
in  the  boat  frose  ice  one  half  inch  thick  A  very  cold 
day.  cleaned  the  sand  out  of  our  boat  roasted  & 
eat  some  delicious  ribs    Buflflo  plenty  but  it  is  fool- 


October  1855. 

ishness  to  kill  as  we  have  plenty  of  meat  to  supply 
our  wants  &  the  report  of  a  gun  might  be  the  means 
to  discover  us.  About  ten  O  clock  the  opposition 
carts  ten  in  number  arrived  on  thier  way  to  Fort 
Benton,  got  news  from  Forts  Clark^is  ^  Union 
hear  that  Mr  Clarke  is  coming  on  with  fourteen 
carts  to  oppose  the  Fort  Benton  trade 

Fri.  5 — No  prospects  of  leaving  very  cold  &  wind  from 
N  W.  opposition  folks  still  remain — Killed  two  fat 
deer  Bufflo  plenty  wrote  Mr  Dawson  by  Gardape^is 
I  hope  he  will  receive  it  Gardape  &  party  left  three 
O  clock  p.  m.  Crossed  the  Bobieres^^'^  &  camp'd 
Still  remain  in  camp  strong  hopes  of  the  winds 
falling  tomorrow. 

Sat.  6 — Started  six  O  clock  A.  M.  pulled  hard  the  whole 
day  Made  no  stop  &  arrived  at  Fort  Union  at  half 
past  five — this  has  been  a  tedious  &  long  uncom- 
fortable trip  found  at  the  Fort  all  well  except  some 
children  Since  I  left  there  has  been  two  deaths  both 
children  One  a  daughter  of  J  P  Perraults  the  other 
a  daughter  of  Mrs  J  B  Cardinal^i-^  found  Mr  M 
Clark  here  with  eleven  carts  on  his  w^ay  to  Fort 
Benton  to  oppose  us  in  the  trade 

Sun.  7 — A  beautifull  day — Sauntered  about  the  foit  had  Mess 
Clark   &  McKenzie^i^   for   dinner 

Men.  8 — Making  preparations  to  start  on  a  perilous  trip  in 
search  of  the  Crows  on  the  other  side  of  the  Moun- 
tains it  will  at  the  least  calculation  take  four  months 
to  make  the  trip  &  if  a  severe  winter  it  cannot  be 
made  short  of  Eight  Months 

Tues.  9 — A  party  of  Crows  &  Grosventres  arrived  from  the 
Crow  camp,  they  bring  discouraging  news — they 
say  all  of  the  Crows  with  the  exception  of  one  hun- 
dred &  thirty  seven  lodges  that  will  be  here  in  a 
few  days,  Are  on  the  Platte  8z  Sliould  T  be  able  to 


October  1855. 

find  them  they  are  under  the  impression  that  I 
could  not  get  them  on  the  Yellow  Stone,  they  told 
Mr  Kipp  &  myself  not  to  let  Mr  Meldrom  go  for 
as  sure  as  he  went  they  would  kill  him  As  for 
myself  they  would  not  harm  me  or  any  one  else  in 
my  company  but  Mr  M  &  that  my  interest  could 
not  save  Mr  M's  life  Mr  Kipp  has  deferred  the  trip 
for  the  present 

Wed.  10 — All  hands  buisy  digging  &  gathering  our  potatoes 
the  frost  in  the  night  of  Aug  15  has  destroyed  the 

Thurs.  11 — finished  gathering  our  potatoes  Our  hunters  ret 
with  the  meat  of  four  cows  A  party  of  Sioux  were 
discovered  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Fort  As  we  have 
but  few  men  I  volunteered  to  stand  guard  for  a 
short  trip 

Fri.  12 — I  seen  nothing  unusual  last  night  kept  lights  in 
each  Bastion,  this  is  most  beautifull  weather.  Sent 
my  man  Friday  home  Also  wrote  Mr  Clark  to 
keep  out  of  the  way  of  the  Crow  Camp.  I  am  much 
afraid  that  the  Crows  are  going  to  be  a  bad  people 
&  I  know  what  has  drove  them  to  it — As  regards 
myself  I  am  in  no  ways  alarmed,  for  I  am  confidant 
my  person  or  property  will  not  be  molested  by  them, 
but  others  must  look  out 

Sat.    13 — Mess  Girard  &  Clemow^so  q^  a  duck  hunt 

Sun.  14 — Our  Duck  hunters  returned  with  a  fine  lot  of  Duck 
&  geese 

Men.  15 — Our  hunters  out  after  meat  during  the  day  some 
Crows  arrived  from  Camp  to  trade 

Tues.  16— traded  a  few  robes  from  the  Crows  Our  hunters 
returned  with  the  meat  of  four  cows 

Wed.  17 — An  Assynaboin  arrived  from  the  Sand  hills^^i  report 
BufTalos  plenty 


October  1855. 

Thurs.  18 — A  very  windy  day  A  party  of  Crows  arrived  oppo- 
site the  fort  but  could  not  cross  owing  to  the  wind 
they  stated  that  they  were  from  the  Mountains  on 
thier  way  to  join  the  Crows  that  are  above 

Fri.  19 — Mr  Meldrom  started  to  the  Crow  Camp  crossed 
over  the  Crows,  from  them  we  learned  that  the  big 
camp  has  run  over  the  Mountains  in  order  to  get 
rid  of  some  sickness  that  has  been  committing  great 
havoc  amongst  them  upwards  of  four  hundred  have 
died  from  the  disease 

Sat,  20 — Girard  &  Co  started  on  another  duck  hunt  to  the 
lake  but  returned — Seeing  six  fires  and  some  Indians 
the  supposition  is  that  the  enemies  are  about  Sioux 
I  suppose 

Sun.  21 — Commenced  snowing  about  8  O  clock  &  snowed 
hard  all  day.  Mr.  Meldrom  returned  from  camp 
bringing  a  few  Indians  along  reports  buflfaloa  plenty 
&  close 

Mon.  22 — fine  day  snow  melting  fast  traded  a  few  robes  & 
beaver  from  the  Crows 

Tues.  23 — Sent  out  hunting.  Four  Bears^^s  &  party  of  Gros- 
ventres  arrived  from  thier  village  they  are  on  a 
visit  to  the  Crows  they  bring  bad  news  from  the 

Wed.  24 — the  Grosventres  left,  the  Two  White  Weasles-^^ 
Crow  arrived  with  a  few  beaver 

Thurs.  25 — Cadot  &  four  men  arrived  from  fort  Benton  with 
fifty  odd  horses  &  mules  Cadot  left  on  the  8th  Mr 
Culbertson  &  Col  Cummings  left  for  the  Judith  on 
the  same  day  to  hold  a  treaty  with  the  upper  tribes 
he  seems  to  think  that  all  will  go  well — I  hope  so 

Fri.  26 — Friday  fine  day  nothing  strange  preparing  to  start 
out  in  the  barge  with  our  horses 


October  1855. 

Sat.  27 — Started  with  band  of  horses  &  mules  to  Snake 
Bute224  killed  five  cows  found  the  grass  but  tol- 
erable   water  miserable    set  two  traps  for  Wolf 

Sun.  28— Ramsey225,  Bouchie226  &  Constantine227  went  back 
to  the  Fort  Cadot  &  Alvary'-^s  remain  with  me 
caught  three  Wolves 

Men.  29 — had  great  trouble  collecting  the  horses  I  found 
them   much   scattered    3   wolves 

Tues.  30 — Same  as  yesterday  I  am  afraid  I  shall  lose  some 
of  my  horses    found  46  some  six  miles  from  camp 

Wed.  31 — Beautiful  weather  Ramsey  &  Caddot  came  out  for 
Col  Cummings  mules  received  a  few  lines  from 
friend  Riter    no  news 

November  1855 

Thurs.  1 — No  person  from  F.  U.  a  band  of  Assynaboins  thirty 
in  number  came  to  my  camp  and  spent  the  night 
with  me 

Fri.  2 — Catching  wolves  &  killing  Bulls 

Sat.  3 — The  two  Caddottes  arrived  with  news  for  me  to 
come  in  with  my  horses  I  also  learned  from  them 
that  a  difficulty  occurred  between  Girard  &  a  half 
breed  &  that  Girard  killed  the  half  breed  Girard 
was  sent  to  St.  Louis  to  stand  his  trial 

Sun.  4 — Got  to  Fort  Union  with  all  my  horses  found  Mr 
Kipp  very  unwell  I  learn  that  Col  Cummings  gave 
permission  to  establish  big  trading  house  for  the 

Mon.  5 — Levelling  the  bank  in  front  of  the  Fort  so  the 
Cannons  from  the  Bastions  will  command  the  river 
bank.    Some  Crows  arrived 


November  1855. 

Tues.  6 — Still  working  at  the  hill  Started  two  waf2:gons  to 
the  Bobourse  to  build  trading  houses  John  C 
Rollete223  arrived  from  St.  Louis  with  express 
Harney^^*^  has  gave  the  Brulus  a  drubbing  Fort 
full  of  Crows  to  recieve  thier  presents  Considerably 
hard  talk  I  would  not  be  surprised  if  it  would  end 
in  a  difficulty,    the  Crows  are  getting  very  mean 

Wed.  7 — Gave  the  Crows  thier  Annuities  All  went  ofif  well 
Every  one  appears  satisfied  One  of  our  men  was 
standing  at  the  gate  A  Crow  fired  his  gun  at  him 
&  wounded  him  severely,  the  other  Crows  to  a  man 
were  for  killing  the  Crow  on  the  spot  but  we  inter- 
fered &  saved  his  life  however  they  took  his  gun 
&  broke  it  over  his  head  &  drubbed  him  soundly 

Thurs.  8 — The  Crows  all  left  they  appear  to  be  very  sorry  for 
what  was  done  yesterday  &  hope  we  will  not  censure 
the  whole  nation  for  the  faults  of  one  bad  man. 
Certainly    not. 

Fri.  9^Some  few  Crows  came  &  went   they  are  very  uneasy 
traded  a  few  robes 

Sat.  10 — Quite  a  number  of  Crows  came  to  see  the  wounded 
man  they  made  him  a  present  of  12  robes  &  say 
that  as  soon  as  they  have  them  dressed  they  are 
going  to  give  him  130  robes  and  a  horse  traded  a 
few  robes    the  Crows  left 

Sun.  11 — Snowed  hard  the  whole  day  Ever}-  appearance  of 
Winter  setting  in  upon  us    No  news  of  Denig 

Mon.  12 — Cold  day  towards  night  commenced  snowing  Some 
Crows  arrived  &  state  that  the  Indian  that  shot  our 
man  made  an  attempt  to  commit  suicide  Our 
hunters  killed  5  deer 

Tues.  13 — Cold  day    Nothing  worth  recording 

Wed.  14 — Same  as  yesterday    hunters  brot  in  3  deer 


November  1855. 

Thurs.  15 — Very  Cold  Some  Crows  arrived  hunters  brot  in 
2  deer  &  1  cow 

Fri.  16— Pleasant  day  hunters  brot  in  6  cows  Report  Buf- 
falos  plenty  &  close 

Sat.  17 — Fine  day  the  two  Cadottes  started  after  an  Her- 
maphrodite Cow  that  they  had  wounded  yesterday 
they  found  the  cow  the  young  Cadotte  went  to  head 
the  cow  the  other  took  through  the  brush  to  cut  her 
off  his  rifle  caught  a  brush  &  went  ofif  the  ball 
passed  through  his  lung   he  lived  but  a  few  minutes 

Sun.  18 — Buried  Mr  Cadotte.  two  Crows  arrived,  brot  some 
little  meat  &  a  few  robes 

Men.  19 — Snow.  Excavating  the  bank  &  cleaning  up  the  Calf 
house,  quite  a  party  of  Crows  arrived,  brought  in  a 
few  robes  &  a  quantity  of  meat,  it  Appears  that 
we  are  going  to  be  troubled  with  those  pests  the 
whole  Winter,  they  have  been  coaxing  us  to  build 
trading  houses  for  them  &  now  that  they  have  them 
they  will  not  trade  but  intend  to  trade  here.  Expect- 
ing waggons  from   F  Benton 

Tues.  20 — The  Crows  remained  all  day  a  party  of  Grosventres 
arrived  Enroute  for  the  Crow  Camp — Carpenters 
getting  out  timbers  for  Sleighs 

Wed.  21 — The  Grosventres  left  for  the  Crows 

Thurs.  22 — Some  Crows  came  on  a  begging  expedition  but  got 
what  the  boy  shot  at  hunters  brot  in  the  meat  of 
two  fine  cows 

Fri.  23 — Crows  coming  &  going  the  opposition  folks  arrived 
from  the  Blackfeet,  they  Say  our  boats  had  not  got 
up  when  they  left,  they  came  down  in  twenty  Six 
days,    report  the  Snow  deep  above 

Sat  24 — Clear  fine  day  Express  from  St  Louis  arrived  but 
nothing  for  me  the  Grosventres  arrived  on  thier  way 
home,    the   Crows  gave  them   a  great   many   horses 



November  1855. 

Sun.  25 — J.  C  Rolette  Started  above  to  take  charge  of  the 
Winter  houses.    Mr  Meldrom  is  to  come  down 

Men.  26 — Clear  &  warm  Some  meat  traded  our  hunters  killed 
two  fine  cows 

Tues.  27 — Clear  &  pleasant  Snow  dissapearing-  fast  making 
a  road  on  the  ice.    hunters  killed  one  cow 

Wed.  28 — finished  road  across  the  river  in  the  Evening  Mr 
E  T  Denig  &  family,  Mess  Morgan--'^  Robt  Denig 
&  Labombarde232  arrived  from  St  I.ouis  Via  St 
Pauls  &  Red  river  having  been  nearly  three  months 
on  thier  trip 

Thurs.  29 — Same  weather    nothing  worth   recording 
Fri.  30— Dull     Dull     dull  -  - 

December  1855 

Sat.  1 — Clear  &  pleasant  Cadotte  &  Bompard  start  for  the 
Winter  houses  to  bring  down  the  horses. 

Sun.  2 — Fort  Union  pretty  well  filled  up  upwards  of  130 
souls  living  in  the  fort  High  wind  Cleaned  up  fort 
Some  Assinaboins  came  in 

Men.  3 — Regular  spring  weather  traded  considerable  from 
the  Crows,    the  Crows  had  a  war  dance  in  the  Fort 

Tues.  A — the  Crows  are  quite  a  bore  the  bother  the  life  out 
of  every  one  in  the  fort  except  myself 

Wed.  5 — Crow  Camp  moved  across  the  river 

Thurs.  6 — Some  little  trading  going  on 

Fri.  7 — Clear  &  warm    the  Crows  very  troublesome 

Sat.   8 — Cloudy    the  Wagon  from  the  Trading  house  came  in 

Sun.  9 — Snow  in  the  morning    Cleared  up   in   the  afternoon 

Mon.  10 — Snow  Some  Crows  came  with  a  present  of  50  robes 
to  pay  for  shooting  the  Dutchman 


December  1855. 

Tues.  11 — Snow  working  on  the  road  across  the  river,  but 
little  going  on 

Wed.  12 — Clear  &  pleasant    Some  little  trade  going  on 

Thurs.  13 — Fort    filled    with    Crows     A    Cree    arrived    with    a 
stolen  horse    Chiene  came  from  the   Winter  houses 

Fri.  14 — Clear  the  Blackfoot  Wagons  in  charge  of  Mr  Rose 
Arrived  As  also  Bricks — Stones — Missy 

Sat.    15 — high  Winds  all  day    but  little  trade 

Sun.   16 — Clear  &  cold    quite  a  quiet  day    but  few  Indians 

Men.  17 — Same    Chene   &   three  others   started   to   Ft   Benton 

Tues.  18 — Cold    Bombard  &  Degnue^^s   started  to  Rolette's 

Wed.  19 — Snow  &  wind    a   Crow  Buck  shot  a  ( ?) 

Berkshire  Boar  for  sport    "Oh  the  Brute. 

Thurs.  20 — Snow  decidedly  the  coldest  day  this  far   Our  hunters 
killed  two  cows — Crows  hunting 

Fri.  21 — Clear  &  cold  Thermometer  stood  at  29  below  zero 
packed    the    Blackfeet   Wagons 

Sat.  22 — Snow  during  the  night  30  below  zero  Buffaloa 
plenty  around  the  Fort  our  hunters  killed  4  cows, 
the  Crows  stole  the  meat  of  two  Rose  has  some 
horses   missing 

Sun.  23 — 22  below  zero  Mr  Riter  a  little  indisposed  Crows 
&  our  hunters  slaying  the  Bufifalos 

Men.  24 — Mr  Rose  started  to  Ft  Benton  with  6  waggons  four 
horses  in  each  I  propheysy  that  he  will  never  reach 
Milk  River  without  a  relay  of  horses  no  animals  in 
the  world  can  stand  such  weather  Rose  thinks  not — 
we  will  see 

Tues,  25 — Clear  &  cold     a  quiet  Christmas 

Wed.  26 — Dobies   Expedition   started   for   Ft  Campbell 


December  1855. 

Thurs.  27 — Some  little  Meat  trade  going  on 

Fri.  28 — hunters  killed  2  cows  Bompard  &  Degnue  started 
to  the  Winter  houses 

Sat.  29 — Cold    our  hunters  killing  Bufifaloa 

Sun.  30 — Snow    trading  Meat 

Mon.  31 — Snow  &  high   wind — dull  dreary  times 

January  1856 

Tues.  1 — Hail  Happy  New  Year  we  had  a  nice  little  Rail 
last  night  No  salutes  fired  on  acount  of  Bufiflo  being 
so  plenty — No  grog  being  on  hand  the  consequence 
was  that  all  hands  kept  sober 

Wed.  2— Clear  &  cold    Bufiflo  plenty 

Thurs.  3 — Thermometer  stood  at  34  below  zero    Bufifaloa  thick 
close  to  the  fort 

Fri.  4 — Clear  &:  cold    got  in  the  meat  of  4  cows 

Sat,   5 — Stormy  day    nothing  going  on 

Sun.  6 — Cold  &  Stormy    Two  Assinaboins  arrived 

Mon.  7 — this  has  been  the  worst  day  I  ever  saw  the  wind 
blew  a  hurricane  you  cannot  see  six  inches  the 
snow  has  filled  the  air  T  am  alarmed  for  our  people 
from  Rolettes 

Tues.  8 — Clear  &  cold  Our  people  came  in  at  dusk  they  were 
caught  in  yesterday's  storm  seven  horses  &  two 
oxen  frose  to  death  &  the  party  came  near  sharing 
the  fate  of  the  animals.  A  little  child,  the  Daughter 
of  the  late  Col  A.  B.  Chambers^^*  was  brought  in 
by  them,  its  Mother  had  thrown  it  away  poor  little 
thing  it  was  near  gone  completely  chilled  through. 
I  took  charge  of  it  &  intend  to  keep  it 

Wed.  9 — I  started  out  to  bring  in  the  Sleighs  left  by  our 
folks — got  to  the  place  cut  away  the  dead  horses 
&  camp'd  at  little  muddy 


January  1856. 

Thurs.  10 — 1  find  I  frose  my  face  yesterday    Started  &  g-ot  safe 
to  F  Union 

Fri.  11 — Cloudy  &  pleasant    Thermonu'ter  only  6  below  zero 

Sat.  12 — Clear  &  pleasant  Some  trading-  .^-oing^  on  Crows  a 
i^reat  bore 

Sun.   13 — preparing  to   start  to  Rolettes 

Men.  14 — Started  with  three  men  &  three  Sleighs  for  Roletts 
post    camp'd  at  Cote  Trambeleau^^-'' 

Tues.  15 — Made  a  late  start  folowed  on  the  ice  &  camp'd  early 
in  the  point  above  little   Muddy 

Wed.  16 — Started  early  Camp'd  at  McKenzies  old  houses^-'^*^ 
Ice   hard   travelling- 

Thurs.  17 — Made  a  g-ood  day  &  camp'd  at  the   foot  of  Henry's 

Fri.  18 — Made  an  early  start  left  the  river  &  took  the  prararie 
snow  over  a  foot  deep  our  horses  stood  thier  work 
bravely  Arrived  at  Rolettes  late  in  the  afternoon 
I  learn  here  that  Rose  is  a  short  distance  above 
with  his  wagons  tliirteen  of  his  horses  are  dead  & 
all  the  others  so  poor  they  have  to  be  lifted  up 

Sat.    19 — Still  at  Rolettes    Indians   hunting  well 

Sun.   20 — Keeping  Rolette  in  hot  water    what  a  niny 

Men.  21 — Started  for  the  fort  with  three  trains  loaded  with 
Tongues    Camp'd  at  the  foot  of   Henry's  cut 

Tues.  22 — U)ok  the  ice  as  far  as  McKenzies  housi-s  left  it 
thier    took  the  prairie  &  cam])'d  at  the  little  Mudd}- 

Tues.  23 — Met  a  war  party  of  Crows  on  the  hunt  of  Black- 
feet  that  had  stolen  some  horses  I  told  them  it 
was  not  Blackfeet  but  Crees.  they  kept  on  1  ar- 
rived at  the  fort  all  right 


January  1856. 

Thurs.  24 — Cold  morning  fort  full  of  Crow  loafers  no  robes — 
dull  times  the  settee  in  the  office  affords  a  fine 
lounge  for  those  Indans  who  poor  fellows  have  to 
wait  often  some  Minutes  for  thier  coffee  As  that 
piece  of  furniture  is  not  of  unlimited  length  some 
are  obliged  to  sleep  standing  whilst  others  find  a 
more  comfortable  snoozing  place  on  the  floor  among 
the  dogs.  Sugar  &  credit  much  in  demand  the 
former  to  drink  the  health  of  the  fort  the  latter 
merely    to    have    something    to    be    remembered    by 

Fri.  25 — Cold  &  dull    nothing  doing 

Sat.  26 — Started  for  Rolettes  with  three  Sleigh  loads  of  Mer- 
chandise Camp'd  above  the  little  muddy  Some  fifty 
Crows  camp'd  with  me    they  acted  well 

Sun.  27 — Started  early  a  Storm  came  up  early  in  the  day 
Camp'd  at   Herveys   Point-^" 

Men.  28 — laid  by  all  day    Still   Stormy 

Tues.  29 — Started  early  made  good  time  Camp'd  at  the  old 
Burnt  Houses,  in  the  night  some  Assinaboins  came 
in  with  napper  poor  fellow  got  caught  out  in  the 
storm  of  Monday  &  got  froze — poor  napper  is  a 

Wed.  30 — Started  &  got  to  Rolettes  about  10  M  Napper  ar- 
rived but  died  as  he  got  home 

Thurs.  31 — Feby — Snow    &    wind — Poudirie--'^ 

February  1856 

Fri.  1— Still   Stormy 

Sat.   2 — Stormy  &  cold — Still  playing  Rolette 

Sun.  3 — fine  cold  day  Started  &  camp'd  at  Henry's  cut — 
Mr  Fool  Bear  &  wife  Old  Peke  Dogs  lodge  & 
Squaw  followed  me 


February  1856. 

Mon.  4 — Started  killed  a  cow  for  Peke's  dogs  &  Squaw — 
camp'd  at  little  muddy 

Tues.  5 — got  to  the  Fort  all  right  killing  hut  three  dogs  on 
the  trip 

Wed.  6 — clear  &  cold — fort   full  of  loafing  Crow  Indians 

Thurs.  7^-clear  &  pleasant  the  Crows  lost  upwards  of  100 
head  of  horses  last  night  Supposed  to  be  stolen  by 
the  Blackfeet  a  party  of  Crows  started  in  pursuit 
of  the  Blackfeet 

Fri.  8 — Snow — A   Crow   returned   with   three   of   the   horses 
stolen — they  had  given  out  &  was  left 

Sat.   9 — Clear    no  news  of  the  Crows  as  yet 

Sun.    10 — Snowing  &   dull   times 

Mon,  11 — Same   weather    considerable   trade   going  on 

Tues.  12 — High  wind  the  Crows  returned  with  all  the  horses 
&  one  Scalp  Very  little  trade  a  brisk  Scalp  dance 
going  on 

Wed.  13 — clear  &  pleasant  Crows  dancing  in  the  fort  all  day 
preparing  to  start  to   Rolette 

Thurs.  14 — Started    found  but  little  snow  on  the  Prairie  &  con- 
siderable water  on  the  ice    Camp'd  at  little  Muddy 

Fri.  15 — Started  found  hard  work  no  snow  Camp'd  at 
Harvey's  Point 

Sat.  16 — Started  «&:  travelled  through  about  a  foot  of  water 
horses  falling  every  step  came  to  two  feet  water  & 
turned  back  left  the  drivers  to  bring  the  teams  to 
little  Muddy  &  myself  started  to  F  L'nion  to  re- 
port— found  Mr  Wray  had  arrived  with  express  for 
St  Louis 

Sun.  17 — Started  with  two  horses  to  bring  the  goods  back  to 
Ft  Union  got  to  little  Muddy  &  slept  the  night 
I  found  my  drivers  there    goods  all  safe 


February  1856. 

Mon,  18 — Started  &  arrived  at  Ft  Union 

Tues.  19 — Writings  letters  for  "home  "Sweet  "home"  Dauphin 
came  up  to  take  the  St  Louis  express  as  far  as  Fort 
Clark  News  came  of  a  fight  between  the  Blackfeet 
&  Assinaboins    one  of  each  was  killed 

Wed.  20 — Clear  &  pleasant  a  party  of  Assinaboins  arrived 
with  the  Body  of  napper  &  the  Bears  son  kill'd  in 
the  fight  with  the  Blackfeet 

Thurs.  21 — Clear  8z  fine  Some  Assinaboins  left  Dauphin  left 
with  the  express  for  St  Louis  I  started  for  Rolettes 
with  pack  horses  Mr  Wray  started  express  for  Ft 
Benton    campd  at  little   Muddy 

Fri.  22 — hard  travelling  Mr  Wray's  feet  very  sore  camp'd 
at  Henry's  cut 

Sat.  23 — got  as  far  as  big  Muddy  seen  that  it  would  be  dan- 
gerous to  cross  my  mules  Sent  to  Rolette  for  his 
cart  carried  the  goods  over  &  returned  Slept  at 
the  old  Burnt  Wintering  houses  some  Assinaboins 
past  &  told  me  that  the  Crows  &  Blackfeet  had  a 
brush  the  Crows  got  three  scalps  a  Crow  boy  got 

Sun.  24 — Started  early  picked  up  a  cart  that  was  left  by 
Bompard    camp'd  little  Muddy 

Mon.  25 — Arrived  at  Ft  Union  foun  the  fort  full  of  Crow 
Indians  dancing  the  three  scalps  taken  in  the  late 

Tues.  26— Cloudy  considerable  water  on  the  Ice  the  Crows 
are  afraid  to  cross  Dobey's  in  the  Crow  camp  trad- 
ing contrary  to  law 

Wed.  27 — Slight  snow  &;  cold  the  crossing  in  tolerable  good 
order    a   trading  party  of  Assinaboins  arrived 

Thurs.  28 — Fort  full  of  Crow  loafers  in  search  of  Mush  & 
cofifee    but  little  trade 


February  1856. 

Fri.  29 — Cloudy  &  snow  a  large  party  of  Assinaboins  ar- 
rived with  a  quantity  of  robes — fort  full  of  Crows 
&  Assinaboins 

March  1856 

Sat.  1 — The  Assinaboins  left  after  trading  all  thier  robes 
Old  Greyhead  came  over  with  his  robes  &  as  usual 
he  was  hard  to  get  through  with — got  the  rheuma- 

Sun.  2 — a  few  robes  traded  I  am  still  unwell  sent  a  few 
goods   to   Rolettes 

Mon.  3 — High  wind  but  still  trade  going  on 

Tues.  A — Clear  &  cold  six  lodges  of  Assinaboins  came  here 
to  stay  untill  they  dress  thier  robes 

Wed.  5 — Traded  all  day  the  Crows  pretty  well  cleaned  out 
of  thier  robes    self  in  good  health 

Thurs.  6 — Clear    Crow  trade  winding  up 

Fri.  7 — Eight  Crow  Chiefs  got  dress'd  by  Ft  Union  Bears 
Head,  Grey  Head — Dogs  Head — Long  Horse^^s — 
White  Thigh24o,  Four  Dances  &  the  Iron  Boy  As 
also  High   Pumpkins    Crow  trade  finished 

Sat.  8 — "Glorious  "News!  Great  Victory!!  Grand  illumi- 
nation to  take  place  this  Evening  Crows  Evacuated 
Fort  Union.  After  a  series  of  unheard  efforts,  the 
Band  of  Crow  Indians  raised  camp  &  left  carrying 
with  them  the  best  wishes  of  the  Fort  never  to  see 
thier  snouts  again.  Mr  Kipp  gave  them  a  certificate 
for  good  behavior  to  show  the  U  S  Agt  had  I 
drawn  it  up  it  would  read  something  like  this 

This  is  to  certify  that  the  same  Crow  Indians 
are  a  lousy,  thieving.  Beggarly  set  of  Rascals  They 
shot  a  dutchman  Kill'd  a  Boar  cut  up  two  car- 
riages stole  everything  they  could  lay  thier  hands 
on.     Begged    &    Bothered    Mr.    Kipp    to   death    got 



March  1856. 

credits  &  never  paid  run  everywhere  through  the 
Fort  insulted  &  annoyd  every  one  Amongst  those 
that  particularly  distinguished  themselves  by  mean- 
ness the  first  is  Rotten  Tail  vi^ho  w^ith  his  infernal 
Old  Sow  of  a  wife  has  been  a  torment  to  the  traders 
besides  cheating  them  out  of  thirty  robes,  the  next 
is  Four  Dances  who  is  a  grumbling  disagreeable 
troublesome  beggarly  rascal  &  ready  to  cheat  & 
steal  whenever  an  opportunity  offers — The  rest  are 
a  thought  better  in  some  respects  but  the  whole  may 
be  put  down  as  the  Horrid  Tribe 

It  is  but  just  to  say  that  in  this  flock  of  black 
sheep  there  are  a  few  white  ones  The  Dogs  Head 
is  the  best  Indian  on  the  Upper  Missouri  Old  Grey 
Head  sticks  to  the  Fort  gives  all  his  robes  &  takes 
care  to  get  well  paid  Long  Horse  Pumpkins  White 
Thighs  &  Iron  Boy  may  be  classed  among  the  re- 
spectable men  but  they  have  no  command  over  thier 

The  Bears  Head  is  a  good  easy  man  &  lets  his 
people  do  as  they  please  and  the  consequence  is 
that  the  Bucks  are  raping  the  Squaws  in  broad  day 
light  in  every  corner  without  regard  to  lookers  on 
indeed  they  seem  to  prefer  witnesses  to  the  opera- 

The  women  are  all  Whores,  the  Young  Bucks 
impudent  Scoundrels,  the  children  noisy  rabble  the 
Old  rips  Thieves  And  the  elderly  portion  having 
run  thier  course  in  these  things,  have  now  settled 
down  to  begging  at  which  they  excel  all  other  tribes 

Sun.  9 — Fort  looks  deserted  P  Chane  &  two  others  arrived 
from  Fort  Benton,  prospects  good  as  regards  the 
Robe  trade 

Mon.   10 — A  slight  snow  storm 

Tues.  11 — Commenced  making  packs  what  Robes  we  got  from 
the  Crows  are  without  exception  the  worst  lot  of 
robes  I  have  even  seen — heretofore  the  Crows  were 


March  1856. 

famed  for  making  fine  robes — but  opposition  has  not 
only  ruined  the  trade  but  spoild  them — thier  robes 
are  but  half  dress'd 

Wed.  12 — Very  cold    too  much  so  to  make  ])acks 

Thurs.  13 — Some  little   snow    nothing  doing 

Fri.  14 — Cloudy   &   cold    river  rising 

Sat.    15— Cloudy  &  cold    dull 

Sun.    16 — Somewhat    milder 

Men.  17 — Making  packs  two  Assinaboins  arrived  from  the 
Band  de   CanotsS^i 

Tues.  18 — Cloudy  &  warm    got  in  the  meat  of  a  Bull  &  cow 

Wed.  19 — The  Far  famed  old  Assinaboin  Astrologer  Dry  Bones 
predicts  that  in  nine  nights  from  this  three  White 
men  will  arrive  with  dispatches  from  below 

Thurs.  20 — My   Birth  day  &  a  beautiful  day   it  is 

Fri.  21 — Very  pleasant    finished  the  packs 

Sat.  22 — Cloudy  &  Windy  Ducks  coming  in  quite  Respect- 
able numbers.  Dug  graves  for  the  dead  &  buried 

Sun.  23 — Clear   &  windy    first   ducks  kill'd 

Men.  24 — Stormy  &  snow    first  geese  seen 

Tues.  25 — Clear  &  pleasant    river  rising 

Wed.  26 — river  still   rising    Hunters  out 

Thurs.  27 — cloudy   &   windy    Hunters   returned   with   the    meat 
of  2  cows    press'd   141  packs 

Fri.  28 — clear   &   windy    pressing  packs 

Sat.   29 — cloudy   &   windy    pressing  packs 

Sun.  30 — quite  a  snow  storm  river  fell  4  feet  Ice  strong  on 
the   Missouri 

Men.  31 — A  beautiful  day    March  died  like  a  lamb 


April   1856 

Tues.  1 — Cloudy  &  Windy    Ice  beginnino-  to  start 

Wed.  2 — from  appearances  the  river  must  be  gorged  above — 
Bars   full   of  ice   water  receding  rapidly — but   little 


Thurs.  3 — Windy  in  the  morning  but  warm  &  calm  in  the 
afternoon     Caulking    Mackinaw 

Fri.  4 — Pleasant  day  launched  boat  &  rigged  her  to  start 
to  Rolettes  in  the  morning 

Sat.  5 — clear  &  windy  Boat  started  the  men  going  up  to 
the  Blackfeet  with  me  will  go  on  the  Boat  as  far 
as  Rolettes  Myself  will  start  on  Monday  &  over- 
take them 

Sun.  6 — Clear  &  warm  Louis  Rivias  arrived  with  Express 
for  the  States,  he  says  that  Maj  Hatch  &  Mr  Clark 
will  be  here  in  a  day  or  so  &  that  two  men  coming 
down  are  to  go  back  with  me  so  I  shall  not  be  able 
to  start  tomorrow 

Men.  7 — A  beautiful  day    doing  nothing 

Tues.  8 — Last  evening  turned  out  bad  &  stormy  A  dreadfull 
snow  storm  this  day 

Wed.  9 — Cleared  ofif  &  turned  out  warm  e^  pleasant  in  the 
evening  Mr  Kipp  rec'd  letters  from  Messrs  Hatch 
&  Clark— it  appears  that  they  are  at  the  little  Muddy 
Eleven  of  thier  horses  perished  in  the  storm  of 
Tuesday  As  an  Assinaboin  camp  is  close  to  them 
Mr  Kipp  wrote  them  to  come  in  at  once 

Thurs.  10 — Major  Hatch  &  Mr  Wilson  &  party  arrived  a  little 
before  day  Making  preparations  to  start  in  the 

Fri.  11 — every  appearance  of  a  storm  Started  at  10  o  clock — 
about  12  M  commenced  raining — rained  about  one 
hour  &  turned  to  snow  Snowed  steady  &  tremen- 
dous hard  untill  day  light — Camp'd  on  the  Cote- 
Tramp-Leau.    Made  about  six  miles. 


April  1856. 

Sat.  12 — Started  late  Snow  over  a  foot  deep.  Cross'd  little 
Muddy    came  on  &  camp'd  at  Ash  Island 

Sun.  13 — Started  early  Arrived  at  the  Big  Muddy  found  it 
high  made  a  lodge  Skin  Baggage  &  cross'd  our 
luggage  safely — Swam  over  &  came  on  to  Rolettes 
found  that  the  Boat  had  left  about  two  hours  I  find 
the  ten  men  here  that  is  to  go  up  with  me — Chane 
Snow  Blind  from  the  time  we  left  the  Fort  untill 
we  got  here  we  had  nothing  to  eat 

Mon.  lA — Still  at  Rolettes  houses  Chane  some  little  better  I 
hardly  know  what  to  do  with  the  man  that  Mr 
Kipp  sent  to  assist  in  bringing  down  the  Boat  he 
is  unwilling  to  go  down  by  himself  &  I  cannot  spare 
a  man  to  go  with  him — the  consequence  is  that  he 
will  have  to  go  up  to  Ft  Benton 

Tues.  15 — had  some  difficulty  to  find  our  Horses — found  them 
at  last  &  Travelled  against  a  strong  west  wind — 
camp'd  early  at  the  head  of  Frenchman's  Point — 
every  prospect  of  Another  Storm — kill'd  2  geese  & 

1  Bull 

Wed.  16 — Made  an  early  start  come  to  River  Au  Trembe  took 
dinner   made   a    raft   &   cross'd     Kill'd   an   Antelope 

2  geese  &  1   Bull   1   Elk    camp'd  on  the  first  Fork 
above  River  Au  Trembe 

Thurs.  17 — Made  an  early  start  Kill'd  a  fat  Bull  Noon'd  at  the 
Lake,  raised  camp  &  came  on  to  the  Big  Gully — 
kill'd   2  Brant 

Fri.  18 — Made  an  early  start  came  to  the  first  creek  above 
Wolf  Point  &  noon'd — caught  up  &  came  on  to  the 
Porcupine  of  the  Miss,  kill'd  a  cow  &  Bull  each 
man  took  his  load  on  his  back — Our  old  Cut  Ear 
is  about  giving  out 

Sat.  19 — Fine  day — Started  early  Came  on  Milk  River  & 
noon'd — packed    up    &    started     Chene    kill'd    a    cow 


April  1856. 

Sent  ten  men  to  pack  in  some  meat  camp'd  on  the 
Porcupine  of  Milk  River  Grass  excellent  Some  of 
my  Dutchman  distinguished  themselves  in  the  way 
of  slaughtering  Hare  &  Sage  Cocks 

Sun.  20 —  Fine  day  made  an  early  start  noon'd  opposite  Tiger 
Butes--'- — Camp'd  on  the  first  creek  below  Willow 
Creek — One  of  my  horses  pretty  well  knocked  up — 
Kill'd  an  Antelope  &  Bull 

Men.  21 — Started  in  good  season  Kill'd  two  cows  on  Willow 
Creek  &  noon'd — both  the  cows  had  young  calves 
the  boys  brought  them  with  along  untill  we  camp'd 
for  the  night  Camp'd  about  twelve  miles  below  the 
foot  of  the  Big  Bend  the  Boys  kill'd  thier  calves  & 
had  a  jolly  feast 

Tues.  22 — Started  at  the  usual  time  Kill'd  an  Antelope  below 
Sand  Creek  Cross'd  Sand  Creek  &  took  dinner 
mired  one  of  my  horses — Came  to  the  upper  crossing 
made  rafts  &  cross'd  Milk  River — camp'd  early  at 
the  crossing 

Wed.  23 — Started  late  owing  to  my  horses  having  strayed 
from  camp  took  out  from  Milk  River — Stop'd  to 
dinner  Started  again  kill'd  three  cows  &  a  Bull 
camp'd  on  Beaver  creek243 

Thurs.  24 — Made  an  early  start  came  on  to  Beaver  creek  in  a 
severe  snow  storm  camp'd  about  11  o  clock  Snow- 
ing hard  &  continued  snowing  untill  12  o  clock  in 
the  night    I  am  alarmed  for  my  horses 

Fri.  25 — Cleared  up  fine  morning  Our  Horses  lost  all  hands 
out  in  search  of  them — prospects  look  gloomy  I  am 
afraid  we  will  have  to  pack  our  things  on  our  backs 
if  such  is  the  case  our  trip  will  be  any  thing  but 
pleasant  about  three  O  clock  the  last  party  came 
in  with  out  finding  them  I  immediately  started  ex- 
amining well  with  my  glass  &  found  the  mule  and 
old   Crop    Ear   feeding  with    Buffaloa    got   to   camp 


April  1856. 

after  dark  &  found  my  little  Black  had  come  in — 
r  think  Black  had  a  fit  in  the  night  &  fell  in  the 
creek  Scaring  the  others  off — he  has  had  three 
severe  fits  since  I  left  F  U — Kill'd  3  cows  &  1  Bull 

Sat.  26 — Made  a  good  start  cross'd  the  creek  took  the  cut 
&  got  to  the  head  of  the  Big  bend  &  noon'd  there — 
made  about  ten  miles  after  dinner  &  camp'd  on  a 
small  creek  &  directly  opposite  little  Rocky  Moun- 
tain— The  Bears  Paw  presented  itself  but  at  a  great 
distance    kill'd  4  Bulls 

Sun.  27 — Made  a  fine  start  &  got  along  well  made  fifteen 
miles  good  &  took  dinner — Started  again  and  made 
about  ten  miles  &  camp'd  on  Milk  River  kill'd  one 
cow  &  one  Bull    made  about  28  miles 

Men.  28 — Made  a  good  start  came  above  the  upper  of  the 
two  Forks  &  noon'd  kill'd  a  cow  Started  again  & 
made  about  twelve  miles  &  camp'd  in  an  excellent 
place  no  BufTaloa  in  sight  but  we  have  plenty  of 

Tues.  29 — Started  about  the  usual  time  &  had  got  but  a  short 
distance  when  we  discovered  some  Indians  on  horse 
back  coming  to  us — ^they  proved. to  be  Bloods  &  the 
camp  is  a  short  distance  ahead — came  on  to  the 
camp  &  was  treated  well  by  those  hitherto  Scoun- 
drels I  staid  but  one  hour  they  trid  to  persuade 
me  to  stay  all  night — I  learned  that  the  Blackfoot 
camp  was  a  short  distance  ahead  I  kept  along  the 
river  untill  I  discovered  the  Blackfoot  &  Searces-"** 
camps  then  I  struck  out  &  came  on  the  River  about 
five  miles  above  the  camps  &  slept  I  found  two 
young  Bloods  hid  in  the  bushes  they  told  me  they 
were  chaced  by  a  party  of  North  Assinaboins  they 
wanted  to  leave  in  the  night  but  I  prevailed  on  them 
to  remain  all  night  with  me 


April  1856. 

Wed.  30 — g^ot  up  before  daylight  &  started  the  hills  covered 
with  Blackfeet  &  Bloods  in  search  of  the  Assina- 
boins  none  of  them  came  to  me — I  presume  they 
thought  I  was  unprofitable  Stock  &  would  cost  them 
more  than  it  would  bring — came  on  to  the  upper 
crossing  &  noon'd.  Started  Struck  the  old  trail  & 
camp'd  on  Little  Beaver  Creek. ^^s  Water  grass  & 
camp  excellent  Kill'd  a  fine  Reaver  &  several  Hares 
&  Prairie  chickens 

May  1856 

Thurs.  1 — Sent  John  Bill  out  for  the  Horses  he  lost  himself 
without  finding  the  horses  waited  an  hour  or 
so  &  sent  out  more  men  they  soon  returned  with 
the  horses.  Sent  out  five  men  to  hunt  for  Bill 
waited  an  hour  or  so  &  the  men  came  in  with  Bill 
went  on  to  the  Cotton  Wood's  &  took  breakfast 
Started  &  kill'd  two  cows  &  one  Bull — came  on  to 
the  Box  Elder  &  camp'd    rain 

Fri.  2 — Rained  pretty  much  all  night  dried  our  bedding  a 
little  &  started  late — Came  to  the  Spring  about  two 
O  clock — cooked  &  eat  Saddled  up  &  came  on  the 
Marias  at  sun  set — found  it  fordable  made  this  day 
forty  nine  miles — I  have  been  reserving  this  for  one 
days  work  for  my  Dutchman  in  order  to  try  thier 
bottom — a  good  deal  of  grumbling  &  some  sore 
legs — rain'd   at   intervals   through    the   day 

Sat.  3 — Started  late  forded  the  Marias  came  on  in  the  rain 
to  the  Crokamgena  Stop'd  wash'd  Shirted  &  eat 
met  a  Grosventre  &  Squaw — arrived  at  the  fort 
about  11  a.  m.  found  Mess  Dawson  Rose  &  Wray 
all  well 

Sun.  A — Paid  visit  to  Fort  Campbell  Seen  Bricks  Mother 
Father  Brothers  &  Sisters — they  are  living  in  the 
Fort  &  are  a  fine  familv 


May  1856. 

Mon.  5 — Hricks  Father  &  Mother  paid  me  a  visit  &  pre- 
sented me  with  a  fine  Mare  heavy  with  foal  &  a 
splendid  three  year  old  colt — Bought  a  fine  Chest- 
nut  Sorrell  from   Mr   Dawson 

Tues.  6 — Making  preparations  to  start  to  Fort  Union  in 
charge  of  a  large  Band  of  Horses  Mr  Rose  gave 
me  a  fine  Dark  Bay  Horse 

Wed.  72*^ — Started  from  Fort  Benton  for  Fort  Union  Having 
39  Horse  A  F  Co— 26  Mr  Bird— 14  Rivias— 4  Cham- 
bers— 3  Champagne  &  a  number  of  colts 

Wed.  7 — Came  to  the  Marias  cross'd  &  rested  our  horses  & 
cooked  dinner — Started  &  camp'd  on  the  Miss. — I 
intend  passing  through  the  Bears  Paw  B  Cham- 
pagne had  a  severe  fit  in  the  night    made  25  miles 

Thurs.  8 — Started  late  owing  to  the  indisposition  of  B  Cham- 
pagne he  is  very  weak  came  on  &  noon'd  on  Sand 
creek — Started  &  was  soon  overtaken  by  Bricks 
Father  he  wants  to  go  down  with  me  I  persuaded 
him  to  return  pass'd  the  Grosventre  camp  none 
came  to  see  us  but  I  am  afraid  of  visitors  in  the 
night  camp'd  on  Eagle  creek^^T  made  about  30 

Fri.  9 — a  great  deal  of  trouble  to  find  our  horses  found 
them  all  at  last  Started  late  &  had  considerable 
trouble  with  my  horses  pottered  along  &  camp'd 
on  Dog  river^^s  Some  appearance  of  rain — A  good 
many  Grosventre  pass'd  us  on  thier  return  from  hunt- 
ing and  with  but  little  meat  report  no  buflflo  close 
My  mare  had  a  fine  foal    made  about  10  miles 

Sat.  10 — Some  Grosventre  came  to  us  last  night  &  more  this 
morning  gathered  up  my  horses  or  at  least  I  think 
I  gathered  them  all  a  great  many  Grosventres  horses 
being  with  mine  it  was  with  difficulty  that  I  got 
them  collected  tried  several  times  to  count  them 
but  they  keep  moving  so  that  it  is  impossible  to  get 


May  1856. 

tlie  correct  count  1  should  not  be  surprised  to  find 
that  I  have  lost  two  or  three  rain'd  pretty  much 
all  day  came  within  about  eight  miles  of  the  foot 
of  the  Gap  of  the  Bears  Paw  Made  about  20  miles 
My  young  colt  travels  well    kill'd  an  antelope 

Sun.  11 — Gathered  up  my  horses  &  found  I  had  two  missing 
Started  out  &  found  them  in  a  gap  of  the  mountain 
Started  &  proceeded  very  slow  Shocking  hilly  & 
steep  gullies  camp'd  early  on  a  creek  that  runs  at 
the  foot  of  the  Bears  Paw  Eleven  Grosventres  over- 
took us  among  them  was  a  Brother  of  Bricks — he 
gave  me  a  splendid  Black  runner  I  gave  him  my 
chestnut  made  about  10  miles — one  Grosventre 
kill'd  a  bufflo    Slept  with  us 

Men.  12 — Started  as  soon  as  possible  came  on  to  the  little 
Rocky  Mountain  &  noon'd  had  our  horses  caught 
saddled  &  was  about  to  start  when  B.  Champagne 
had  another  severe  fit  campd  at  our  nooning  camp 
— Made  12  miles — horses  all  right 

Tues.  13 — P\)und  all  my  horses  without  difficulty  Saddled  & 
packed  up  &  found  B  Champagne  unable  to  start 
remaind  untill  10  O  clock  &  started  went  about 
eight  miles  and  campd  for  the  day  as  Champagne 
was  unable  to  sit  his  horse  campd  under  little  Rocky 
Mt — killd  4  Bulls  one  of  the  Co  horses  got  badly 
torn  by  wolves    8  miles 

Wed.  14 — Champagne  very  low  I  do  not  think  we  will  be  able 
to  get  him  to  Fort  Union  alive — Made  a  travios  for 
B  Champagne  &  had  got  but  a  short  distance  when 
it  broke  Sent  back  for  more  poles  &  repaired  it 
went  about  5  miles  when  we  came  across  some 
excellent  poles  made  an  excellent  travios  &  started 
campd  at  the  foot  of  the  gap  of  the  little  Rocky  Mt 
Made  15  miles  Champagne  very  low  all  night  15 


May  1856. 

Thurs.  15 — Started  early  considering  all  drawbacks  came  out 
of  the  little  Mountain  came  about  eight  miles  when 
every  appearance  of  an  approaching  storm  made  us 
pick  a  good  encampment  Campd  for  the  day  on 
Snake  creek  fine  grass  tolerable  water  &  any  quan- 
tity of  Snakes  kill'd  two  cows  &  feasted  on  Marrow 
Bones — Boudin   &c    Made  8  miles 

Fri.  16 — Started  very  late  say  Eight  Oclock  Champagne  very 
low  &  in  great  pain  you  can  hear  his  screams  a 
long  distance  about  ten  O  clock  he  had  another 
spasm  fortunately  we  were  near  water  Stopd  about 
three  hours  in  the  interim  C  had  another  severe 
atack  Started  from  our  nooning  &  travelled  well 
for  three  hours  Campd  on  Cottonwood  I  intend 
pushing  in  the  morning  for  the  nearest  point  of 
Miss  River  in  order  to  have  water  on  hand  for  the 
poor  Invalid.  My  calculation  is  to  make  Milk  River 
below  the  Grand  Tour-^^  early  tomorrow  I  am 
afraid  Champagne  will  not  last  over  forty  eight 
hours  Made  18  miles  Grass  poor  kill'd  2  Bulls  & 
2  cows  Champagne  very  low  in  the  night  horses 

Sat.  17 — Started  late  Champagne  some  better  came  on  the 
dry  fork  &  campd  for  the  day,  As  it  was  very  hot 
&  fatiguing  for  the  sick  man  Made  12  miles  Kill'd 
1   Bull  1  Antelope 

Sun.  18 — Started  at  our  usual  time  when  1  came  to  examine 
my  horses  I  found  a  favorite  one  missing  rode  out 
&  found  him  killed  from  what  cause  I  cannot 
imagine  he  was  lying  with  his  head  in  the  water — 
Came  on  &  struck  the  Miss  River  in  the  bad  lands 
campd  early  grass  &  watering  place  good  I  hope 
to  see  Mr  Dawsons  Boats  pass  to  put  Mr  Cham- 
pagne on  board    he  appears  to  be  some  little  better 

Men.  19 — I  find  as  the  country  has  become  familiar  to  me 
that  I  am  about  twenty  five  miles  above  Bute  Round 


May  1856. 

the  day  was  very  hot  travelled  about  twelve  miles 
&  camped  on  the  jfirst  fork  above  round  Bute  kill'd 
a  good  Bull    12  miles. 

Tues.  20 — An  unpleasant  day  intensely  hot  two  horses  gave 
out  in  the  Travois  before  11  A  M  Noon'd  on  the 
Miss — after  coming  about  Eight  miles — on  coming 
directly  opposite  Bute  Round  I  seen  the  fires  of  Mr 
D's  boats  the  must  have  camp'd  there  on  Sunday 
last  My  Black  that  I  took  up  with  me  had  another 
fit  I  neglected  to  note  in  yesterday's  news  that  he 
had  a  fit  &  came  near  killing  old  man  Bird  Cham- 
pagne a  good  deal  better  he  intends  trying  it  on 
horseback  tomorrow  T  think  he  is  too  weak  to  try 
it  but  he  thinks  to  the  contrary    Made   16  miles 

Wed.  21 — Found  my  horses  far  from  camp  and  as  a  matter 
of  course  made  a  late  start  about  11  a.  m.  com- 
menced raining  we  kept  on  in  the  rain  untill  12 
when  we  stopped  &  put  up  our  lodge  cleared  up 
about  2  p.  m.  Started  at  three  &  kept  on  untill  Sun- 
down camp'd  in  the  prairie — grass  the  best  we  have 
had  since  I  left  Fort  Benton  Champagne  worse 
made   15  miles 

Wed.  21— Kill'd  two  deer  &  one  fat  Bull 

Thurs.  22 — Started  very  late  say  9^2  Oclock  Champagne  very 
low  noon'd  after  making  about  ten  miles — Saddled 
&  gathered  up  my  horses  &  made  ten  miles  more — 
killing  two  good  cows  &  one  Elk  Champagne  some 
better  we  are  now  two  &  half  points  above  Milk 
River    good  grass  &  watering  place    made  20  miles 

Fri.  23 — Started  late  &  made  several  stoppages  came  on  to 
the  mouth  of  Milk  River  &  noon'd  could  not  cross 
too  miry  went  up  to  the  little  Porcupine^^o  & 
camp'd  in  some  old  forts  grass  very  good — kill'd 
two  Doe  Elk  &  caught  thier  calves — 15  miles 


May  1856. 

Sat.  24 — last  night  B  Champagne  had  another  fit  this  morn- 
ing he  is  very  weak  the  consequence  is  a  very  late 
start  say  10^/2  came  on  to  the  Porcupine  of  the 
Miss  &  camp'd  kill'd  a  very  fat  Bull  this  has  been 
a  very  cold  day — Made  15  miles 

Sun.  25— a  good  deal  of  rain  in  the  night — this  morning  found 
twenty  of  my  horses  about  ten  miles  from  camp 
last  night  they  took  a  regular  Stampede  Starte  about 
noon  got  but  a  short  distance  when  another  Shower 
came  on  we  kept  on  at  a  good  pace  &  got  to  Wolf 
point-^i  in  the  rain  &  campd  fine  grass  &  water — 
20  miles 

Men.  26 — had  considerable  trouble  in  collecting  my  horses 
that  is  what  is  left  last  night  during  the  rain  some 
Indians  stole  14  horses  belonging  to  the  Am  F  Co 
One  of  Mr  Birds  two  of  B  Champagne  &  my  two 
best  horses  I  think  they  were  stolen  by  Blkfeet 
or  Blood  indians  I  followed  thier  tracks  for  fifteen 
miles  found  where  they  had  made  a  short  stop  to 
change  horses — they  were  going  at  full  speed 
nothing  less  than  two  of  thier  nappers  will  satisfy 
me — Started  11  a  m  &  got  but  a  short  distance 
when  I  found  a  Beautifull  cream  mare  but  old  Bird 
chiselled  me  out  of  her — let  him  have  her  &  little 
good  may  she  do  him — Camp'd  at  the  Govt  Camp 
— Made   15   miles — killd   a  bull 

Tues.  27 — Started  early  &  had  gone  one  mile  when  Mr 
Dawsons  boats  hove  in  sight — I  waited  untill  they 
came  up — put  B.  Champagne  &  wife  on  board  took 
out  a  lad,  son  of  old  Birds  to  help  drive  the  horses 
cross'd  River  Au  Trembe  &  noon'd  where  they  kill'd 
the  Frenchman  Kill'd  an  Antelope  deer  &  two 
Fawns  &  three  cows — Started  &  seen  Mr  Dawsons 
boats — campd  on  the  Big  Muddy — Made  40  miles 

Wed.  28 — Swam  over  the  big  muddy — Stopped  on  the  other 
side  a  couple  of  hours  to  dry  off — Saddled  up    met 


May  1856. 

Ramsey  &  some  men  at  the  little  Muddy,  got  to 
Fort  Union  at  two  in  the  afternoon — found  Mr  Daw- 
son there  all  well — this  has  been  the  hardest  trip  I 
have  ever  made  never  did  I  work  so  hard  both  men- 
tally &  bodily  as  I  have  done  this  Voyage— made 
36^  miles. 

Thurs.  29— the  Folks  in  the  fort  all  busy  except  myself— I  am 
acting  the  gentleman 

Fri.  30 — Making  preparations  to  start  to  hunt  my  horses  I 
lost  in  my  recent  trip  from  F  Benton — I  hope  I  shall 
be  able  to  get  them — Dress'd  Bricks  genteely 

Sat.  31 — left  Fort  Union  at  10  a.  m.  to  hunt  my  horses  I  am 
acompanied  by  Chas  Couquette  Mr  Dawson's  boats 
left  for  St.  Louis  at  daylight— Mr  L  F.  Wray  left  for 
F  Benton  in  charge  of  a  load  of  goods  for  that  place 
campd  at  the  little  Muddy  with  Mr  Wray  I  intend 
to  go  with  him  untill  he  crosses  the  Big  Muddy  then 
leave  him  &  travel  fast — Fine  day    Made  8  miles 

June  1856 

Sat.  1 — Started  early  &  came  on  the  big  Muddy  1  p.  m. 
crossed  Mr  Wray's  goods  safely  &  camp'd  on  the 
opposite  side  caught  some  forty  or  fifty  fine  fish 
killed  several  ducks  commenced  raining  about  nine 
P.  m.  &  continued  to  rain  or  rather  pour  to  day- 
light— made  28  miles 

Men.  2 — dried  off  Started  about  10  a.  m.  commenced  rain- 
ing about  2  p.  m.  &  rained  constantly  during  the 
night  kill'd  one  deer — Camp'd  where  they  kill'd  the 
Frenchman — 15  miles 

Tues.  3 — Some  difficulty  in  finding  our  horses  found  them  in 
the  hills — laid  by  all  day  Still  raining  hard  kill'd 
1  Elk  &  2  deer 


June  1856. 

Wed.  4 — Made  an  early  start  left  Mr  Wray  &  his  waggon 
travelled  hard  came  on  to  Wolf  Point  examined  the 
tracks  of  our  lost  horses  followed  them  on  to  the 
Porcupine  Seen  tracks  of  men  with  the  horses  but 
the  last  rain  has  washed  the  sign  that  it  is  impossible 
to  follow  the  trail — gave  up  the  pursuit  &  returned 
to  Govt  Camp  got  in  there  late  in  the  night  Kill'd 
an  Elk  &  eat  Chouquette  &  myself  had  our  horses 
hobbled  brot  them  in  about  ten  or  eleven  O  clock 
&  picketed  them  then  laid  down  &  in  a  few  minutes 
our  horses  got  frightened  &  stampeded  we  followed 
them  in  the  dark  but  could  not  find  them — I  am 
afraid  they  are  stolen 

Thurs.  5 — got  up  before  day  Chouquette  &  myself  took  dif- 
ferent directions  hunted  all  day  without  success 
came  back  to  camp  hid  our  saddles  &c.  packed  our 
blankets,  provisions  &c.  &  took  it  on  foot.  Camp'd 
on  River  Au  Trembe — made  20  miles 

Fri.  6 — Very  sore  this  morning  my  right  hand  severely 
poisoned  noon'd  at  Frenchmans  came  on  to  Big 
Muddy  found  it  very  high  kill'd  a  deer  took  the 
skin  &  tied  up  our  clothes  guns  &  blankets  Started 
across  the  Muddy^had  got  but  a  few  feet  when  the 
cramp  took  me  in  my  left  arm — being  an  expert 
swimmer  I  paid  but  little  attention  to  it — I  told 
Chouquette  to  keep  on  with  the  pack  &  I  would  make 
the  shore  Some  way  when  he  got  in  the  middle  of 
the  stream  the  cramp  took  me  in  the  legs  I  went 
down  twice  on  coming  up  I  laid  my  left  arm  on  the 
pack  &  it  turned  over  &  fill'd  I  told  C-  to  keep  on 
with  the  pack  &  I  would  manage  to  get  over — he 
became  frightened  &  let  go  of  the  pack  which  sunk 
to  the  bottom — I  came  near  drowning  but  thank 
Providence  I  got  out  safe  but  perfectly  naked  & 
barefooted  forty  seven  miles  of  hard  travelling  be- 
fore me  the  country  full  of  Prickly  Pears  &  Enemies 
nothing  to  protect  my  feet  nor  even  a  knife  to  defend 


June  1856. 

myself — Chouquette  dive  &  brot  up  a  shirt  &  pr  of 
pants — he  got  satisfied  &  left  Mosquitoes  &  horse 
flies  very  bad — I  started  at  a  trot  &  kept  on  untill 
ten  O  clock — the  night  very  cool  Chouquette  gave 
out — we  laid  down  in  the  prairie — not  to  sleep  but 
to  shiver  with  the  cold — made  sixty  five  miles 

Sat.  7 — got  up  at  day  break  very  cold  &  stiflF  Started  C's 
teeth  chattering  like  castanets  he  begged  of  me  to 
stop  untill  the  sun  would  get  up  I  consented  know- 
ing well  what  I  would  suffer  from  the  sun  as  I  was 
entirely  naked  &  he  had  shoes — pants  &  shirt  started 
when  the  sun  got  up  &  came  slow — got  to  little 
muddy  about  lO^^  a.  m.  laid  down  in  the  willows 
for  a  couple  of  hours  could  not  stand  the  mosquitoes 
Started  C  ahead  to  the  Fort  to  send  clothing  to  me 
kept  on  &  met  Mr  R  Denig  with  a  my  horse  &  a 
suit  of  clothes  one  mile  from  the  fort  arrived  at 
1  p.  m.  horribly  sun  burnt — made  17  miles 

Sun.  8 — hobbling  around    feet  sore  &  body  awfully  Blistered 

Mon.  9 — the  Pain  excruciating 

Tues.  10— Still  suffering 

Wed.  11 — Some  little  better 

Thurs.  12 — opened  the   Blisters    about   1>2   galls  of  water  came 
from  them 

Fri.  13 — Commenced  to  feel  something  like  myself 

Sat.   14 — the  skin  commencing  to  pull  of  me 

Sun.    15 — took  a  short  ride 

Mon.   16 — peeled  like  an  onion 

Tues.  ly^loing  nothing  of  consequence  Bouchie  &  Chouquette 
returned  from  the  Big  Muddy  bring  my  rifle  &c 
that  I  lost  on  the  sixth  ult — all  right  that  accounts 
for  the  stains  in  this  book  being  as  it  was  one  of 
drowned  articles 

174  FORI'  SARP\    J(JL'RXAL 

June  1856. 

I  have  not  wrote  up  my  journal  on  acount  of  my 
being  buisy  in  the  meantime  ten  Assynaboins  have 
been  kill'd  by  the  Sioux —  Sir  Geo  Gore^^^  arrived 
from  a  two  years  hunt  both  company's  boats  ar- 
rived— A  Missionary  Doct  Macky  &  Lady  came  to 
convert  the   Indians 

July  1856 

Thurs.  24 — Started  with  Col  Vaughan  to  hunt  up  the  Crows 
Our  party  consists  of  Col  Vaughan  U  S  I  agt  Thos 
Campbell — Louis  Bompard — David  Carrifell  Pete 
Martin^o-''  a  Spaniard  &  myself — Cross'd  the  Miss 
in  Sir  George  Gore's  Boats — drank  several  glasses 
of  Mountain  dew  with  Sir  George  &  camp'd  at  the 
lake  with  Lieut  Warren^^*  ^  party  kill'd  an  ante- 
lope   Mosquitoes  very  bad — 8  miles 

Fri.  25 — Started  4^^  M — noon'd  at  Cotton  Wood  creek — ap- 
pearance of  rain  concluded  to  camp  for  the  night 
Lieut  Warrens  party  came  up  &  campd  close  to 
us — kill'd  5  elk — 15  miles 

Sat.  26 — Started  3  a.  m.  Made  15  miles  &  noon'd  Lieut 
Warrens  party  came  up  to  us.  Started  again  3  p.  m. 
got  up  to  Bufflo's  plenty — kill'd  2  cows  campd 
above    Brazos-^^     made   30   miles 

Sun.  27 — Started  ^3  M — kill'd  a  cow  &  noon'd  campd  for 
night  below  the  Big  hills  made  30  miles  Buff  scarce 
Deer  &  Elk   plenty 

Men.  28 — Started  4>4  M  travelled  fast  &  noon'd  at  the  head 
of  the  big  hills  kill'd  a  cow  Started  &  camp'd  at 
the  foot  of  the  first  Bad  lands    35  miles 

Tues.  29 — Started  A]^  killd  a  big  horn  in  the  bad  lands — noon'd 
on  the  point  below  the  second  bad  lands — Started 
Yzl  got  through  the  bad  lands  &  campd  below 
Powder  River  horses  very  tired  made  about  15 


July  1856. 

Wed.  30 — Started  4^4  noon'd  at  the  foot  of  the  cut  hill — 
kill'd  2  Antelope — one  being  the  fattest  1  have  ever 
seen — Camp'd  for  the  night  at  the  head  of  Emills 
Prarie^^®    good  grass    no  BuflFaloa    made  30  miles 

Thurs.  31 — Started  4j4  came  on  to  the  12  mile  prarie  &  noon'd. 
kill'd  a  deer  &  camped  at  the  foot  of  the  Bluffs  at 
the  head  of  12  mile  Prarie — made  25  miles 

August  1856. 

Fri.  1 — Very  cold  morning  all  hands  walked  to  give  warmth 
to  our  bodies  kill'd  a  large  black  Tail  Buck,  noon'd 
a  short  distance  below  the  Rose  Bud.  the  Col's 
getting  very  tired  of  his  trip  Buff  &  Elk  plenty  kill'd 
a  cow  &  concluded  to  remain  for  the  night  as  our 
horses  are  very  tired    Made   18  miles 

Sat.  2 — Started  4^2  O  clock  noon'd  below  the  Big  Porcu- 
pine— campd  early  opposite  nine  Blackfoot  creek^'*'^ 
&  built  a  raft  all  ready  to  cross  the  first  thing  in  the 
morning.    Made  20  miles 

Sun.  3 — loaded  our  raft  &  found  ourselves  &  baggage  too 
much  for  her  to  stand  under  built  another — cross'd 
our  horses  over  on  to  a  sand  bar  ourselves  cross'd 
over  the  river  took  up  our  raft  &  swam  our  horses 
over  noon'd  at  OFallons^^s  kill'd  a  cow  &  found 
an  arrow  point  in  her  it  has  been  done  lately  say 
five  days  campd  opposite  the  Gap — no  sign  of 
Crows — made   15  miles 

Mon.  A — Started  4>4  O  clock  took  the  Gap  took  breakfast 
7^  Started  again  9  M  pass'd  through  the  pine 
hills  &  came  on  the  Big  Horn  2  p.  m.  Seen  signs 
of  Indians  took  dinner  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big 
Horn  &  camped  about  8  miles  above  the  mouth  kill'd 
a  large  Bear  &  2  fine  cubs    made  30  miles 

Tues.  5 — Started  4^/^  proceeded  but  a  short  distance  when  5 
Crows  on  horseback  came  to  us    they  were  on  thier 


August  1856. 

way  to  the  black  feet  but  turned  &  are  going  back 
with  us  they  say  the  camp  is  on  the  Little  Horn 
camp'd  for  the  night  at  the  mouth  of  the  little  Horn 
25  miles 

Wed.  6 — got  up  early  made  a  raft  &  cross'd  the  Big  horn  6^/2 
Saddled  up  &  took  up  the  little  horn  noon'd  on  the 
little  horn  about  eight  miles  below  the  Grass  lodge 
creek. 2-"'!*  Made  our  breakfast  ofif  cherries  &  coflfee — 
Shaved  &  shirted  in  order  to  meet  the  Crows — we 
expect  to  get  to  the  camp  this  evening  Got  to  the 
Crow  camp  at  dusk  found  Yellow  Belly — Bears 
Head — Dogs  Head — Iron  Head — Gordon,  Horse 
guard  &  several  other  men  of  note  amongst  them 
they  appear  to  be  highly  pleased  &  say  they  will  go 
down  with  Col  Vaughan — made  25  miles 

Thurs.  7 — One  of  the  hottest  days  of  the  season  our  tent 
crowded  with  Indians  Col  Vaughan  sent  four  men 
to  notify  Two  Face's  camp  &  the  other  cam])s — 
Covered  With  Fat  arri\'ed  from  Two  Face's  camp 
&  says  the  camp  will  be  in  tomorrow  I  seen  a  little 
Blackfoot  boy^®*'  that  was  taken  prisoner  by  the 
Crows  he  was  much  rejoiced  to  see  White  men  Col 
Vaughan  is  going  to  ransom   him 

Fri.  8 — Two  Face's  camp  arrived  paid  a  visit  to  Two  Face 
with  Col  Vaughan  he  speaks  well  &  is  highly 
pleased — as  regards  his  annuities  &  his  having 
Traders  on  the  Yellow  Stone.  Col  Vaughan  visited 
all  the  Principal  Chiefs  &  all  speak  well  The  Col 
intends  to  council  them  tomorrow  the  four  Crows 
arrived  from  the  other  camps  &  sa\-  Thin  behind 
will  meet  us  on  the  Rose  Bud — they  say  they  are 
glad  to  turn  back 

Sat.  9 — the  camp  raised  &  came  down  the  little  horn  about 
6  miles  We  had  five  horses  given  us  to  ride  our 
own  we  drove  loose — 6  miles 


August  1856. 

Sun.  10 — raised  camp  8>1  O  clock  Struck  out  in  the  Largie-''' 
&  camp'd  on  a  litttle  Fork — the  camp  run  Buflfaloa 
— I  am  in  hopes  from  this  out  we  will  have  fresh 
meat     12  miles 

Men.  11 — Fine  sport  yesterday  a  great  many  Bufiflos  were 
kill'd  Several  were  killed  amongst  the  lodges  we 
all  had  a  share  of  the  sport — the  camp  moved  on  to 
the  Rose  Bud  run  Buffaloa  on  the  way  plenty  of 
meat  and  any  quantity  of  fresh  tongues — made  15 

Tues.  12 — Remained  in  camp  all  day  Squaws  buisy  drying 
meat  skins  &  cherries — Thin  Behind  has  not  come 
yet    the  Col  sent  for  him 

Wed.  13 — Camp  raised  early  this  morning  &  travelled  briskly 
camp'd  on  the  Rose  Bud  day  very  warm — grass 
good  &  water  excellent.  Some  of  Thin  Behind's  peo- 
ple arrived  they  say  each  Lodge  will  be  represented 
the  Col  is  very  anxious  to  get  down  to  Fort  Union 
&  intends  to  make  an  early  start  in  the  morning — 
Made  15  miles 

Thurs.  142*5- — Camp  raised  6>^2  O  clock — travelled  fast  untill  11 
a.  m. — Camp  stopped  &  run  Buffaloa  Started  again 
4  p.  m. — left  the  camp  We  are  accom])anied  by  a 
great  number  of  Crows  at  the  present  I  cannot  form 
an  estimate — camped  on  the  Rose  Bud — Grass  most 
excellent.     18  miles 

Fri.  15 — Started  5>4  o  clock  kept  on  at  a  good  pace  made 
20  miles  &  noon'd — took  the  cut  for  the  Yellow- 
stone &  camp'd  on  a  small  fork  about  three  miles 
from  the  Yellowstone  Kill'd  a  few  cows  Made  40 

Sat.  16 — Started  5^  O  clock  came  on  the  Yellowstone  & 
took  down  it  Crows  run  Buffaloa  &  kill'd  quite  a 
number    Cross'd  the  river  &  noon'd   at  the  head   of 


August  1856. 

the  12  mile  Prarie  Crows  run  Buflfaloa  Camp'd  at 
the  foot  of  12  mile  Prarie  Crows  run  Buffaloa 
again  making-  three  runs  this  day — killing  in  all 
about   80   cows    some   very   fat — Made    36   miles 

Sun.  17 — Started  6  a.  m.  noon'd  below  Emmells  fork  Buf- 
faloa plenty  we  intend  taking  out  in  the  Largie 
in  order  not  to  raise  the  Game  on  the  River.  Started 
3y2  O  clock  took  out  in  the  bad  lands.  Camp'd 
on  a  dry  Fork — found  some  pools  of  water  &  camp'd 
Grass  &  water  poor — Made  35   miles 

Mon.  18 — Started  at  4i/^  O  clock  travelled  hard  pass'd  through 
the  bad  lands  the  day  was  very  warm  &  dusty 
making  it  disagreeable  travelling  noon'd  on  a  small 
fork — Grass  poor  our  horses  look  overworked — 
Started  3  p  m  &  came  on  a  small  Fork  &  camp'd 
Grass  excellent.  I  am  in  hopes  that  our  horses  will 
be  in  better  condition  in  the  morning    Made  30  miles 

Tues.  19 — Started  20  m  of  5  fine  cool  morning  our  horses  ap- 
pear much  refreshed  thanks  be  to  the  good  grass 
last  night — Came  on  &  noon'd  at  a  mud  hole  water 
miserable  grass  good — Crows  run  Bufifaloa  &  kill'd 
about  twenty  cows  Some  very  fat — camp'd  on  a 
cotton  wood  fork  Water  excellent  the  first  good 
water  we  have  had  since  we  left  the  Yellow  Stone. 
I  neglected  to  mention  in  yesterday's  note  that  a 
young  Crow  was  bitten  by  a  Rattle  Snake  Col 
Vaughan  applied  some  Buffaloa  grease  to  the  wound 
&  the  pain  ceased  immediately — this  morning  the 
man's  hand  is  perfectly  cured  the  Col  passes  for  a 
great  Medicine  man    Made  36  miles 

Wed.  20 — Started  late  on  account  of  the  horses  being  far  from 
camp,  last  night  we  had  a  fine  shower  attended  by 
Thunder  &  Lightning  the  first  rain  we  had  since 
we  left  Fort  Union  this  shower  cool'd  the  air  &  laid 
the  dust  making  it  pleasant  travelling  plenty  of  Buf- 
faloa   Crows  kill'd  some  very  fat    Noon'd  on  a  small 


August  1856. 

fork  water  &  grass  good — A  young  Crow  came  into 
camp  having  been  gored  by  a  Bull — camp'd  for  the 
night  on  a  small  fork  it  commenced  raining  in  the 
night  &  continued  to  morning 

Thurs.  21 — Started    in   the   rain — came   on    to   the   three   cotton 
woods    all  of  us  very  wet 

Fri.  22 — Arrived  at  Lieut  Warrens  Camp  he  crossed  us  in 
his  Boat  reached  Fort  Union  in  time  for  Supper 
learned  that  the  small  Pox  was  raging  at  Fort 

September  185....(?) 


Additional  Entries  in  Chamber's  Diary.    (No  date) 

Sept.  16 — Friday  left  F.  Benton  camped  below  Spanish  Is- 
land263    rain 

Sat.    17 — Windy    made  two  point    killd  an  antelope 

Sun.    18 — Killed  a  big  Horn    camped  above  the  Judith 

Mon.   19 — Came  to  the  Judith    Made  a  cabin  on  our  boat 

Tues.  20 — Still  at  the  Judith    killed  one  wolf  &  two  bear 

Wed.  21 — Left  Ft  Judith  caught  one  small  Beaver  killed  two 
Bulls  Set  for  wolf  &  Beavers  &  came  one  point 
above  Dauphins  rapids^^^.     rain 

Thurs.  22 — Rain    Traps  killed  five  beaver    One  big  Horn — one 
wolf    rain 

Fri.  23 — Came  on  &  camped  at  Cow  Island,  repaired  cabin 
put  up  the  ten  bulls. 

Sat.  24 — Drizzly  day  came  above  the  Island  killed  one  large 
buck  Wray  arrived  others  killed  two  black  tail  deer 


September  185....? 

Sun.  25 — Raised  traps  found  one  wolf  camp'd  in  point  below 
Rig  Island   kill'd  two  elk  &  one  Bull    stretched  skins 

Mon.  26 — Came  on  and  camp'd  on  point  above  Emmells  Is- 
land265  dressed  skins  camp'd  for  the  nig-ht  killed 
6  deer. 

Tues.  27 — Hunted  the  points    killed  2  elk  &  six  deer    rained 

Wed.  28 — Made  three  points    kill'd  five  deer  &  three  elk 

Thurs.  29 — Came   down   one   point   &   i)ut   out   28   skins   to   dry 
kill'd  one  deer  &  one  Bull. 

Fri.  31(?)Dressd  skins  &  rendered  grease  started  about  >4 
3  M. 

October  185... (?) 

Sat.   1 —  day  cloudy  at  Frenchmans 

Point  killd  elk 

Sun.   2 —  Made  five  points    put  out  skins      killd 

and  then  left 

Mon.  3 — Came  on  in  the  rain  Shall  put  out  to  dry 

killd  seven  deer  &  one  red  deer 

Tues.  4 — Came  one  point  below  the  Muscle  Shell  killd  ten 
elk  &  2  deer   set  for  wolf  &  beaver 

Wed.  5 — Raised  traps    dressed  skins  a  strange  dog  came 

to  our  camp  fellow  must  have  been  lost 

a  long  time  he  could  scarcely  walk 

Thurs.  6 — Made  three  packs  of  elk  raised  trai)s  kill'd  three 
bear  &  2  deer 

Fri.  7 — Made  two  points  kill'd  one  elk  one  deer  & 

one  wolf 

Sat.   8 — Started   late    made   two   points     Kill'd    two  elk   one 
deer  one  wolf  beaver — put  out  skins  to  dry 

Sun.  9 — Heavy  wind    laid  by  all  day    kill'd  one  wolf  &  one 


October  185 — ? 

Mon.  10 — Made  an  early  start  came  one  point  &  took  Break- 
fast skiff  with  men  in  came 
down                                killed  one  buck  elk 

Tues.  11 — Parted  company  with  the  skiff — made  a  good  run 
killed  two  wolves  &  two  beaver  &  one  Bull  &  cow 

Wed.  12 — Strong  wind  came  on  to  the  Round  Bute  &  camped 
kill'd  one  deer 

Thurs.  13 — Made  two  points    killed  seven  deer  &  two  wolves 

Fri.  14 — Came  on  to  Featherlands  house-''''  killed  one  deer 
&  one  wolf 

Sat.  15 — Started  from  Featherlands  house  in  running  close 
to  a  prarie  brought  to  by  a  war  party  of  Assina- 
boins — Some  of  them  behaved  with  Our 

women  were  in  a  dangerous  situation 

Sun.    16 — We  remained  in  camp  discovered  fresh 

sign  of  Buck  five  on  their  way 

Mon.   17 — Crossed  the  river 

Tues.  18 — Raised  camp  made  three  points  when  we  had  to 
lay  by  for  wind  kill'd  one  deer  one  antelope  two 
wolfs  &  one  red  fox 

Wed.  19 — Came  on  two  points  Dry  Wolf    sacrificed 

my  interest  to  Morgan.  M.  made  a  cache  of  the 
Traps  Ammunition,  Tools  &c  came  on  &  camp'd 
below  Dry  Fork    killed  on  Beaver  &  two  Elk 

Thurs.  20 — Made  a  fair  run  &  camped  a  short  distance  above 

Fri.  21 — This  morning  as  we  were  about  starting  we  heard 
crying  a  party  of  Indians  we  met  we  crossd  over 
to  them  they  proved  to  be  Piegans  they  had 
of  their  party  been  killd  by  the  Assinaboins  they 
behaved  remarkably  well  never  asked  for  a  single 
thing    none  of  them  attempted  started    made 

points    killed  an  elk  &  two  Porcupine 


October  185 — ? 

Sat.  22 — Run  all  day  camp'd  two  Points  above  River  Au 

Sun.  23 — Run  again  a  strong  head  wind  met  a  few  Assina- 
boins  on  their  way  hunting  camp'd  on  point  below 
Quacking  Ash  heard  drums  beating  &  singing  we 
pass'd  the  Assinaboins  without  seeing  them  kill'd 
one  deer 

Men.  24 — Took  Breakfast  at  Dolphins  came  on  in  the  point 
above  Frenchman's  point  Seen  an  Indian  in  the 
willows  he  hid  himself  camp'd  opposite  French- 
man's Point 

Tues.  25 — Came  on  to  Rolettes  houses^*''  had  news  of  the 
Assinaboins  to  go  to  F.  Union— camp'd 
above  the 

Thurs.  26 — A'erv  heavv  wind  the  head  of  Henrys  cut 

Wed.  27 — Strong  heavy  Wind     Camp'd  above  McKenzies  old 

Fri.  28 — Made  one  point  and  laid  by  for  wind  kill'd  two  Bulls 
Expended  for  Outfit 

Boat  $50oo                   Amm  50oo  $100.00 

Tobac  25oo                 Coffee  20oo  45.00 

Sugar  20                       Bread  8oo  28.00 

Lodge  Skin  6oo          Elk  Boo  14.00 
Caps  250                      Candle  moulds  2oo       4.50 

Wick  2oo                      Ladle  loo  3.00 

Matches  loo                Spade  loo  2.00 

Salt  5oo                       Soap  5oo  10.00 

Pepper  2oo                                       2oo  4.00 

Tongs  150                    Whetstone  2oo  3.50 

Flour  1150  11.50 



October  185 — ? 

Proceeding:  of  Council  held  between  Col  Vaughan 
for  the  U.  S.  Govt  &  the  Principal  chiefs  &  head 
man  of  the  Crow  Tribe  of  Indians  held  on  the  Little 
Horn  Aug:.   10th,   1856. 

In    the    winter    at    one    time    Thirty    Horses      at 

another   Thirty    Horses— another    five— again    five 

in  the  Spring  nine  Crows  were  kill'd— &  19  horses 
stolen— again  fifteen  horses  were  stolen— at  another 
time  two  horses — those  were  stolen  from  Bears  Head 
camp— from  Two  Face's  camp  he  had  at  one  time 
twenty  Horses  stolen  at  another  five  horses  were 
stolen  &  one  Crow  killed  all  those  were  taken  after 
the  treaty  was  made  at  the  Judith  in  the  fall  of  1855 
in  all  142  head  The  Big  camp  led  by  Knot-on-the- 
Hand  &  Thin-Behind  have  stolen  16  head  of  horses 
at  one  time  at  another  23  head— took  a  boy  prisoner 
&  his  horse— again  15  head  The  Crows  say  that 
the  Black  foot  have  four  prisoners — two  girls  &  two 


OF  THE  CROWS,  JULY,   1856 
July  1856 

Thurs.  24 — left  Fort  Union  for  the  Crow  Camp — call'd  at  Fort 
William26s — Old  Carafel  engaged  with  Col  Vaughan 
was  cross'd  by  Sir  George  Gore's  men — proceeded 
as  far  as  Fox  River^^^  &  camp'd  Liet  Warren  & 
party  were  camp'd  on  Fox  River  on  thier  way  to 
explore   the   Yellowstone 

Fri.  25 — Started  4>4  m  day  intensely  hot  came  on  to  the 
three  Cotton  Woods  and  noon'd  Appearance  of  rain 
concluded  to  remain  for  the  night — Liet  Warren 
overtook  us — Mosquitoes  very  bad 

Sat.  26 — Started  3  m — made  15  miles  &  noon'd  Liet  Warren 
overtook  us — Started  again  at  3  p  m — Liet  Warren 
hail'd  in  sight — got  in  to  Buffaloa  killed  2  cows  and 
campd  at  Pirazos 

Sun.  27 — Started  3^2  killd  a  cow — Noond  11  ni  Started  from 
our  nooning  place  2  p  m — camp'd  for  the  night  at 
the  foot  of  the  Big  Hills^^o  BuflFaloa  Deer  &  Elk 

Men.  28 — Started  4^/2  m  travelled  fast  &  noond  at  the  head 
of  the  Big  Hills — killd  a  cow  &  campd  at  the  foot 
of  the  Bad  lands  below  Henry's  Cache 

Tues.  29 — Started  43^  Entered  the  Bad  lands  killd  a  Big  Horn, 
found  it  difficult  travelling  &  attended  with  some 
danger  Noon  d  in  the  Point  below  the  second  bad 
lands  Started  l^/^  p  m  got  through  all  the  Bad 
Lands  &  camp'd  below  Powder  River  Our  Horses 
much  fatigued 

Wed.  30 — Started  4^4  Noon'd  at  the  foot  of  the  Cut  Hills 
kill'd  2  Antelope  one  the  fattest  1  ever  seen  camp'd 
for  the  night  at  the  foot  of  Enimells  Prarie 

Thurs.  31 — Started  4^4  came  on  to  the  12  mile  Prarie  Sz  noon'd 
kill'd  a  deer  and  campd  at  the  Bluffs 


August  1856 

Fri.  1 — Very  cold  mornins;^  took  the  Lone  Tree  Cut-'^  ^ot 
off  our  Horses  &  walked  in  order  to  keep  warm  came 
opposite  the  Rose  Bud  &  camp'd  early  as  our  horses 
are  very  tired  kill'd  a  fine  black  tail  Ruck  &  a  fat 
cow — Elk   very   plenty 

Sat.  2 — Started  4^2  m  Noon VI  at  the  PA^  Porcupine  campd 
early  opposite  the  nine  Blackfoot  creek  built  two 
rafts  all  ready  to  cross  the  Yellow  Stone  early  in 
the  morning" 

Sun.  3 — cool  morning  Started  our  Horses  over  put  our 
Baggage  on  the  rafts  &  cross'd  the  river  took  Break- 
fast &  started  8  m  &  noon'd  at  the  O  Fallon  creek 
killd  a  cow  &  found  an  Arrow  Point  in  her  it  ap- 
pears to  be  a  late  wound — the  Arrow  Point  is  made 
after  the  fashion  of  the  Blackfeet's  points — camp'd 
for  the  night  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn  Gap 

Mon.  A — Started  4^/2  m  entered  the  Gap  Breakfasted  7>j  m 
Started  9  m  &  soon  entered  the  hills — This  is  really 
the  most  Sterile  country  on  the  American  continent 
not  a  spire  of  grass  to  be  seen  Occasionly  a  few 
stunted  cherries  Bushes  find  soil  enough  in  the 
ravine  to  take  root — in  a  cluster  of  those  Cherry 
bushes  we  came  across  a  She  Bear  &  her  two  cubs — 
we  dispatched  the  Trio  but  found  them  poor  after 
six  hours  difificult  travelling  we  came  on  the  Big 
Horn  river  found  that  a  small  crow  camp  had  been 
here  some  time  since — Camp'd  for  the  night  on  the 
Big  Horn 

Tues.  5 — Started  4>^  proceeded  a  short  distance  when  five 
men  on  horse  Back  came  rushing  out  of  the  Timber 
they  proved  to  be  crows  on  thier  way  to  the  Black- 
foot  country  Col  Vaughan  told  them  to  return  they 
did  so  without  a  murmur  they  say  thier  camp  is 
on  the  Little  Horn  River — camp'd  for  the  night  at 
the  mouth  of  the  little  Horn  River 


August  1856. 

Wed.  6 — Rose  early  went  to  work  &  made  a  raft  crossd  the 
Big  Horn  &  took  up  the  little  Horn — noond  on  the 
little  Horn  about  12  miles  below  the  Grass  Lodge 
creek — got  to  the  Crow  Camp  about  Sun  down 
found  a  Camp  of  130  Lodges  &  saw  some  of  the 
principal  men  Among  which  were  the  Bear's 
Head  — Rotten  Tail  — Dogs  Head  — Yellow  Belly 
Yellow  Dog  High  Pumpkins  Mountain  Tail — 
Gordon  &  the  Horse  guard  gave  them  a  present  of 
cofiFe  Sugar  &  Tobaco  which  was  very  aceptable 
gave  them  a  small  talk  told  them  we  came  to  bring 
them  to  Fort  Union  to  receive  their  presents — 
they  replied  that  they  were  willing  to  go  that  a 
Trader  from  the  Platte  had  been  to  them  &  left  two 
days  ago  this  man's  name  is  John  Scott^^'-  it  ap- 
pears he  told  them  that  those  that  wished  to  die  he 
would  advise  to  go  to  Fort  I^nion  &  receive  the 
Govt  i)resents  as  the  Annuities  contained  the  Small 
Pox  but  those  that  wished  to  live  &  do  well  would 
come  &  trade  at  the  Platte — he  would  insure  them 
plenty  of  Buffaloa  &  no  Sickness  Two  Face  &  Thin 
Behind's  Camps  took  his  advice  &  left  for  the  Platte 
Country  Col  Vaughan  engaged  four  Crows  to  follow 
&  turn  them  back 

Thurs.  7 — One  of  the  Cols  runners  returned  having  overtook 
Two  Face's  camp  he  Two  Face  turned  back  &  is 
highly  pleased  to  do  as  his  Father  wishes  him — 
Seen  a  little  Blackfoot  Boy  that  was  taken  prisoner 
in  the  Spring — Col  Vaughan  demanded  him — they 
promise  to  deliver  him  to  Col  Vaughan  at  Fort  Union 

Fri.  8 — Two  Face's  camp  arrived  Col  Vaughan  visited  him 
he  says  he  will  follow  his  father  even  should  he  go 
over  a  precipice  Col  V  visited  all  the  Principal  Chiefs 
in  thier  Lodges  they  all  appear  to  be  highly  pleased 
the  three  men  that  Started  yesterday  came  in  &  Say 
that  Thin   Behind  will  meet  us  on  the  Rose  Bud 


August  1856. 

Sat.  9 — Col  Vaui^han  held  a  council  with  the  Chiefs  &  Head 
men  the  talk  was  highly  Satisfactory  to  both  Parties 
the  camp  raised  &  came  down  the  L  Horn 

Sun.  10 — Travelled  with  the  camp  the  Crows  run  Huffaloa 
&:  kill'd  about  60  cows 

Mon.   11 — Camp  moved  on  to  the  Rose  Bud 

Tues.  12 — W'aitin^:  for  Thin  Behind  to  come  up 

Wed.  13 — Camp  raised  early  this  morning  Thin  Behind  Sz  a 
good  representation  from  his  camp  arrived  each 
Lodge  is  represented 

Thurs.  14 — travelled  with  the  Camp  untill  11  m  &  noon'd 
Started  again  at  4  p  m  left  the  camp  &  travelled 
about  10  miles  &  camp'd  for  the  night  we  are  ac- 
companied by  a  large  number  of  Crows 

Fri.  15 — Started  early  Struck  out  for  the  Yellow  Stone  the 
Crows  kill'd  a  great  many  BuiT  camp'd  on  Box  Elder 
a  short  distance  from  the  Yellow  Stone  River 

Sat.  16 — Made  an  early  start  came  on  the  Yellow  Stone 
forded  the  river  &  campd  at  the  foot  of  12  mile 
Prarie  the  Crows  killd  over  Sixty  very  Fat  Cows 
to  day 

Sun.  17 — Came  on  to  Enimells  Fork  &  took  out  in  the  Large — 
Camp'd  on  Dry  Fork 

Mon.  18 — campd  on  Willow  creek  Tues.  19  campd  on  Cotton 
wood — crows  killd  40  cows  Wed  20  campd  on  the 
Mamalls-"'''  Thurs  21  rain'd  all  day  campd  on  the 
Yellow  Stone 

Fri.  22 — Arrived  at  Fort  Union 





Fort  Clarke 
j^j.  5jj.  Septr  29th  1855 

I  had  the  honor  a  short  time  since  of  apprising  you  of  my 
return  to  this  place,  and  of  the  condition  of  some  of  the  Indians 
under  my  charge,  yesterday  a  party  of  Yanctonias"^""*  of  Big 
Head"  'Band  arrived  here,  they  are  a  party  of  a  large  war 
party  that  have  just  returned  from  an  excursion  to  the  Red 
River  Half  Breeds^^^  They  came  to  me  they  say  for  the  pur- 
pose of  knowing  when  I  will  be  ready  to  deliver  their  Chief  and 
principle  men  their  Gov.  presents,  at  the  same  telling  me  they 
have  just  returned  from  the  excursion  above,  and  that  they  have 
brought  in  300  head  of  Horses  stolen  from  the  above  people, 
also  rising  forty  Head  of  Cattle — in  telling  their  story  they  of 
course  make  the  Half  Breeds  the  aggressors,  but  from  their 
former  conduct  towards  these  people  and  from  what  I  can  learn 
from  their  contradictory  statements,  there  is  no  doubt  that  they 
started  and  with  full  intent  to  commit  this  depredation ;  These 
Half  Breeds  have  always  been  represented  as  a  frugal  industrious 
and  virtuous  people,  and  they  are  doubtless  brave,  and  would 
have  long  since  resented  the  many  acts  of  Hostilities  com- 
mitted on  them  by  the  Yanctonias,  but  the  Priests  of  their 
village  have  always  prevented  them  from  doing  so  —  Gov. 
Stephens  as  you  will  see  in  his  report  speaks  of  his  having  met 
with  this  people  on  their  Hunts  and  appears  to  have  been  highly 
l)leased  with  them,  and  seem  to  advise  the  right  for  them  to 
hunt  on  our  Territory,  as  certainly  a  great  number  have  been 
born  and  reside  Avithin  the  American  line. 

This  outrage  no  doubt  has  thrown  upwards  of  100  families 
of  these  people  destitute  of  the  meanes  of  prosecuting  the  hunt, 
by  which  their  principal  subsistence  is  derived,  and  in  my 
opinion  a  sufificient  number  of  U'  Troops  ought  at  once  to  pro- 
ceed to  their  village  now  at  a  place  called  Long  Lake,  and 
demand  the  restoration  of  the  propert}^  stolen,  which  ought  at 
once  to  be  sent  back  to  the  rightful  owners.  I  trust  and  hope 
that  your  opinion  will  coincide  with  mine,  and  that  I  shall  hear 
that  the  suggestion  has  been  carried  out 

I  have  the  honor  to  be 

Sir  your  obt  St 

Alfred  J.  Vaughan 

Ind.  Agt. 


Fort    Union 

July  1856 


I  had  the  honor  of  apprising  you  by  the  return  of  the  St 
Marys  of  all  matter  pertaining  to  my  official  duties  since  she 
left,  the  entire  nation  of  Assinaboines  having  assembled  at  this 
place  showing  by  every  act  and  action  the  most  unbounded 
gratitude  to  their  Great  Father  for  the  presents  which  they 
annually  receive,  they  are  a  kind  nobl  and  generous  people 
showing  every  wish  and  inclination  to  abide  their  Treaty  stipu- 
lations and  heed  their  Great  Fathers  advice.  I  do  assure  you 
sir,  it  affords  me  much  pleasure  to  have  the  means  at  my  com- 
mand to  bestow  upon  a  people  struggling  from  their  barbourous 
and  bemuddled  condition  to  the  habits  maners  and  customs  of 
the  Anglo  American,  they  remained  amongst  us  five  days,  all 
was  peace  and  harmony.  I  shall  leave  on  the  24th  for  the 
crows,  I  learn  they  are  at  the  foot  of  the  Mountain  some  400 
miles  distant,  I  hope  I  may  succeed  in  prevailing  on  them  to 
accompany  me  in,  to  receive  their  Two  years  Annuity  present 
as  well  as  succeed  in  returning  safe,  for  it  is  as  you  are  apprised 
a  dangerous  country  to  pass  through.  The  English  Gentle- 
man^'^^  ^vhom  you  granted  a  pasport,  to  pass  in  and  through 
the  Ind  country  will  return  to  your  city  in  a  month  or  so, 
having  been  in  the  Ind  country  from  the  time  you  granted  him 
a  pasport  up  to  the  present  time  the  pasport  you  find  was 
granted  him  the  24th  of  May  1854  from  my  construction  of  the 
intercourse  laws  he  has  most  palpably  violated  it.  he  buil  from 
his  own  confession  and  that  of  many  of  Employees  which  was 
forty  three  in  number  a  fort  in  the  crow  country  some  100  feet 
square  and  inhabited  the  same  nine  months  carrying  on  trade 
and  intercourse  with  the  Crow  tribe  of  Ind  trading  them  all 
kinds  of  Ind  Goods  Powder  &  Ball  he  states,  also  his  men  that 
he  killed  105  Bears  and  some  2000  Buffalo  Elk  &  Deer  1600 
he  states  was  more  than  they  had  any  use  for  having  killed  it 
purely  for  sport.  The  Inds  have  been  loud  in  their  complaints 
at  men  passing  through  their  country  killing  and  driving  oflf 
their  game,  what  can  I  do  against  so  large  a  number  of  men 
coming  into  a  country  like  this  so  very  remote  from  civiliza- 
tion, doing  &  acting  as  they  please,  nothing  I  assure  you 
beyond  apprising  you  of  the  facts  on  paper.  Should  I  return 
from  the  crow  country  safe  I  will  avail  myself  of  the  earliest 
opportunity  of  apprising  you  of  all  the  particulars  of  my  trip 

Very  respectfully  your 

obt  St 

A.  J.  Vaughan 

Ind  agt 


U.  M.  O.-^'   1856 

Ledger  St.  Louis     Pierre  Choteau  Jr.  and  Company. 

Balance  due  men  remaining-  in  the  country  from   1855.    Trans- 
ferred July  31.  1856 


Alexander  Rose 


George  Weipert 


Vincent  Mercure 


Joseph   Boismenn278 


William   Keiser 


Leandre  Belleveau 


F.  G.  Riter 


James  Chambers 


Charles  Troudelle 


Joniche  Barra 


Thomas  Dull 


Vincent  Mercure 


J.   Gourdereau 


J.  Lorian 


Joseph  Howard 


T.  Susnard 


Baptiste  Racine 


Pierre  Chaine 


Charles  Rondain   (Mercier)^' 

''•'         110.85 

L.  Bomparte 


Joseph  Ramsay 


P.  Alvarez 


Hugh  Monroe 


Jacob  Smith 


Henry  Mills 



Angus   Picotte 


Pierre  Cadotte 


L.  Dauphin 


J.  F.  Wray 


J.   Dagneau 


Major  Owens 



ST.   LOUIS   LEDGER   BOOK.     Auj?.    IL   1856 
U.  M.  O. 
P.alance  to  Michel  Champagne     1855.  $1564.50 

U.    M.    O.      1856      Ralance  due  to  men  remaining  in  tlie  country. 

Alexander  Rose  $195.25 

Vincent   Mercure  517.10 

J.  Muller  62.57 

B.  F.  Racine  179.53 
Hugh  Munroe  634.51 
George  AA'ippert    CWeippert)  407.38 


F.  G.  Riter  626.75 

C.  Rondeau  340.00 
C.  Trudell  150.75 
Pierre  Chaine  358.00 
Thomas  Campbell  141.75 
L.  Bompart  134.17 
J.  Dagneau  13.55 
J.  Barro  268.00 




Inventory  of  Stock  the  property  of  P.  Chouteau  Jr.  &  Co.    U.  M.  O.  on  hand  at 
Fort  Alexander  20th  May  1851 

30  pr.  3  pt  Sky  blue  Blankets S.  310  93    " 

8  pr.  3  pt  Indo  blue  Blankets '    229  18  32 

13  pr.  23/2  pt  Indo  blue  Blankets '    258  33  54 

29  pr.  3  pt  White  Blankets N.  Y.  500  145    " 

MVz  pr.  3  pt  Hud  Bay  Blankets S.  293  51  27 

13H  pr.  2V2  pt  Scarlet  Blankets '    251  33  89 

Wt.  pr.  3  pt  Scarlet  Blankets '    378  5  67 

184  Yds   Scarlet   Cloth '60  110  40 

2  ps  Green  Cloth  44  yds '       68  29  92 

22  Fancy  Vests F.     50  11    " 

6  Fancy   Shawls '100  6    " 

1  pr.   Cassinette   Pants '275  2  75 

3  Used   Rifles '    800  24    " 

7  New  Rifles N.  Y.  850  61  50 

2  Belgian   Guns F.  400  8    " 

60  lbs   Blue  pound   Beads N.  Y.     50  30    " 

21—2  gl.  Tin  Kettles F.     65  13  65 

4—1  gl.  Tin  Kettles "       28  1  12 

1—5  gl.  Tin  Kettle "     150  1  50 

5/12  doz.  Fancy  Bridles "    800  3  25 

7  doz.  Com.  Bridles - "    500  35    " 

5/12  doz.  Cock  Feathers N.  Y.  275  1  14 

4J^  lbs.  Chrome  Yellow F.     25  1   12 

14  lbs.  Thread "60  8  40 

^  lb.   Silk "    750  1  88 

8  C  Gun  Flints N.  Y.     30  2  40 

1  7/12  Gro.  O.  C.  Buttons "    150  2  11 

Vi   Gro.   Vests F.     75  38 

^  doz.  Socks "    275  1  VJ 

3  Indian  Axes "80  2  40 

Vi,  doz.  pr.  Brogans "  1900  14  25 

IJ^  Gro.  Clay  Pipes N.  Y.  33^^  "    50 

^   C  Fish  Hooks F.     60  "    15 

y2  doz.  Ward  Scalping  Knives N.  Y.   150  "    75 

Yi.   doz.  Cotton   Hdkfs F.   100  "    50 

6  qrs.   Cap  Paper '20  1  20 

4  Sticks  Sealing  Wax '3  "12 

4  Stock  Locks '78  3  12 

1  Pad  Lock  '       75  "    75 

15  lbs.   Tobacco '        6j^  "    98 

Yi  doz.   Collin's  Chopping  Axes '  1250  8  Zl 

1  doz.  Small  Scissors '     200  2  00 

1   pr.  Tailors'   Shears '400  4  00 

Carried    Forward 376  01  243  66  157  20 



U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Alexander        Brot  forward 

1    pr.    Steelyards   F.  162j/^ 

1    Pat.    Balance N.  Y.  350 

1  Telescope F.  1500 

V2  doz.  Tin  Cups '       60 

1  lb.  Sturgeon  Twine '       75 

10/12  doz.  12  in  Flat  Files '     400 

7/12  doz.  Bustard  Files '     150 

1%    doz.    Pitsaw    Files '     225 

H  doz.  6  in  Flat  Bastard  Files '     150 

H   doz.   Scythe   Stones '       75 

4  Lances '       30 

12  lbs.   Hoop    Iron '     dy^ 

50  lbs.  6  oz.  Cut  Nails '        5 

298  lbs.  12  oz.  Cut  Nails '        5 

40  lbs.  Bar  Iron '     ^y^ 

16  lbs.  Gun  Powder '       17 

122  lbs.   Balls '        6 

5  lbs.    Blister    Steel '       20 

3  lbs.  Black  Pepper '  12^ 

20    lbs.    Chocolate '       15 

1  doz.  Hickory  Axe  Handles '     175 

V2  doz.  Fur  Hats '  1800 

1  Sword  '     200 

2  Iron  Cannon  1  @  60$  1  @  15$ 

3  Bot.  Chapman's  Mixture  $1.00  1  oz. 

Castor   Oil   10c 

1  lb.  Salve  50c  J^  lb.  Blue  Moss  @  100 

1  Suimint  12c  

H  lb.  Borax  25c  &  4  Boxes  Capsules 

@  15c 

Ya,  lb.  Indigo  @  75c  ^  lb.  Sulphur  @ 

20c  y2  lb.  Sugar  Lead  @  25c 

2  ozs.  Oil  Vitriol  @  10c  1  oz.  Laudan- 

um @  25c 

1  oz.  Jalap  \2y2   1  oz.  Tart.  Emetic  1 

oz.  Calomel  @  25c 

1  lb.  Blue  Vitriol  50c  2  oz.  Alum  for  6c 

1  lb.  Epsom  Salts 

1  lb.  Pitch  Plaster 

275  lbs.  Coffee F.  10J4 

376  01 

290  lbs.  Sugar. 

^  Bbl.  Flour 

1   bu.   Dried  Apples. 

16  lbs.    Rice 

1  gl.  Molasses 

1   bu.   Corn _ 



13  66 

157  20 

1  63 

3  50 

15  " 



3  Z2, 


3  75 

"  50 


1  20 


2  50 

14  90 

1  80 

2  72 

7  32 

"  38 

3  " 

1  75 

9  " 

2  00 

75  " 

1  10 

1  12 

"  11 

"    36 

"  33 

"   50 

"  56 

"  08 

"  25 
28  87 
18  85 



1   Bbl.   Pork 

2J4  doz.  Salted  Buffalo  Tongues. 


376  01 

Advance  on   Sterling  90% 338  41 

Advance  on  Sterling  N.  York  17j^% 

Carried   Forward 

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Alexander       Brot  Forward 
Commissions   5%    

Freight  on  5774  lbs.  @  3c  pr.  lb... 

The  following  Articles  in  Use  &c  at  their  Estimated  Value 

20  Chopping  Axes @  100 

2  Broad  Axes @  250 

2   Jack   planes  @  1.30   2  Fore  planes 
@   1.50  

2  Smoothing  planes  @  1.30  &  2  Hand- 
saws @  1.00 

2  Foot  Adzes    @    1.50  &    1    Writing 
Desk  @  2.50 

2  Iron  Hay  Forks  @  .50 

1  Brace  &  36  bitts  @  $5.-1  Old  do. 


2  Claw  Hammers  @  75c  41  qtrs  Augrs 

@  10c  1  Square  .33 

6  Drawing  Knives  @  75c 

1  Rule  50c  2  prs.  Compasses  @  50c.... 

1  Spoke  Shave  50c  6  Caulking  Irons 

@   25   

6  Files  @  3c  9  Chisels  @  16c 

8  Chisels  @  16c  1  Bench  Screw  1.50 

1  Wrench  .50 

2  Whip  Saws  $9.  2  X  Cut  do.  $4.  &  - 

1  Howell  .25c  

2  Hoes  @  30c    1    Spade    .50c    3    Fire 

Shovels  @  50c _ 

1  Blacksmith's  Bellows 

1  Anvil  $12.50  1  Vice  $5.  1  Sledge  $2.50 
1  Hand  Hammer  @  75c  2  pr.  Tongs 

@  50c  

1  Splitting  Chisel  .25c  2  Cold  Chisels 

@  20  

2  Punches  @  12Hc  1  Screw  plate  & 

Taps  $2 

1  Heading  Tool  25c  1  Sma.  :-Hammer 

9  25 
10  " 

247  16 

43  25 

388  71 
714  42 
290  41 

$1393  54 

1393  54 

69  68 

1463  22 

173  52 

$1636  44 

20  " 

5  " 

5  60 

4  60 

5  50 
1  " 

7  50 

5  93 

4  50 

1  50 

2  " 

1  62 

3  28 

13  25 

2  60 

10  " 

20  " 

1  75 

"  65 

2  25 

"  75 

81  28 


1  Brace  &  Bitts  2.50  1  Saw  1.00 3  50 

2  Screw   Drivers   @  25c   2   Drills   @ 


1  Tire  Sett  50c  &  2  Old  files  @  3c 

100    lbs.    Old    Iron    $3.     1     pr.    Ball 

Moulds  $10 

6  Old   Beaver  Traps  @  $2.00   1   Cast 
Pot  1.00 

2  Cast  Ovens  @   1.25c   1   Sheet  Iron 

Stove  $6.-  

2  Tea  Kettles  @  50c  1  Coffee  Pot  62.. 
2  Sheet  Iron  Kettles  @  70c    1-2    gal. 

Tin  Kettle  .50c 

2  Fry  Pans  @  75c  1  Corn  Mill  @  $6.- 

1  Coffee  Mil  @  1.00  4  Large  Pans  @ 


3  Small  Pans  @  20c  6  plates  @  12^c 

6  Saucers  @  10c 

2  Sugar  Bowls  @  20c  Yi  doz.  Knives 

&  Forks  

3  Tin  Spoons  @3c  2  Iron  do.  @  2c  2 

Dippers   @    12j4c 

12  Candlemoulds   75c   &   1    Grid    Iron 


1    Stone  Jug  25c   ^   doz.   Candlesticks 

@   $4.-'  

3    Tables    $3.-    1    Chair  1.25c    2    prs. 

And  Irons  @  1.00 

3  Riding  Saddles  @  $5.-  3  Pack  do. 

@  2.50  

1   Sett  Double    Harnes    $7.50    2    prs. 
Hames  @  $2.00 

4  Scythes     &    Sneathes     @     1.50    2 

Double  Blocks  @  $2.00 

Carried  Forward  

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Alexander      Brot  forward 
1   Cart  $20.  1  Cart  Body  $5.  1  Single 

Harness  $5  30    "  100  32 

Live  Stock 

8  Indian  Horses  @  $25.-  200    " 

2096  97 
Reduction  27%  on  Articles  in  Use  & 

Stock  on  $460.53 124  34 

1972  63 
Add    Error    in    price    of    8    pr.  3  pt 
Indigo   Blue   Blankets   @   339  in- 
stead of  229  page  1.  with  advance 

&   commission)    difference 14  98 

$1987  61 

"  75 

"  56 

13  " 

13  •• 

8  50 

1  62 

78  93 

1  90 

7  50 

3  24 

1  95 

1  02 

"  46 

1  75 

2  25 

6  25 

22  50 

11  50 

10  •• 

70  32 

1796  65 

70  3J 

1796  65 



Inventory  of  Stock  the  property  oi 
at  Fort  Benton  4th  May  1851 

8  ps.  Green  Baize  71^  Yds  

80  Yds  White  Linsey 

6  ps.  Furniture  Check  268J4  yds 

8  ps.  Red  Flannel  318  yds 

8  ps.  White  Flannel  2502  yds 

1  ps.  White  Flannel  super  44  yds 

2  ps.  N.  W.   Striped  Cotton  69  yds.... 
6  ps.  Apron   Check  305  yds 

8  ps.  Unbd  Sheeting  3062  yds 

6  ps.  Hard  Times  104  yds 

6  ps.  Amn  Linsey  303  yds 

3  ps.  English  Linsey  104  yds 

1  ps  Red  Lindsey  41^*  yds 

14  ps.  Bed  Ticking  620  yds 

4  ps.   Cloaking   156  yds 

44  ps.  Fancy  Calico  1703  yds 

11  ps.  Fancy  Calico  222  yds 

2  ps.  Salempore  40  yds N. 

3  ps.  Jeans  99  yds 

1  ps.  Amn  Cloth  29  yds 

I  ps.  N.  W.  Stripe  223  yds 

9  yds  Grey  Amn  Cloth 

9%  Yds  Woolen  Jeans 

91/^  Yds  Tweed 

II  Yds   Red  Jeans 

12  Yds  Blue  S.  List  Cloth 

16  Yds   Grey   List   Cloth 

11  Yds  Scarlet  List  Cloth 

2H    Green  List  Cloth 

3  Yds  Cassinett 

30    Yds    Tweed 

\]/2  Yds  Comn  Carpeting 

8  doz.  Muskrat  Caps 

1  7/12  Russia  Hats 

222^  prs.  3  pt  White  French  Blankets  N 
60  prs.  3  pt  White  English  Blankets 

20  prs.  3  pt  H.  Bay  Blankets 

20  prs.  3  pt  Indigo  Blue  Blankets 

6H  prs.  3  pt  Fine  Sky  Blankets  1/49 
2^  prs.  3  pt  Fine  Sky  Blue  Blankets 

SVz  prs.  3  pt  Scarlet  Blankets 

72^  prs.  2^  White  French  Blankets 
Sy2  prs.  21^  H.  Bay  Blankets 

Carried   Forward 

Pierre  Chouteau  Jr.  &  Co.  U.  M.  O.  On  hand 












7  44 



10  08 



7  48 



1  70 











156  60 


58  60 


66  20 





166  75 


18  70 

4  40 

945  63 

20  02 

16  " 

29  54 

76  32 

56  36 

11  " 

7  24 

30  50 

24  52 

15  60 

30  30 

21  32 

7   52 

71  30 

85  80 

161  79 

18  87 

34  65 

13  05 

2  39 

4  50 

2  77 

2   38 

3  85 

1  80 

7  50 

••    82 

72    " 

27  31 

493  55 

950  03 

29  35 
8  12 

15  75 

910  14 


U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Benton      Brot  Forward 

OH  prs  2H  pt.  Green  Blankets S.     250 

27  prs.  Rose  Blankets F.    175 

20    Blue    Woolen    Shawls ''      75 

2  1/12  doz.   Blue  Cotton  H'dkfs "    IQO 

1^  doz.  Turkey  Red   H'dkfs "    iQO 

7/12  doz.  Portrait  H'dkfs "      60 

1  10/12  doz.  Blk  Silk  H'dkfs N.  Y.     450 

Vi  doz.  Red  Woolen  Caps F.    379 

2  Small  Table  Covers "    400 

V2  doz.   Packs  Playing  Cards "     150 

3  Large    Cotton   Shawls "      30 

3  Large  Woolen  Shawls "    250 

29  Small  Woolen  Shawls "      75 

8  Tweed   Coats   Saint  Louis "    450 

8  Skyblue  Coats  Saint  Louis "    30O 

1    B.   Pilot   Over   Coat »    450 

1  1/12  doz.  Boys  Wool  Hats "     500 

24    Spanish    Gourds »  12^ 

4  Scarlet  Chiefs   Coats "    559 

1  Blue  Chiefs  Coat "    45O 

3  Hard  Times   Coats "    2OO 

2  Sheep    Grey    Coats "    250 

1  Skyblue   Blanket   Coat »    425 

2  Boys  Scarlet  &  Blue  Coats "    170 

3  Bocking  Coats "    120 

1    Boys   Green   Coat "    iQO 

1    Boys  Bocking   Coat »      50 

1   Black  Cassinette  Coat "    275 

3  Boys   Comn   Blkt "      50 

1    pr.    Blue   Pants "    250 

12  pr.   Tweed   Pants "    JOQ 

1   pr.   Boys  Grey   Pants "      50 

1  pr.  Blk  Summer  Pants "       62^ 

5  pr.   Leggins "      79 

6  pr.   Leggins   for   Children "      25 

4  Womens  Blanket  Dresses "     350 

2  Small  Wht  Blanket  Coats "    200 

1    In.    Blue   Blanket   Coat "    275 

17   Boys    Blue    Blanket   Coats "      80 

1   Amn  Linsey  Coat "    120 

1   Comn  White  Coat "    400 

1  Boys  White   Coat "      75 

2  Boys  Red  Linsey  Coats "      60 

1  pr  Red  Linsey  Pants "      52 

63  lbs  Red  pound  Beads N.  Y.      65 

Carried  Forward  

493  55 

1  25 

950  03 

8  25 

910  14 

47  25 

15   " 

2  08 

1  67 

"  35 

1  26 

494  80 

40  95 

999  2Z         1206  82 

"  75 

"  90 

7  50 

21  75 

36  " 

24  " 

4  SO 

5  42 

3  " 

22  " 

4  50 

6  " 

5  " 

4  25 

3  40 

3  60 

1  " 

"  50 

2  75 

1  50 

2  50 

12  " 

"  50 

"  63 

3  SO 

1  SO 

14  " 

4  " 

2  75 

13  60 

1  20 

4  " 

"  75 

1  20 

"  62 

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Benton      Brot  forward 

146  lbs  Blue  pound  Beads N.  Y. 

126  lbs  Blue  pound  Beads  small 

160  lbs  White  pound   Beads 

8  Bu:  Small  Barleycorn  Beads F. 

33  Bu:  Snake  Beads N.  Y. 

79  lbs  Loose  Beads F. 

1  1/12  Card  Necklace  Beads 

4  Bu:  Cut  Glass  Beads N.  Y. 

15  lbs  Red  Pigeon  Egg  Beads 

37  lbs   Black  Pound   Beads 

6  lbs   Assorted    Beads 

10^  lbs  Blue  Garnishing  Beads 

12^   lbs  White  Garnishing   Beads 

J^   Bu:  Blue  Agate  Beads 

8  Rifles  F 

57  N.  W.  Chase  Guns S. 

29  Belgian  Guns N.  Y 

5  Double  Barrel  Guns F. 

30  lbs  Chinese  Vermillion N.  Y 

31/2  M  Horse  Pistol  Flints 

1  M   Rifle  Flint 

15^  doz.  Common  Scalping  Knives-.. 

90J4    doz.    Butcher   Knives 

155  White  Powder  Horns F. 

21  lbs  Rosin  Soap 

25  lbs   Chocolate 

1  5/12  doz.  Mustard 

3  5/12  doz.  Cups  &  Saucers 

1  5/12  doz.  Dinner  Plates 

1  1/12  doz.  Soup  Plates 

3—  5  gl  Tin  Kettles 

10^  4  gl  Tin  Kettles 

45_  1  gl  Tin  Kettle 

69—  3  gl  Tin  Kettles 

2  Nests  Tin  Kettles 

18  lbs  Sheet  Iron  Kettles 

24  lbs  Brass  Kettles N. 

3H  doz  Tin  Plates F. 

6  doz  small  Tin  Plates 

10/12"  Large  Tin  Pans 

2    Skimmers    

1  Coffee  Pot 

101  Spotted  Sea  Shells 

25  California  Shells 

20  d  California  Broken 

Carried    Forward 



494  80 

999  23 

1206  82 


73  " 


63  " 


48  •• 


13  " 


8  25 


23  70 

•    150 

1  63 


"  64 

'  75 

11  25 

■  20 

7  40 

'  25 

1  50 


5  91 


7  03 

'  150 

"  75 

'.  800 

64  '• 

.  356    202  92 

■.  350 

101  50 


55  " 

■.  150 

45  " 

'  300 

10  50 

'  300 

3  " 

•  125 

19  59 

'  125 

112  81 

.   50 

77   50 


"  84 

'   15 

3  75 

•  375 

5  31 

"  75 

2  56 

"  125 

1  77 

'  125 

1  36 

'  160 

4  80 

'  150 

15  " 

•  30 

13  50 

'  125 

86  25 

'  379 

7  58 

"   18 

3  24 

Y.  37/2 

9  " 

'.  200 

7  " 

'  100 

6  " 

"  300 

2  50 


"  25 

"  50 

"  50 


12  62 

"  175 

43  75 

■■  75 

15  " 

697  72         1528  36         1675  23 



U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Benton      Brot  forward 
10/12  doz.  14  in  Flat  Bastard  Piles....         F 

3  5/12  doz.  Pitsaw  Files 

4  ys  doz.  Hardsaw  Files 

2J4  doz.  Assorted  Armorers  Files 

1  11/12  doz.  Rat  Tail  Files 

5/12  doz.  Mill  Saw  Files 

8/12  doz.  Wood  Rasps 

ys  doz.  Elkhorn  hdle  Knives 

4  doz.  Turlington   Balsam 

3  Bot.  Castor  Oil 

5  lbs  Borax 

1    Bot.  Magnesia 

6  doz.  Capsules 

7  lbs    Epsom    Salts 

34  doz.  Chapmans 

3  Bot.  Liquid  Blue 

^   lbs  Lamp  Black pr. 

1  Medicine    Chest 

%  lb  Nutmegs  @  140  %  lb  Allspice  @ 

7  lbs  Fine  Iron  Wire 

10  lbs  Kettle  Wire 

48  Battle  Axes 

6  Trap   Springs 

3   Mowing   Scythes 

5y2  doz.  Brass  Cap  Plates 

12  doz.  Silver  Cap  Plates 

3  doz.  Belt  Plates 

^  doz.  Sword  Belt  Plates 

7  doz.  Brass  Hair  Ornaments 

49  prs  Tin  Wrist  Bands 

Ys  doz.  Large  Tin  Oscoles 

2  prs  Brass  Wrist  Bands 

3  Gro.  Lge  Kettle  Ears  No.  4 

12  doz.  Tin  Kettle  Ears 

30  M  Kettle  Rivets 

34  Box  Sheet  Tin 

ly  doz  Razors  in  Boxes 

1/6  doz  Shaving   Boxes 

5/12  doz  P.  C.  Looking  Glasses 

^  doz  Brass  Oscoles 

Vi  doz  Rifle  Locks 

3  doz  German  Silver  Fine  Combs N.  Y. 

31/3   Fine   Ivory   Combs 

]9y3  Crambo  Combs 

33^    Nest   Wampum   Moons 

Carried  Forward 

697  72 

1528  36    1675  23 


5  " 


7  69 


4  33 


3   94 


2  87 


1  25 


2  33 


2   " 


2   " 


1  " 


1  25 


"  50 


9  60 


"  42 


2  50 


3  " 


"  12 


2  " 


"  41 


'•  70 


1  40 


24  •' 


2  25 


2  25 


9  63 


18  " 


4  50 


1  12 


7  " 


19  60 


1  50 


"  80 


9  " 


3  " 


15  " 


2  94 


8  10 


"  21 


"  20 


2  63 


12  " 


3  " 


3  50 


6  38 


3  94 

697  72 

1545  18    1873  27 

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Benton     Bret  forward 
1  M  Needles N.  Y. 

3  C   Fish  Hooks F. 

1/6  Gro.  Indian  Awls S. 

1/6   Gro.    Gun   Worms 

J/^  doz.  Tailor  Thimbles F. 

I  pr.    Green   Goggles 

S  ps.  Assd  Ribbon N.  Y. 

^  lb  Sewing  Silk F. 

7/12  doz.  prs.  Spurs " 

II  Snaffle  Bridle  bitts 

4  Curb  Bridle  bitts 

lYs  doz.  prs.  Scissors 

14  doz.  prs.  small  Scissors 

12  prs.   Iron  Stirrups 

1   Small  lup  Lock 

3  M  Percussion  Caps 

4]/i  M  Percussion  Caps  damaged 

5  Sheets  Sand  Paper 

5/12  doz.  Scythe  Stones 

20    Brace    Bitts 

14  doz.  Collins  Chopp-g  Axes 

1  pr.  Fine  Boots 

1  pr.  Comn   Boots 

2  pr.  Brogans " 

1  pr.  Women's  Shoes 

2  Boxes   Blacking " 

181^  lbs  All  Col-  Thread 

1  lb   Black  Thread 

9%   lbs   Cotton    Balls 

1^   Ream   Letter   Paper " 

^   Ream  Cap  Paper " 

SYs  doz.  Cock  Feathers N.  Y. 

6  Small  Blank  Books F. 

10  Gro.  Suspender  Buttons " 

1/6  Gro.  O.  C.  Buttons 

5   Gro.  Shirt   Buttons " 

2  Blank  Books  4  qr 

8   lbs    Arsenic " 

13  lbs  Bar  Lead 

11  lbs    Candlewick " 

2   Horse    Halters 

1   Bridle   

1  Spanish  Saddle  Bocking  Cover 

7  lbs  Amn  Vermillion " 

162  lbs  Canot  Tobacco 

Carried    Forward   



697  72 

1545  18 

1873  27 


1  50 


1  80 


"    11 


"  06 


•'  13 


"  46 


1  87 


1  88 


4  69 


3  30 


3  58 


6  67 


"  92 


6  " 


••  30 


1  80 


"  45 


"  06 


"  31 



2  " 

3  12 


4  25 


1  50 


2  " 


"  75 


"  25 


11  10 


"  60 


5  55 


3  75 


1  88 


9  17 


"  i7 


2   10 


•'  17 


"  52 


1  60 


9  60 


1  56 


2  20 


2  " 


"  75 


5  50 


2  45 


11  34 

697  89 

1557  72         1982  53 



U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Benton      Bro't  forward 

177  lbs  N.  W.  Twist  Tobacco F 

4596   lbs   Tobacco 

76  Sacks  Balls  1900  lbs 

70  lbs  Pig  Lead 

19   lbs    Balls 

40  lbs  Powder 

5  lbs  Shaving  Soap " 

3  Powder   Canisters " 

9  Powder  Measures " 

4  Scoops  " 

2  Cotton   Shirts " 

1  Blue  Cloth  Saddle  Cover 

1  Scarlet  Cloth  Saddle  Cover 

7/12   doz.    Belts 

6  Indian  Axes  4M  lbs " 

1  Indian   Axe   3^ " 

6  doz.    Grottes " 

617  Arrow  Points " 

7]4   lbs   Beeswax " 

614   lbs  Verdigris " 

2  lbs  Saltpetre  " 

13  Barrels  Sugar  2429  lbs 

114   Barrels   Flour " 

14021^   lbs   Coffee 

7  Bushels   Salt 

3  Bushels  Ree  Corn " 

8  Gl   Molasses " 

20  lb  Sugar 

1  Bushel  Dried  Apples " 

2  lbs   Black   Pepper '' 

1^   Barrel   Beans " 

%  doz.   Ink " 

2  doz.  Steel  Pens " 

1  Lancet  75c  1  Tooth  puller 

1  Sand    Box " 

2  C  Wafers 

1  lb  Blue  Moss " 

15   Muskets   " 

1  pr.  Ball  Moulds  10  Balls 

1   pr.  Steelyards  No  Pea 

1  Satters  Cir:  Spring  Balance N.  Y. 

1   Satters  Cir:  Spring  Balance  50  lb....  " 

1    Satters  Cir:  Spring  Balance  25 " 

3  Small  Flags F. 

14  doz.  Snaffle  Bridle  bitts 

Carried   Forward  


89    1557  72 

1982  53 

.  12/. 

22  13 


298  74 


114  " 


2  45 


1  14 


6  80 


1  25 


1  50 


"  56 


1  " 


1  " 


1  63 


1  87 


1  75 


6  " 


"  88 


2  25 


9  25 


1  67 


2  44 


"  34 


157  88 


8  62 


147  26 


3  01 


5  70 


3  04 


1  30 


2  25 

■  12K 

"  25 


8  75 


"  19 


1  50 


2  25 


"  25 


"  20 


1  " 


52  50 


4  " 


"  50 


3  50 


3  50 


2  50 


18  •' 


2  " 

697  89        1567  22        2881  63 



U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Benton      Bro't  forward 

14  Beaver  Traps  &  Chains F.  300 

2  —  3  pdr  Cannons "  6600 

1   Fort   Bell "  2000 

Advance  on   Sterling  90% 

Advance   N.   York   17^% 

5  pr  Ct  Commission 

Freight  on  19730  lb  @  3c  pr  pound-. 

10  Broken   Beaver  Traps @  150 

7  Scythes  @  50c  4  Sneathes  @  50c.... 

2  X  Cut  Saws  @  2.50  2  Pit  Saws @     500 

4  Pit    Saws "    200 

1  Cast  Iron  Kettle  125c  1  Old  Coffee 

Pot  "      SO 

16  Pack  Saddles  @  250  9  Indian  do "     150 

2  Small  Grind  Stones  @  75c  1  Rock- 

ing Chair  $-^ 

5  Old  Chairs  @  50c   1   Corn   Mill   & 

Fly  Wheel   690 

2  Amen  Boxes  &  Canisters  @  $2 

1  Screw    Ram    Rod    25    16    Chopping 

Axes  @  100 

6  Water  tight  Casks  @  50c  1  Water- 

tight Box 100 

4  Shovels  @  50c  1  Spade  50c  1  Brok- 
en do 25 

4  Ox  Yokes  Ironed  @    2$    4    Do    No 

Irons    @    100 

1  Sett  Harness  for  4  Horses @  2000 

1  Sett  Harness  for  2  Horses "  1000 

4  Extra  Collars "    300 

2  Setts  Parfleche  Harness  for  4  Horses  "1500 
2    Setts  Parfleche  Harness  for  2  Horses  "    750 

1  Bull    Harness "    500 

2  Waggons    "    $80 

1    Buggy    $10.     1    Ox    Waggon    $25. 

1   Cart  $20 

1  pr.  Cart  Wheels  No  tires  6$  I  Wheel 
Barrow   $3 — 

3  Log  Chains  @  $5.  7  Caulking  Irons 

@  25c  4  Press  Irons  @  25 

697  89 

1567  22 

2881  63 
42  " 
132  " 
20  " 

697  89 

1567  22 

3075  63 

628  10 

1325  99 

274  26 

1841  48 

6243  10 

312  16 

6555  26 

591  90 

7147  16 

15  " 

5  50 

15  " 

8  " 

1  75 

53  50 

4  50 

9  40 
4    " 

16  25 

2  75 

12  " 

20  " 

10  " 

12  " 

30  " 

15  " 

5  " 

55  " 
9  " 
17  75 


2  Wheel  Barrows  @  $3.00  6  Stoves  @ 
32$  1   Large  do.  10$ 

1  Scow  20$  2  Wash  Stands  @  2.50.... 

2  prs.  And  Irons  @  $1.00  1  Ea  Shovel 

&  Tongs  @  $1.00  

2  Old  Spades  @  50c  1  Large  Chest  $3. 

1  Toboboard  &  Knife  100 

1  pr.  Pincers  50c    7    Iron    Cd    Water 

Buckets  @  100 

1  Iron    Crane    $1.00    2    6    gl.    S.    I. 

Kettles  @  120 

2  Lge  Ovens  &  Lid  $1.50  2  Com.  size 

do  &  Lids  125 

1  Frying   Pan  $1.00  1    Skillet  $1.00   1 

Lge  Grid  Iron   100 

2  Flesh  Forks  @  12^c  3  Pot  Hooks 

25c  1  Lge  Knife  50c 

3—  2  gl  Tin  Kettles  @  60c  1—  3  gl 

do  @  80c  3—  4  gl  do  @  100 

1  Strainer  20c    4    Ironbound    Buckets 

@  100  

Carried   Forward   

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Benton     Brot  forward 

4  Coffee    Pots „..  75 

1  Lge  Tin  Tea  Pot  125.  11  Tin  Plates 

@  1254  

8  Assd  Tin  Pans  @  30c  3  Lge  Oval 
dishes  @  120  5  Com  Tin  do.  25.... 

1  Skimmer   20c    39    Candlemoulds    @ 

614  2  Coffee  Mills  @  75 

5  Soup  Plates  @  10c  1  doz  dinner  do. 

120.  7  Knives  &  forks  @  10c 

8  Tin  Table  Spoons  @  3c  2  Iron  do 
@  6c  5  Tin  Dippers  @  15c 

3  Tin  Saucers  @  12^  1  Sugar  Bowl 

25c  1  Cream  Jug  25 

2  Iron  Tea  Spoons  @  3c  4  Tin  do.  @ 

3c  8  Cups  &  Saucers  @  10 

1  Flour  Sieve  7Sc  1  Mustard  25  1  Pep- 
perbox 25  

1  Bread  Bowl  15c  1  Stove  &  pipe  10$ 
1  Dinner  table  &  benches  4$ 

10  Tin  Cups  @  6c  4  Candlesticks  @ 

25c   _  1  60  556  50 

48  " 

25  " 

3  " 

5  " 

7  50 

3  40 

5  50 

3  " 

1  50 

5  60 

4  20 

517  10 

7147  16 

517  10 

7147  16 

3  " 

2  63 

7  25 

4  14 

2  40 

1  11 










Tinners  Tools 

1  Vice  &  bench  6$  3  Soldering   Irons 

@  1.25  9  75 

5  Hammers  @  75c  1  pr.  Old  Scissors 

25  1  pr.  Bench  Shears  100 

1  Bar  for  Tongue  50c     1  Fron  100 

1   Square  Anvil   1.50  1    Creasing   Iron 

50c  2  setts  Hammers  @  50c 

1  Grooving  Iron  50c     1  punch  25c     4 

Cold  Chisels  @   I2i^ 

3  prs.  Pincers  50c     1  Soldering  Stove 

100  3  Bigons  (?)  $3 

Tailors  Tools 

1  pr.  Shears  50c     2  prs.  Scissors  30c  1 

Candlestick   25c    

2  Pressboards  @  25c  1  Thimble  6c 56  1  91 

Blacksmith's  Tools 

2  Anvils  @  1250     1   Sledge   Hammer 


1  Hand  Hammer  @  75c  1  Nail  do.  75c 
1   pr.   Bellows   15$ 

1  Rivitting   Hammer   @  75c   1   Bench 

vice  4$     6  pr.  Tongs  @  50c 

2  prs.     Pincers    @    50c       1     Splitting 

Chisel  @  25c  2  Cold  do.  16c 

2  Hand  vices  @  50c     1  Drill  Stock  & 

bitts  2$  1  2  foot  rule  30c 

5   Lge    used    Files    @    6c      2    Screw 
Wrenches  @  50 

4  Screw  plates  &  5  setts  dies  @  2.50 

6  do.  @  100 

1  2/4  Auger  20c     1  Drawing  Knife  @ 
75c     1  Spike  Gimblet  125^ 

1  Hand  Saw  File  6c     1  sett  Hammers 

75c     2  square  punches  @  25c 

3  Round    Punches    @    12^c      2    prs. 

Clamp  @  100  1  Old  Hand  Saw  50c 

2  Eye  Wedges  @  25     3  square  files  6c 

1   Shoeing   Hammer  50c 

1  Old  Gun  No  Lock  2$      4    Heading 

Tools    @    25c 

1   Stamp  Al   $1.00     1    Small   do.   AlC 

SOc  3  pokers  @  25c 

3  prs.  Waggon   Cast  Boxes  @  50c   1 

Tire  $1.50  

3  Hand  Saws  @  $1.00     1  Tenor  Saw 
$1.75     1  Wood  do.  $1.00 

5  " 
1  50 

3  " 

1  25 

11  50 

1  35 

27  50 

16  50 

7  75 

1  57 

3  30 

1  30 

16  " 

1  08 

1  31 

2  88 

1  18 

3  " 

2  25 

3  " 

5  75 



2  Iron  Squares  @  50c  1  foot  Adze 
$1.50     1  Morticing  Chisel  1.00 

1  Hammer  75c    1  Nail  Hatchet  1.00    2 

Braces  &  bitts  @  5$ 

4  Gages  @  25c  4  Sporting  Chisels  @ 
16c     1  Oil  Stone  25c 

2  Jack  planes  @  $1.30     2  Smoothing 

do.  @  $1.30     1  Wood  Square  25c 

1  Rabit  plane  @  1.30    2  pr.  Pincers  @ 

50c     1  Nail  Wrench  25c 

2  Drawing  Knives  @    75c      2    Wood 

Rasps  @  10c     6  files  @  6c 

1  Scribe    UVzc      1    Saw    Set    25c      9 

Augers  36  Qtr  360 

2  Broad   Axes   2$     2   Beading  planes 

@  $1.50  

Carried   Forward  

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Benton      Brot  forward 
1  Sash  &    Grooving    plane    $1.50c      1 
Tongue  &  Grooving  plane  1.50 

3  Morticing  Chisels  @  16c     3  Gouges 

@   16c  

3  Gimblets  @  654c  1  Grind  Stone 
$1.50  1  Carpenters  tool  Chest 

3  50 

11  75 

5  45 

2  55 


3  97 

7    " 

132  54 

7737   57 

132  54 

7737   57 


5  19 

141  69 

Live  Stock 
8  Horses  .. 
5  Mules  - 
3   Bulls  

2  Oxen  

3  Cows  

4  Calves  ... 
12  Hogs  ... 

7  Pigs  

1  Cat  


24  Merchandise  Boxes. 

36  Bale  Cloths 

40  Cow  Skins 

1   Writing  Desk 

Reduction  27%  on   Articles  in  use  &c 
on    1513.60   

@  2500 









@  100 
"  100 
"  50 
"   250 

200  ' 

200  • 

75  • 

50  ' 

75  ' 

20  • 

60  ' 

14  ' 

5  ' 

699  " 

24  ' 

36  ' 

20  ' 

2  5 

3     82  50 

8660  76 

408  67 

$8252  09 











102  06 



111  78 

53  04 

7  35 

Inventory  of  Stock,  the  property  of  Pierre  Chouteau  Jr.  &  Co.  U.  M. 
hand  at  Fort  Union  15th  May  1851 

58^  prs.  3  pt  Scarlet  Blankets S.  378 

6y2  prs.  3  pt  Green  Blankets '     374 

2  prs.  3  pt  Skyblue  Blankets '     363 

8^  prs.  2H  pt  Skyblue  Blankets '     262 

1  pr.  4  pt  Skyblue  Blankets F.    450 

iV/i  prs.  2J^  pt  Indigo  blue  Blankets..  S.  324 

11  prs.  2y2  Scarlet  Blankets '     229 

5  prs.   Wrapper   Blankets F.  ZYlYi 

2  Cotton  Rugs '       'SIVj 

}i   Yd.  Venetian   Carpeting '       65 

207  Yd.  Blue  S.  L.  Cloth S      54 

78  Yd.  Green  S.  L.  Cloth '      68 

1214  Yd.  Scarlet  S.  L.  Cloth '       60 

28^  Yd.  Mixed  Satinette F.     50 

10^  Yd.   Blue   Satinette '       58 

56  Yd.  Jeans  '       33 

71^  Yd.  Fancy  Jeans '       40 

405  Yd.  Plaid  Woolens '       25 

457^  Yd.  Plaid  Linsey '       18 

92  Yd.   White   Flannel '       25 

93y2  Yd.  Red  Flannel '       23 

40^  Yd.  Green  Flannel '       21 

275  Yd.  Salempore N.  Y.     11 

204  Yd.  Cotn  Check F.     10 

II6714  Yd.  Fancy  Calico  Average '       12 

86614  Yd.  Blue  &  White N.  Y.     12i^ 

300  Yd.  Blue  &  White '       UVs 

4841^  Yd.  Blue  &  White F.       8^ 

776  Yd.  Blue  &  Orange '       24 

101  Yd.  Victoria  Plaid '       20 

1  Large  Fort  Flag N.  Y.  8800 

1   Fort  Streamer F.  1000 

7  Sup.  Cloth  Surtouts  $5/8  &  2 '     925 

1  Blue  Chiefs  Coat '     575 

1   Ermantine  Coat '     390 

8  Blue  Chiefs  Coats  not  made '     400 

7  Scarlet  Chiefs    Coats  not  made '     500 

1  Ea  Kersey  200c  &  Cassinette  Coats  '     200 

1   Used  Summer  Coat '     200 

6  Summer  Vests '       50 

13  Fine  Casse  Vests '     275 

1  pr.  Fine  Cloth  Pants '     300 

1  pr.  Satinette  Pants '     225 

Carried   Forward   

O.  on 

4  50 

16  63 
••  75 
•    49 

14  12 

6  19 

18  48 

28  70 

101  25 

82  30 

23  " 

21  51 

8  56 

30  25 

20  40 

140  07 

108  28 

^7   50 

42  40 

186  24 

20  20 

88  " 

10  " 

58  50 

5  75 

3  90 

32  " 

35  " 

4  " 

2  " 

3  " 

35  75 

3  " 

2  25 

574  39 

264  03 

930  94 



U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union      Brot  forward 

1   pr.  Jeans  Pants F. 

1  pr.  Gar  Leather  Pants ' 

3  doz    Calico  Shirts ' 

1/6  doz  Hickory  Shirts ' 

lyi  doz  Flannel  Shirts ' 

7/12  doz  Plush  Caps 

7/12  doz  Fine  Cloth  Shirts 

}i  doz  Glazed  Cloth  Caps ' 

%  doz  Woolen  Cloth  Caps ' 

10/12  doz  P.  L.  Hats 

1/12  doz  White  Wool  Hats 

10/12  doz  Cotton   Socks ' 

ys  doz  Woolen  Socks ' 

1/6  doz  Woolen  Mitts 

1  doz  Woolen  Gloves  Comn ' 

^  doz  Satin  Stocks ' 

Vi  doz  Silk  Stocks  F  P 

1   Old  Shawl 

1  Damaged  Table  Cover ' 

4  pr.  Red  Epaulettes ' 

12  yds.  Red  Cord 

V/s  doz.  Mens  Brogans ' 

7  prs.  Mens  Boots  1849 

8  prs.  Mens  Boots  1850 

11  prs.   Garnd  Mockasins ' 

80  lbs  Blue  pound  Beads N.  Y. 

58  lbs  Comn  purple  Beads ' 

361^  lbs  Blue  Pigeon  Egg  Beads F. 

137  lbs  White  Pigeon  Egg  Beads N.  Y. 

27  lbs  Red  Pigeon  Egg  Beads ' 

17^   lbs   Seed   Beads F. 

10^  lbs  Red  pound  Beads N.  Y. 

4  lbs  Loose  pound  Beads F. 

6  lbs  Seed  pound  Beads  Loose ' 

21J4  Burd  Blue  Agate  No.  10 N.  Y. 

29  Burd  Blue  Agate  No.  9 F. 

41  Burd  White  Agate  No.  4 

9  Burd  Sma  Blue  Barleycorn N.  Y. 

120  Burd  Sma  Red  Barleycorn ' 

20  doz.  Sma   White  Barleycorn F. 

31  doz.  Large  White  Harleycorn ' 

2  doz.  Blue  Necklace ' 

71/2  M  Grain  Wht  Wampum ' 

7  lbs  Purple  MK  Wampum ' 

236  in  Wampum   Hair  Pipes ' 

Carried    I'orward   


39     264  03 

930  94 

.  125 

1  25 


6  " 


18  " 


1  08 


13  33 


1  75 


6  13 


2  25 


"  75 


3  75 


1  17 


1  67 


"  83 


"  46 


2  50 


7  13 


4  " 


1  " 


2  " 


4  " 


"  36 


26  " 


16  33 


32  " 


5  50 


40  " 


14  50 


21  90 


102  75 


20  25 


19  15 


6  83 

,  25 

1  " 


3  " 


33  IS 


36  25 


30  75 


4  50 


60  " 


7  " 


6  20 


"  50 


32  85 


6  30 


11  80 

574  39 

546  01 

1266  88 


U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union     Brot  forward  574  39  546  01         1266  88 

3  Sea   Shells F.     12^                                                   "    i7 

18  C  St  Lawrence  Shells '50                                                         9    " 

28       30       2>y 

95  California  Shells    $1       $2       $3  F.                                                              106  75 

Its   Too   "75" 

\H  lbs  Sewing  Silk F.  750 

4H  lbs  Holland  Twine '       70 

5  lbs  All  Cold  Thread '       60 

10^  doz  Spool  Cotton '       16 

^  lb  Ball  Cotton '       40 

6  lbs  Sturgeon  Twine '       65 

5  lbs  Candlewick '       20 

34  lb  Twist '     550 

50  Turkey  Wings '         4 

2  Rolls  Scarlet  Gartering '       40 

J4  Roll  Saddle  Web '     170 

1/5  doz.  Clothes  Brushes '     600 

14  doz.  Painters  Brushes '     600 

18^  Gro  Gun  Worms S.     39 

1    Scythe    Stone F.       6^ 

1  Gro.  Bone  Coat  Buttons '       75 

35  Gro.  Suspender  Buttons '       21 

414  Gro.  Orange  Coat  Buttons N.  Y.  150 

3^  Gro.  Over  Coat  Buttons F.  200 

AYz   Gro.  Pearl  Shirt  Buttons '         5 

4  Gro.  Coat  Moulds N.  Y.     15^ 

Sundry  loose  Buttons  Equal  to  1  Gro.  F. 

1/6  Gro.  Bullet  Buttons '     237^4 

H    Gro.  Vest  Buttons '     200 

Yi  doz.  Brass  Hooks  &  Eyes '     250 

5^  Gro.  Ind.  Awls S.     64 

714  doz.  Crambo  Combs N.  Y.     ii 

\%  doz.  Ivory  Combs '     105 

1/6  doz.   Boxwood   Combs S.     67 

%   doz.  Tuck  Combs F.  208 

]/2    doz.    Perfumery '     400 

Ys   doz.   Paste   Blacking '     125 

21   Gro.   Brass   Finger   Rings S.     46 

SY2   Papers   Hawk   Bells N.  Y.     37Y2 

5  doz.  Brass  Cap  Plates F.  238 

%   Thumb   Wrenches '       75 

10  8/10  M    Percussion   Caps '       60 

IH   M    Brass  Tacks '       60 

5/12  doz.   Hickory   Brooms '     175 

8  M  Assd  Sewing  Needles '     150 

3  doz.  Baling  Needles '       S7Y2 

11/12  Tap  Borers '       58 

Carried    Forward   594  83  559  59         1471    14 

12  19 

3  15 

3  " 

1  80 

"  10 

3  90 

1  " 

1  37 

2   " 

"    80 

"  43 

2  " 

1  50 

7  31 

6  75 
"  62 

"  06 
••  75 
7  35 

7  " 
"  22 

1  " 
"  40 
"  50 
"  83 

3  36 

2  39 

1  75 

"  11 

"  52 
2  " 
"  41 

9  60 

2   07 

11  90 
"  19 

6  48 
"  90 
"  73 

12  " 
1  12 

"  54 



Bro't  forward 


t'.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union 
9  Assiniboine  Lances 

1  Medicine  Pipe  Stem 

2  lbs    Pins ' ___ 

2  C   Gun   Flints g 

2  Red  Stone  Pipes p 

1    1/6  doz.   Shaving  Brushes ' 

Vi  doz.   Shaving  Boxes ' 

1  7/12  doz.  Snuff  Boxes 

1/6  doz.  Tobacco  Boxes 

4  Cases  Razors  2  ea 

7  Cases  Razors  1  ea ' 

\y2  doz  Comn  Razors ' 

}i  doz  Cloak  Clasps » 

IH  C  Large  Fish  Hooks ' 

H  C  Good  Fish  Hooks .......".' 

H  doz.  Grattes 

1/6  doz.  Pocket  Compasses 

Vi  doz.   Nail  Gimblets ' 

10/12  doz.  Bead  Reticules N.  Y. 

^  doz.  Silver  Tray  Bells ' 

2  doz.   Zinc > 

1/6  doz.  Pocket  Ink  Stands p.  350 

6  pr.  Single  Ball  Moulds '      50 

20  pr.  Silver  Ear  Bobs N.  Y.       8 

1   doz.   Buckles p 

IH  doz.  Scissors 

1  pr.    Shears 

Vi  Gro.  Wood  Screws 

2  C  Fly  Hooks >vf 

Wa  doz.  Thimbles 

3  1/12  doz.  Compn  Medals 

5/12  doz.  Copper  Powd.  Flasks 

Ys   doz.   Cow  Bells 

Vi  doz.  Axe  Handles 

20  Gourds  

6   Hickory   Bows 

4  Maple   Gun  Stocks 

4  ps.  Maple  for  Ox  Yokes 

1   Sett  Tuning  Chisels 

1    Sett   Tuning   Gouges 

V2  doz.  Socket  Chisels 

21  Boatpole  Spikes  &  Rings 

3  pr  Hooks  &  Hinges 

3-  9  in  Wards  Stock  Locks 

2-  S  in  Wards  Stock  Locks 








594  83 


559  59 

2  50 
1  25 
1  50 

1  60 

1471   14 
2  70 

1  " 

2  62 

2  " 
2  04 

"  83 
2  2,7 

"   09 

1  80 

2  80 
8  10 
"    75 

1  50 
"  30 
"  19 
"  25 
••    50 


Carried   Forward 

F.  12 

"  12 

'  283 

3  07 

'   41^ 

"  41 

'   50 

"  17 

Y.  50 

1  " 

'   10 

"  17 

F.  787 

24  27 

'  1050 

4  37 

'  787 

2  63 

'  175 

"   58 

'   15 

3  " 

'   12^ 

"  75 

'   40 

1  60 

'  200 

8  " 

'  450 

4  50 

'  450 

4  50 

'  900 

4  50 

'   50 

10  50 

'   17 

"  51 

'  300 

9  " 

'  250 

5  " 


567  6! 

1592  04 



U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union      Brot  forward 

2-  6  in  Stock  Locks 

1   doz.    Cupboard   Locks 

1  5/12  doz.  Trunk  Locks 

5/12  doz.  Pad  Locks 

Yz  doz.  N.  W.  Gun  Locks 

66  Qtrs  c  Augur  12  Augrs 

1   Ea  Shovel  and  Tongs 

1  pr  And  Irons 

1  Foot  Adze 

^  doz.  Chopping  Axes 

1  5/12  doz.  Plane  Irons 

1  Dble  Ironed  Smoothing  Plane 

1  Coopers  Joiners  Plane 

3  Saws  1/100.  1/125.  1/75 

1/6  doz  Spades 

3J4  pr.  Butt  Hinges 

1  10/12  doz.  Brass  Hinges 

1  Ea  20  Chisel    6J4    Gimblet    &    12^ 


5  doz.  Green  Hdl  Spear  pi  Knives N. 

ZYz  doz.  9  in  Cooks  Knives 

106  doz.  5  in  Butcher  Knives N. 

1514  doz.  Warrs  Scalping  Knives 

2  7/12  doz.  Knives  &  Forks 

5/12  doz.  Single  Pen  Knives 

lYi  doz.  Single  Pocket  Knives N. 

1^  doz.  Cartouche  Knives 

2  Dragon   Swords 

3  Pockamogans   

lYz  doz.  14  in  Flat  Files 

2M  doz.  10  in  Hf  Round  Files 

1  doz.  12  in  Hf  Round  Files 

V/i  doz.  9  in  Hf  Round  Files 

1/6  doz.  8  in  Hf  Round  Files 

AYz  doz.  Pitsaw  Files 

1  doz.  Rat  Tail  Files 

5/12  doz.  House  Rasps 

1  1/6  doz.  Wood  Rasps 

2  doz.  Armourers  Files 

7  Earthern   Dishes  No.  2  1/80  No.   3 

4/40  No.  4  2/60  Dishes 

10/12   doz.    Coffees 

Yz  doz.  Sugars 

2  doz.  Soups 

1/6  doz.  Dinner  Plates 

12^  doz.  Kettle  Ears  Average 

23VS  doz.  Tin  Cups 

Carried  Forward  

595  08 

567  61 



















.  250 


.  437/2 


.  106 




.  225 




.  700 


\  90 



















12  50 

112  36 
22  88 

11  67 

1592  04 
4  " 
1  50 
1  42 
3  75 
16  " 
6  60 

"  39 
16  06 

3  82 

1  25 

1  57 

4  50 
6  " 

10  " 
8  94 

3  25 

4  13 
"  42 
10  50 

1  50 

1  67 

2  76 

3  50 

3  60 
"  62 
2  " 

2  50 
"  21 

3  80 
14  " 

595  08 

727  02    1765  35 



U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union      Brot  forward 

Ys  doz.  Wash  Basins     

4  doz.  Large  Pans 

27^   doz.   Medium   Pans 

5/12  doz.  Scoops 

H    doz.    Candlemoulds 

1/12  doz.  Strainers 

1  5/12  doz.  Dippers 

1/6  doz.    Powder    Canisters 

2  5/12  doz.  Small  Pans 

7/12  doz.  Powder  Measures 

1/6  doz.  Small  Coffee  Pots 

7/12  doz.   Lanterns 

1/12  doz.  Gratters 

2^  doz.  Spoons _ 

lys  doz.  Iron  Tea  Spoons 

2  Tin  Kettles  3  Galls  Ea 

191  Tin  Kettles  2  Galls  &  Cover 

436  Tin  Kettles  2  Galls  No  Handle 

120  Tin  Kettles  1  Galls  &  Cover 

349  Tin  Kettles  1  Galls  No  cover 

162  Tin  Kettles  J^  Galls 

y^  doz.  Mirrors  with   Drawers N. 

7  1/12  doz.  Pocket  Mirrors  f  1 

10  doz.   Pocket  Mirrors  f  2 

1^4  doz.  Small   Gilt  Mirrors 

17  7/12    doz.    Pap.    Covered    Mirrors 


14  1/12  doz.  Brittania  Mirrors  No.  3..  N. 
14  doz.  Brittania  Mirrors  No.  4 

8  doz.  Large  Gilt  Mirrors  No.  1 

10^  doz.   Large  Gilt  Mirrors  No.  2... 

396/  lbs  12d  Cut  Nails 

601  lbs  Wro't  Spikes 

54  lbs   Old   Nails 

22/  lbs  Rough  House  Bells 

1  doz.  Sheep  Shears 

24  Beaver  Trap  Springs 

1  Beaver  Trap  Chains 

12  Squaw  Axes  2/  lbs 

74  lbs  Iron  Wire 

77  lbs  Iron  Wire  Very  large N. 

25  lbs  Brass  Wire  Very  large 

6/  lbs  Small  Wire 

90  lbs  Cast  Wheel  Boxes 

2  Gro.  Clay  Pipes N. 

78  Powder   Horns 

Carried   Forward   

595  08 

F.  450 

'  300 

'  240 

•  300 

'   75 

'  350 

'  300 

'  600 

'  120 

'   75 

'  450 

'  450 

'  150 

'  37  y2 

'    37y2 

'     125 

•   65 

'   62/ 

'   30 

•   28 

'   20 

Y.  162/ 

F.  45 

'   45 

'   62/ 

'   48 

Y.  362/ 

•  425 

F.  500 

'  300 


•   12/ 


'   40 

'  500 

'   62/ 

'   50 

'   80 

'   12 

Y.  16 

S.  24 

F.  36 

'    4/ 

Y.  SSVs 

F.  50 

27  02 

1765  35 

1  50 

12  " 

65  60 

1  25 

"  38 

•'  29 

4  25 

2  90 

■■  44 

"  75 

2  62 

"  13 

"  94 

"  50 

2  50 

124  15 

272  50 

36  " 

97  72 

32   40 

5  31 

4  50 

1  09 

8  44 

51  06 

59  50 

40  " 

32  25 

19  82 

75  19 

1  62 

8  90 

5  " 

15  " 

"  50 

9  60 

6  12 

601  20 

12  32 



851  38        2703  65 



U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union      Brot  forward 

1  Iron  Beam  &  Wooden  Scales F.  1000 

1  pr.  Copper  Scales  &  2  setts  Weights  '  2000 

2  Patent    Balances N.  Y.  350 

1  pr.  Steelyards  520  lbs F.  625 

1   pr.   Steelyards  200  lbs '     162>4 

4  pr.  Steelyards '     162i/^ 

90  lbs  Steel '       20 

21  lbs  Square  Iron '         4^ 

76  lbs  Hoop  Iron '         6J4 

530  lbs  Nail  Rod  Iron '        7 

902  lbs   Bar   Iron '         4^ 

3  doz.  Windo  Glass '       30 

1  Painters  Stone  &  Muller '     550 

27   Belgian   Guns N.  Y.  450 

13  Belgian  Guns  used F.  300 

2  N.  W.  Guns  used '     450 

1  Dble  B'r'l  Percussion  Gun '  1500 

1  Old  fine  Gun '     500 

6  Good  Rifles '     900 

2  Used  Rifles '     800 

8  Old   Rifles '     400 

29  U.   S.   Muskets N.  Y.  300 

1  Brass  Swivel  Mt'd F.  9000 

1  Repeating  Rifle '  2000 

\y2  pr.  Brass  Brl  Pistols N.  Y.  438 

1  pr.  Iron  Brl  Pistols '     550 

4  pr.  Old  Pistols F.  150 

1-  3  pounder  Iron  Cannon '  6600 

1-  4  pounder  Iron  Cannon '  6600 

2  Setts  Rammers   &  Wipers N.  Y.  500 

8  Powder  Horns F.     50 

5021   lbs   Bullets '         6 

280  lbs  Pig  Lead '         S'A 

A29y2  lbs  Small  Bar  Lead '       12 

40  lbs    Grape   Shot N.  Y.       6 

6  Canister  Balls  4  lbs  Ea—  24  lbs '       10 

24  Canister  Balls  3  lbs  Ea—  72  lbs '       10 

i?,  Cannon  Ralls  3  lbs  Ea—  99  lbs '         5^^ 

M    Bag   Shot F.   135 

12  Canister  Rifle  Powder '       17 

Sundry  Fire  Works  valued  at 

2273  lbs   Gun    Powder '       17 

i7  lbs  Chrome  Yellow '       30 

83  lbs  Amn  Vermillion '       35 

63  lbs   Chinese  Vermillion N.  Y.   180 

Carried    Forward 

601   20 

851  38 

2703  65 

10  " 

20  " 

7  " 

6  25 

1  62 

6  50 

18  " 

"  94 

4  75 

:^7  10 

40  59 

••  90 

5  50 

121  50 

39  " 

9  " 

15  •• 

5  " 

54  " 

16  " 

32  " 

87  " 

90  " 

20  " 

6  57 

5  50 

6  " 

66  " 

60  " 

10  " 

4  " 

301  26 

9  80 

51  54 

2  40 

2  40 

7  20 

5  44 

1  01 

2  04 

5  " 

386  41 

11  10 

29  05 

113  40 

601  20 

1219  79        4069  02 



U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union     Bro't  forward 

20  lbs.   Verdigris F.     ZTV^ 

iVi  kegs  SpaBro.  in  Oil '  250 

26  lbs  Yellow  Paint  Oil '  6 

\y2  Box  Water  Colours for 

1  doz.  Camel  Hair  Pencils 

3  1/6    doz.    Playing    Cards    3-150    & 

1/6-100    F. 

1    Copying  Press '  1200 

1  Cap  Copying  Book '  300 

1  Letter  Copying  Book '  225 

1  Copying  Brush '  63 

2  Bot.  Copying  Ink '  75 

1  Hydrometer    N.  Y.  500 

41^  Sheets  Oil  Paper F.     25 

Wi    Rhm   Cap   Paper '  250 

H    Rhm   Wrapping   Paper '  300 

2  Qrs  Envelope  Paper '  30 

1   Qr   Blank  Engagements '  100 

4  Qrs  Bills  of  Lading '  100 

1  Qt  Black  Ink '  lIVz 

Yi  doz.  Ink  Powders '  100 

3—  1   Qr  Blank  Books '  40 

3  doz.   Steel   Pens '  75 

3  Ink  Stands   1-75  1-50  1-100 

2  Wafer    Boxes '  25 

1    Patent    Ruler '  87^ 

1   Brass   Mtd  Telescope 1000 

1    Military   Drum N.  Y.  750 

1    Electrical   Machine '  500 

1    Magic   Lantern   &   Paintings '  5000 

1    Gro.   Vials '  150 

1  Clyster   Syringe F.  250 

2  Cut  Glass   Decanters '  175 

1  Spy  Glass  wanting  Repairs *  800 

1    Case   Scalpels '  600 

1   Case  Pocket  Instruments '  1500 

1  Tourniquet  '  150 

2  prs.    Pullicans '  150 

1  Spring   Lancet '  125 

2  Thumb    Lancets '  25 

1    pr.    Shears '  42 

1    Mortar  &  Pestle '  175 

1  Apothecaries  Scales  &  Weights '  250 

4  oz.  Sulph.  Quinine '  425 

^   doz   Bain's   Pile  Lotion '  2000 

7/12  doz  Roger's  Liverwort  &  Tar '  800 

Carried   Forward  

601  20 

601  20 

1219  79 

4069  02 

7  50 

6  25 

1  56 

4  50 

"  25 

4  67 

12  " 

3  " 

2  25 

"  63 

1  SO 

5  " 

1  12 

3  75 

1  50 

"  60 

1  " 

4  " 

"  38 

"  67 

1  20 

2  25 

2  25 

"  50 

"  87 

10  " 

7  50 

5  " 

50  " 

1  50 

2  50 

3  50 

8  " 

6  " 

15  " 

1  50 

3  " 

1  25 

"  50 

'•  42 

1  75 

2  50 

17  " 

5  " 

4  66 

1288  79        4215  80 


U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union    Bro't  forward  601  20         1288  79        4215  80 

VA   lbs    Assafetida    @    25c    7/12    doz 

Capsules  @  160 1  31 

7%  lbs  Tumeric  @  12c  H   Gro.  Vial 

Corks    @    12c "    98 

1%  lbs  Beeswax  @  25c  1%  lbs  Indigo 

@  50c  "   94 

114  lbs  Glue  @   18c     1    lb    Logwood 

@  6c  "    28 

1   10/12  lbs  Arrowroot  @75c  10^  lbs 

Ep.  Salts  @  6c 2   " 

2A  lbs  Cinnamon  @  3Sc  J4  lb  Jalap 

@  50c  1    " 

1  Vial  01.  Cinnamon  25c  3^    doz    C 

Pills  @  125 4  63 

1  lb    Lampblack    12c      V/2    lbs    Blue 

Moss  @   100 1  62 

10  lbs  Borax  @  25c  1^  doz.  Ess.  Lem- 
on @  35c 3  08 

K  lb  Wafers  @  50c     H  lb  B.  Pitch  @ 

25c   "    32 

2  lbs  Pearl  Sago  @  25c    2  oz.  Gentian 

@  25c  1    " 

eVs  lbs  Sulphur  @  36c    5/12    doz    Ol 

Spruce  @  300 

2  oz.  Opium  @  50c  1  lb  Cloves  @  60c 
^  lb  Carb:  Soda  @  75c  ^  lb  Manna 

@   110c  

4^  lbs  Columba  @  33^     2  oz.  Senna 

@   10c   

10/12  doz.  Lee's  Pills  @  100c  3  1/16 

doz.  Turlington  @  50c 

1/6  doz.  Ess.  Peppermint  @  30c  7/12 

oz  Opodeldoc  @  75c 

^  lb  Vitriol  @  20c  V2    lb    Lozenges 

@  70c  

1  lb  Beaznig  @    50c  A   Gum    Arabic 

@  40c  

2  lbs  Red  Chalk  @  12c     ^  doz  Lamp- 

wick  @  12^ 

^   lb   Ipecac  @  50c     ^   lb   Aloes  @ 


2  P  Syringes  @  9c  2  lbs  Chalk  @  5c 
y2   lb    Sealing    Wax    @    80c    1     doz. 

Cayenne  @   100 

Vs  doz.  Dally  @  $2.  54  lb  Elm  Bark 

@  37!^c  

J^  lb  Ginger  Root  @  14c    5  lbs  Gum 

Lac  @  40c 

3  65 

1  60 

"  84 

1  78 

2  41 

"  49 

"  40 

"  70 

"  32 

"  57 

"  28 

1  40 

1  62 

2  07 



1  lb  Bal:  Copaiba  @  50c     1  lb  Cam- 

omile @  60c 

3%   lbs  P.   Bark  @  50c     20  lbs   Com 

Emery  @  12j/^c  

lyi  lbs  Copperas  @  12i/$c  2  lbs  fastic 

@  25c  

H  lb  Quill  Bark  @  50c  2^  lbs  Gr'd 

Emery  @  12^c 

2  lbs  Pruss.  Blue  @  100  1  lb  Spd  In- 
digo @  75c 

1  1/6  Ol  Spruce  @  $3.-  ^  doz.  Lg  Ol 
Spruce  @  $4.00 

1  lb  Mercl  Oint.  @  119c  1  lb  Basilican 

@  50c  

1/6  doz.  Chapman  @  400c  11/12  doz. 
Seidlitz   @  250c 

2  lbs  Spts.  Camphor  @  40c      1     Bot. 

Nitric  Acid  @  100 

1  Bot  Ol  Stone  @  81^c  1  Bot.  Oil 
Spike    @    7Sc 

1  Bot  British  Oil  @  75c  ^  doz.  Castor 
Oil  @  400c 

25  lbs  Saltpetre  @  17c  14  lbs  Brim- 
stone @   17c 

7  lbs  Logwood  @  6c  9  lbs  Camwood 
@  25c  

1/2  lb  Spunk  @  75c  1  Demijohn  @ 

73  Junk  Bottles  &  Jars  @  20c 

3  lbs  Rappee  Snuff @  20c 

Sy2  lbs  Spa.  Tobacco F.     35 

7640  lbs  Plug  Tobacco F.  6^ 

301  dz  Cut  Tobacco F.     10 

•^  Box  Shaving  Soap F.   175 

1  10 
4  12 
"  69 
"  56 

2  75 
4  83 

1  69 

2  89 
1  80 
1  56 

1  75 
6  63 

2  67 

2  37 
14  60 

"  60 

2  98 

496  60 

30  10 

1  08 

Carried    Forward 

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union    Bro't  forward 

442  lbs  Rosin  Soap 

1    Box    Raisins 

V/2    Bbl    Beans 

1J4   Bu.   Dried   Apples 

1^   Bu.   Dried   Peaches 

1  Bbl  Flour 

7/8    Bbl    Rosin 

7/s  Bbl  Tar 

XYs    doz.    Mustard 

14   lb   Nutmegs 

601  20 

601   2U 

1288  78 
1288  79 


4350  46 

4350  4o 
17  68 
3  38 
7  50 
3  38 

3  94 

1  97 
1  97 

4  33 
••  35 



1%   lbs    Cloves 

9  lbs  Pepper 

31   lbs  Cheese 

24    lbs    Saleratus 

23   Gls.   Molasses 

82  lbs    Rice 

265^  lbs  Tea 

203   lbs    Coffee 

1473  lbs  N.  O.  Sugar 

4^   Gls.  Vinegar 

6?^  Sacks  G.  A.  Salt 

69  lbs  Rock  Salt 

80  B   Ree  Corn  no  freight 

Sundry  Medicines  omitted  in  place  for 

Advance  on  Sterling  90% 

Do  on  New  York  \1V2% 

Commission  5  pr  Ct 

Freight  on  35,747^   lbs  @  3c  pr 


"  35 

'     12^2 

1  12 

'   10 

3  10 

'    61/. 

1  56 

'   38 

8  74 

'      4J/2 

3  69 

'   50 

13  25 

'   lOH 

21  31 


95  74 

•   30 

1  42 

'  130 

8  67 


1  38 

'  200 

160  " 
12  37 



1288  79 

5215  41 



1142  28 



1514  33 

7872  02 

393  60 

1072  43 

$9338  05 

The  following  Sundries  &  Articles  in  use  at  Estimated  value 

Skins  &c  51  Painted  Parflesches @  25c 

40^   Dressed   Cow  Skins *  50 

280       48  Apishimos  280  26-lOOc  &  22-50c 

2  Porcupine    Skins @  100 

3  Dressed    Cabrie '  50 

Sundries  793  lbs  Rendered  Grease '  5 

4  pr.  Snow  Shoes '  100 

4     Setts     Amn     Leather     Harness 

(waggon)    for  

4  Double  Cart  Harnesses  Complete  '  600 

1  Sett   Buggy   Harness '  500 

2  Bull   Harness  setts '  500 

Sundry   pieces  of  Harness   equal   to 

2  setts  '  400 

3  Sett  Dog  Harness '  100 

Carried   Forward   









39  65 

73  50 

108  65        9411  55 



U.  M.  O.  1850  Von  Union    Bro't  forward 
1  Halter  75c  &  1  Old  Amn  Saddle 


23    Pack   Saddles    Complete 

4  Spa  Riding  Saddles  Complete 

43  Old  Pack  Saddles 

8  Spa.  Saddle  Trees 

2  Bear  Skin  Saddle  Covers 

1   Small  Cast  Stove  &  pipe 

1  Cooking  Stove  &  pipe 

1  Lg  Sheet  Iron  Stove  &  pipe 

1   Sma.  Sheet  Iron  Stove  &  pipe 

4  Cast  Ovens  @  125c  &  500  lbs  Old 
Iron  @  3c 

3  Sma.  Grindstones  @  75c  &  1  Old 
Joiner   @    150c 

2  Padlocks  @  75c  2  Iron  Rakes  @ 
100  4  Log  Chains  @  $2 

3  Caulking  Irons  @  25c  &  1  Broken 
Handsaw  25c  

1  Old  Watering  Pot  @  25c  2  Oil 
Cans  @  50c  1  Lantern  @  37j4 

2  Used  Kettles  @  60c  3  Trowels 
@  100  3  Tackle  Hooks  @  100 

12  lbs  Wheel  Boxes  @  8c  &  2  Foot 
Adzes   @    100 

7  Old  Broad  Axes  for  $5.—  2  Spades 
@  50c  3  Picks  @  100 

1  Branding  Iron  $2.50  3  Hoes  @  30c 
&  4  frones  @  100 

1  Good  Broad  Axe  $2.—  &  1  chisel 

1  Stone  Drill  &  primer  @  100  1  doz. 
Candlemoulds  75c  

2  pr  Iron  Hobbles  @  100  &  1  pr. 
Handcuffs   @    100 

1  Cramping  Chain  150c  &  1  Lg  Boat 
Ring  @  50c 

1  pr.  Good  Ball  Moulds  24  B. 
@  1050  

4  pr.  Tolerably  good  Ball  Moulds 
24  B.  @  950 

2  pr.  Broken  Ball  Moulds  24  B.  @ 

1   pr.  Iron  Ball  Moulds  6  B.  @  930 

@  250 

108  65        9411  55 

3  25 
57  50 
20  " 
64  50 

4  " 
4  " 
8    " 

10  " 
6  " 
4   "  294  90 

20   " 

3  75 

11  50 

1    " 

1  63 

7  20 

2  96 

9   " 

7  40 

2  16 

1  75 

3  '• 

2  " 

10  50 

38   " 

10    " 
9  30 

64  44 

6  " 

1  75 

3  " 

4  75 

92  21 

1  Z7 

5  50 

4  50 

"  55 
1  50 

5  " 

1  " 

20  " 


1  pr.   Brass   Buckshot   Ball   Moulds 

@  600 

5  Padlocks  no  keys  @  25c  1  T.  N. 

Hook  25     1  Slate  25 

1  Potash  Kettle  $2  1  Iron  Hay 
Fork  @  1.00 

2  Shaving  Benches  @  2.—  1  Speak- 
ing Trumpet  @  75c 

1  Lg  funnel  37^c  1  Tobacco  Cut- 
ter   100c    

1  Leather  Port  Manteau  $2.50  &  1 

Old  Trunk  $3.— 

4  Setts  Hoop  Moulds  @  100  &  1  Old 
Axe   50c   

1  Funnel  12^  Dipper  10c  Pan  20c  & 
Knife  12J/^  for  Molasses 

1  Indian  Bow  &  2  Arrows  for 

2  Large  Double  Tackle  Blocks  @ 

1  Large  Single  Tackle  Blocks  @  100 
200  lbs  Cordage  various  sizes  @  10.. 
Sundry  Paint  Kettles,  Brushes,  Oil 

Cans,  Caps  &  Paints  Estimated  at  80 

1   Coopers  Hammer  @  100c  &  2  S. 

J.  Kettles  @  50c 2    "  51  42 

1  Jack  Plane  125c  1  pr  Match  planes 

@  100  

1   Ea   Ladle   10c    Scoop   10c   &  25c 


1  Gimlet  6^c  1  Cast  Pot  125c  1  Nail 

Wrench  50c  

Carried   Forward   

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union    Brot  forward 
1   Old    Smiths    Bellows    $2.—    &    1 

Small  do.  $2 

1  Trap  Spring  and  Chain  @  100c  1 

Round  Adze  75c 

14    Moulding     &     Beading     Planes 

nearly  new  @  75c 

1  Lg  Gouge  @  75c  &  3  Crooked 
Drawing   Knives  @  50c 

2  Single  Mattresses  @  $2.  &  2  Try- 
ing Squares  @  25c 


"  45 

1  81 

4  51 

9914  52 

4  51 

9914  52 

4  " 

1  75 

10  50 

2  25 

4  50 


4  Augurs  24  Qtrs  @  10c  &  1  Hoop  ^  53 

Driver  @  125^ 

4  Drawing  Knives  @  75c  &  3  Tap  ^  ^g 
Borers  @   12i/^c 

5  Chisels  @  16c  1  Saw  Sett  I2/2C  &  ^    „ 
2  Old  Files  @  4c 

1  Water  fountain  &  Fossit    1.00    & 
1  Tool  Chest  $5.— 

2  Old  Pitsaws  @  $2  1  -  6  qr  Stone  ^    „  ^^  ^^ 

Saw    $2. 

6   " 

7  50 

5  Used  Scythes  &  5  Sneathes  for.... 

3  Rakes  @  25c  2  Lanterns  @  37i/^c 

3  Funnels  @  I2^c 

1  Canteen  50c  3  Tin  Cups  @  654c 

2  Candlesticks  @  25 

8  Very  Old  Axes    @    30c    3    Used 

Spades  @  50c 

14  Used  Axes  @  75c  1  Round  Adze 
@  100  "- 

2  Old  Liquor  Cases  @  $2.—  1  Cast 
Pot  @  125 ■■"-■- 

1   Tin   Pan  25c  2  Candlemoulds  @ 

614c   ~ 

1  -    Qt    Measure    25c    36    lbs    Cast 

Wheels  Boxes  @  8c 

1   Small   Iron  Vice  Broken   150c     1 

Milk   Pot   50c 

4  Sheet  Iron  Camp  Kettles  @  120c.. 

3  Ploughs  @  $6.-  1  Harrow  $3.- 

58   lbs    Red    Earth    @    8c     4     Used  ^  ^  ^  ^y 

Kettles   @   70c 

32  pr  Horse  Shoes  @  50c  &  19  pr  ^3  12 

Ox  Shoes  @  375/2 

1  Old  Shovel  @  50c  &  1   Old  Axe  ^    „ 

@    50c     IQQ     »» 

5  Single  Carts  Iron  Tire  @  2000 ^^   „ 

1  Truck  Cart  Iron  Tires  @  3000 ^5    »» 

1  Hay  Cart  Iron  Tire  @  2500 ^^    „ 

3  Ox  Carts  Iron  Tire  @  2500 ^2    » 

4  pr  Cart  Wheels  @  800 20    " 

4  Hay  Cart  Bodies  @  500 ^    „ 

2  Single  Cart  Bodies  @  30O ^^   „ 

1  Old  Dearbourne  Repaired  @  1000 

1    Buggy    Complete   with   2   Bodies                                                    ^^   „  ^^^  12 

val.   at 

1  19 

3  90 

10  50 

5  25 

"   38 

3  13 

2  " 


21   " 


1-  4  Horse  Waggon  F.  P.  @  6500.... 
1-  4  Horse  Waggon  F.  W.  @  7000.. 
4  Ox  Yokes  @  200 

1  Wheel  Barrow  @  500 

2  Ox  Sleds  @  $3.  &  4  Horse  Sleds 
@   $2 

4  Dog  Trains  @  400 

1  Scow  $20.-  &  1  Skiff  $10.- 

1  Covd  Mackinaw  Boat 


1   Book  Case  $2.-   1  Writing  Table 


1  Cloth  Covd  Desk  SSOc  &  2  Dining 

Tables  @  750c 

1  Round  Table  $3.-  2    Half    Round 

do.  @  $2.-  

Carried   Forward   

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union    Bro't  forward 

1  Mess  Table  $5.-  &  2  Kitchen  Do 
@  $2  

1  Comn  Table  $1.-  &  1  Sofa  $5.- 

1  Cloth   Covd  &  padded  Sofa  New 

1  Maple  Bureau 

1  Pine  &  Maple  Sideboard  New 

1  Pine  Cupboard 

1  Walnut  Cupboard  $10  1  Pier 
Glass    $3.-    

1  Sma  Desk  $2 

2  Turned  Bedsteads  &  Hangings  @ 

1  U.  S.  Chart  $10.-  1  Towel  25c 

1  Looking  Glas  150  1  Tin  Post  Of- 
fice $2.-  

4  Large  Landscape  Oil  Paintings  @ 

1  Arm  Chair  1.50  17  Chairs  @  75c 
4  Do.  @  100 

3  prs.  And  Irons  @  100  1  Brittania 
Pitcher   50c   

1  Tobo  Receiver  100c  J/2  doz  Sconces 
@  150  

2  Tin  Shovels  @  50c  2  pr.  Brass 
Candlesticks   @    100 

1  Turned  Washstand  $2.-  1  Comn 
Do.   100  

65  " 

70  " 

8  " 

5  " 

14  " 

16  " 

30  " 

20  " 

6  " 

20  50 

7  " 


10663  53 

10663  53 

9  " 

6  " 

20  " 

21  " 

20  " 

6  " 

13  " 

2  " 

30  " 

10  25 

3  50 

40  " 

18  25 

3  50 

1  75 

3  " 

3  " 


1  Sma  Cupboard  $2.-  1   Comn  Bed- 
stead @  150c 3  5Q 

Tinners  Tools 

Sundry  Tinners  Tools  val.  at 


1  pr  Tailors  Shears    150c    1    Goose 

150c  Lapboard  50c 


1    Large  Screw  plate  250c   &  5   pr. 

Tongs  @  50c 

1  Bench  Drill  $2.  &  1  Drill  Bow  & 

Plate    150  

1    Scraper  25c     1    Iron   Saw  50c     1 

Brace  75c  

1  -  2  in  Augur  80c  3  punches  @  25c 

26  files  @  3c 

1  Wrench  62^c  1  Buttress  50c  1 
Slick    100   

1  Large  Ice  Trench  100c  1  pr  Iron 
Shears   100  

2  Tire  Wrenches  @  50c  &  4  Gun 
Lock  Tools  @  50c 

1  Compass  Wheel  75c  12  Heading 
Tools  @  25c 

26  Mandrils  &  punches  @  25c  1 
Anvil  12  50  

1  Bellows  $15.-  1  Bench  Vice  $5.- 
2  Draw  Bores  @  50c 

1  Sledge  $2.50  1  Flout  100c  1  Ram- 
rod   Bitt   50 


1  Bench  Vice  $5.-  2  Joiners  Planes 
@  $2.-  

3  Fore  Planes  @  130c  3  Jack  Planes 
@   130c  

5  Smoothing  Planes  @  75c  1  Pat. 
Plough  &  Bitts  $5.- 8 

1  Pat.  Plough  &  Grooves  100c     1  pr 

Match   planes    100c 2 

12  Moulding  Beading  &  Sash  planes 

@  50c  

6  Caulking  Irons  @  25c  1  Iron 
Square  62J/2  

1  -  2  ft  Rule  33c  2  trying  squares  @ 

2  Drawing  Knives  @  75c  1  Small 
Broad    Axe    100 

20    " 

3  50 

5   " 

3  50 

1  50 

2  33 

2  13 

2  » 

3   " 

3  75 

19   " 

21    " 

4   " 

9   " 

7  80 

8  75 

6  " 
2  12 
"  83 
2  50 

213  75 
20   " 

3  50 

67  21 

3  75 

"  43 

43  18 

10967  99 

43  18 

10967  99 


9  Gages  @  25c  10  punches  @  12J/^ 

&  1  Screw  Driver  25 

1    Gimlet    6c     1    Scribe    12     1    Oil 

Stone  25c  

Carried   Forward  

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union    Bro't  forward 
1  Comp:  Saw  broken  25c  46  Chisels 

&  Gouges  @  16c 7  61 

3  Spike   Gimblets  @   12^c   &   1   pr 

Nippers    50c    "    88 

1    pr.    Compasses    50    &    1    Trying 

Compass  50c  

3  Mallets  @  25c  &  2  Nail  Wrenches 

@  75c  

1  Bench  Tool   100c  &  2  Handsaws 

@    100c 3    "  57  92 

1  Tenor  Saw  100c     1  Brace  &  Bitts 
$6.-  _ 

2  Round  Adzes  @  75c     1  Morticing 
Adze   75c   

2  Bevel  Squares  @    25c       1    Wheel 
Gouge  100c 

1  Foot  Adze  150c     1  Wheel  sett  75c 

2  Large  &  good  Broad  Axes  @  $2.- 

1  Wheel  Hub  $2 

2  Chopping  Axes  @   100c     2  Claw 
Hammers  @  75c 

3  good  Pitsaws  1-400  1-350  1-200  & 

2  X  Cutsaws  @  $3 

54  Qtrs  Augurs  @  10c  1  Boat  Hook 

&  Chain   100c 

1  Old  Screw  plate  100c  2  Small  Do. 
&  Dies  @  250c 

2  Wrenches  @  62^^     9  files  @  3c  1 
Grindstone  150c  

1  Old  Grindstone  100c     1  Crow  Bar 
100c   - 

1   Level   125c     2  Work  Benches  @ 

1    Turning   Machine    Complete    Im- 
proved       10    "  70  67 


1  Corn  Mill  &  Fly  Wheel 

2  Funnels  @  20c  1  Ice  Cream  Churn 

2  25 

3  " 

7  " 

2  25 

1  50 

2  25 

6  " 

3  50 

IS  50 

6  40 

6  " 

3  02 

2  " 

5  25 

10  " 

6  90 

1  40 

2  25 


1  Large  Earthern  Dish  150c  1  Me- 
dium Do.  75c 

28  Candlemoulds    @    6^c    2    Flour 

Sieves   @  SOc 2  75 

1  Dipper   20c     23   Plates   @   20c   2 

Sugars  @  50c 5  gQ 

2  Creamers  @  37Hc  2  Salts  @  25c 

1  Pepper  Box  25 j  50 

1  Bowl    15c    1    Sett   Castors  350c   8 

Tea  Spoons  @  3c 3  39 

22  Table   Spoons  @  6c     34  Knives 

&  Forks  @  10c 4  72 

2  Graters  @   12^^      1    Soup  Tureen 

$5.-  2  Table  Cloths  $4 9  25 

2  doz.  Saucers  @  120c  3^  doz.  Cups 
@  75c  

4  -  4  GI.  Tin  Kettles  @  120c     1  -  8 

Gl.  Tin  Do   150c 6  3O 

3  -  3  gl.  Tin  Kettles  @  87j^c  2  -  2 

gl  Tin  Do  50c 3  ^3 

1  -  1  gl  Tin  Kettles  @  37Hc  1  -  ^ 
gl  Tin  Do  25c 

2  Cast  Ovens  @  125c  18  Medium 
pans  @  20c 5  jq 

7  Large  pans  @  30c  1  Flour  pan  50c  2  60 

7  Large  Tin  Plates    @    30c      1    Tin 

Waiter  @  100c 3  jq 

1  Cullinder  100c    &  1  Sauce  pan  50c  1  SQ 

2  Long  Hdl    Fry    Pans    @    75c     1 

Flesh   Fork  @   121^ 1  53 

2  pr  Pot  Hooks  @  50c     1  Grid  Iron 

@  100c  2   " 

2  Skimmers  @  20c     1  Lg  Coffee  Pot 


2  Small  Coffee  Pots  @  62i^c     2  pr 

And   Irons  @  100 4  25 

1  Lantern  37Hc  &  2  Potash  Kettles 
@  $2.-  

2  Camp  Kettles  @  120c  &  1  Butcher 
Knife  25c  

9  Tin  Cups  @  6%c  2  Butter  Plates 

@  20c  ..   96 

2  Hand  Bells  @  37Hc     2  Tumblers 

@  12Hc  1    .. 

2  Sausage  Stuffers  @  75c     1   Glass 

Mustard   12^   1  63 

4  84 


1  90 

4  37 
2  65 

Carried    Forward 

87  54       11096  58 


U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union     Bro't  forward 
1  Spade  75c     1  Wood  Saw  100c     1 

Chop  Axe  100c 

1   Iron  Bound  Bucket  100c     1   Cof- 
fee Mill  7Sc 

1   Cleaver  25c     1  Tin  Roaster  250c 
1   Basin  50c 

28    Milk    Pans    50c      5    Very 


Pans   @   60c 

2  Cream  Kettles  @  60c  1  Churn  $2.- 

2  -  4  gl   Kettles   @   80c    3   Cheese 

Moulds  @   100c 

2  Strainers  @  25c  1  Skimmer 


Live  Stock 

4  Mules  

@  40.00 

4   Indian    Horses 


3  Train  Dogs 


7    Working    Oxen 


1    Black    Bull 


1   Red  Stag  Bull 


2  Large  Young  Cut  Bulls 


11    Milch    Cows 


4  Heifers  


3  -  2  yr  Old  Bull  Calves 


6  -  1  yr  Old  Calves 


7    Small    Calves 


4  Hogs                          


2  Pigs                        



3  Forts  viz:  Union  Benton  &  Alex- 

ander for  

Add  Error  in  extension  of  1  -  4 
pounder  Cannon  on  pages  6  and 
5  pr  Ct  Commission 


87  54 

11096  58 

2  75 

1  75 

3  25 

95  29 

17    " 

3  20 

4  60 

"    75 

25  55 

160   " 

100  " 

15   " 

175   " 

25    " 

25    " 

50    " 

275    " 

60   " 

45    " 

60   " 

35    " 

20   " 

3    " 

1048    " 

3000    " 

15265  42 

6  30 

Reduction  23%  on  Articles  in  Use 
Live  Stock  &c  Less  148.50  on 
Skins  &  New  Furniture  say  on 
this  Amount  $3785.17 

E  &  O  E. 

15271  72 


13710  72 


28  21 

8  94 

16  " 

8  SO 

6  50 

60  30 

6  " 


Fort  Union  15th  May,  1851 
Outfit  1850 
Supplement  to  Fort  Union  Inventory  taken  10th  June  1851 
2  prs  2  pt  White  Blankets @  403 

1  doz.  Fancy  Bridles  dbl  rein '     894 

2  Used  Rifles >     qqq 

1  Used  Rifles  Supr '     550 

1   Good  Percussion  Gun '     650 

1  Medicine  Cupboard  &  Complete  Asst 

Medicine  omitted  in  F.  U.  Inv.  $60 

&    Comn 

1  C.  S.  Pitsaw  new  6  ft 

1  90  ft  Mackinaw  Boat  Covd  &  partly 


1    Mounted  Brass   Swivel 

1  Sett  Tinners  Machines  87.55  &  Pipe 

Roller    &    Compn q- 

176  lbs  Blackfoot  Vermillion O      8  1  ^  S 

5  Used   Guns  [ZZ         '400  20    » 

1  U.  S.  Musket  $3.  &  Powder  Horn  50c  ,  ca 

-1   ii    17 

34   California   Shells.  #1     ^2     p~  3j  25 

Its  Too  "75" 

2  Indian    Shirts >     ^qq  ,    „ 

1   Raw  Hide  Boat  Covering  sewed  14 

Skins   '100 

1  New  -  100  Bu:  Corn  Bin 

1  New  Pine  Cupboard  &  Dresser 

1  Tin  Canister  for  Powder 

The  following  Articles  which  bear  reduction  viz: 

7  Indian   Horses @  2500 

1    Indian  Horse    in    safe    hands    with 

Blackft   Indian  -  2500  25 

1    Mule   ,  4QQQ 

1  Spa.  Saddle  no  stirrups '     300  7 

1  ps.  Skin  50c  2  Canteens  100c  1  Tin 
plate  UYi  

2  Tin  Cups  12Hc  1  Kettle  38c  1  Cast 

pot  37c  

1  Packsaddle  250  5  Sacks  125c 

1  Axe  50c    1  lb  Tobacco  12c 

1  Pine  Yawl '' ' 

1  Shingling  Hatchet  50c  &  2  Tarpau- 
lins for  $20 

1  Keel  Camboose  &  Kettles.    ..      „    .? 








1  63 

"   87 

3  75 

"   62 

10   " 

478  71 


2  Keel  Boat  Sails  $20  &  10 

4  Chopping  Axes  $4.-  3  Camp  Kettles 


1   Spike  Gimblet   I2i^c     1   Augur  40c 

1  Handsaw  100 

1    Drawing    Knife    75c    1    Jack    Plane 


1  Tool  Chest  $3.-  2  Caulking  Irons  50c 

1  Iron  Anchor  $15.   &    Chain    Cables 


2  Double  Blocks  $4.-  &  3  Single  Do. 


1  Marking  Pot  &  line  25c  1  Chisel  16c 
17    Pole    Sockets    $17.-    1     pr.     Lodge 

Skins  50c  

VA  pr.  Cart  Tire  65  lbs  @  3c 

1   Chop.  Axe  100c  1   Handsaw  100c   1 

New  S.  Chisel  25c 

1  Drawing  Knife  75c  1  -  ^  Augur  30c 

Carried   Forward   

U.  M.  O.  1850  Fort  Union  (Suppmt)   Bro't  forward 
1    Caulking    Iron    25c     Sundry     Boat 
Ironing  $6.-  

Reduction  27%  on  $404.46. 

Less  Kettles  Tool  &c  Shipped  per 
Mackinaws  viz: 

2  Drawing  Knives  150c  6  Camp  Ket- 
tles 720c  3  Tin  do.  220c  1  Hatchet 
50c  Oak  &  Nails  100c 12  40 

2  C.  Irons  50c  3  Spoons  18c.  3  Cups 
22c.  3  pans  60c.  1  file  40c  9  lbs  Sugar 

99  7  lbs   Coffee   112 4  01 

6  lbs  flour  48.  1  Bbl  Pork  $15.30.  1 
Mallet  25c.  9  Bu:  Corn  188.  1  Qt 
Salt   8c    

3  lbs  Powder  82c.  6  lbs  Balls  60.  1 
Sack    25c    

30  " 

7  60 

1  53 

2  05 

3  50 

35  " 

7  " 
"  41 

17  50 
1  95 

2  25 
1  05 

398  21 

478  71 

398  21 

478  71 

6  25 

404  46 

404  46 
109  20 

295  26 

773  97 

Reduction  27%   on    1440c. 

34  11 
1  67 

52  19 
3  89 

48  30 

725  67 


Add  2  Mules  $80.  2  Saddles  F.  P.  $10. 
1  Indn  Horse  $25.  Packsaddle  E. 
B.  2S0c.  27%  off 85  78 

811  45 
Deduct  8  Horses  stolen  at  Fort  Alex- 
ander by  Indians  @  $25.  Less  27%  146    " 

665  45 

The  Chopping  Axes.  Guns  &  Grindstone  sent  down  by  Mackinaws  are  to  be  re- 
turned to  F.  U.  per  Steamer,  therefore  are  not  deducted  here. 



SAINT  LOUIS  JULY  8th  1852 

Shipt  N   Yk  in  Co  with  R.  Campbell   1852 

To  R  &    W  Campbell 

The  following  returns  of  Harvey   Primeau  &  Co 

13828  Buffalo  Robes 

262  Buffalo   Robes  damaged 

19  Buffalo  Robes  pieces 

2002  Buffalo  Calf  Robes 

33  Buffalo  Calf  Robes  damaged 

265  Buffalo  Calf  Robes  Red 

242  Elk  Skins  Gray 2780 

26   Shaved   Skins    Robes 207 

2  Red  Skins  Robes 22 

4  Red  Skins  Robes  Fawn 7  3016# 

97    Shaved    Antelope    Skins 142 

168  Gray  Antelope  Skins 404 

23  Gray  Big  Horn  Skins 78 

2  Shaved  Big  Horn  Skins 5                   629  " 

115  Grey  deer  Skins No.  1  537 

226  Grey  deer  Skins No.  2  732 

78  Grey  deer  Skins No.  3  188 

2  Grey  deer  water  damg 7                 1464 

7  Red  deer No.  1  15 

8  Red  deer No.  2  17 

3  Red  deer  Fawn 3  35 

146  Shaved  deer No.   1  304 

114  Shaved  deer No.  2  151 

31   Shaved  deer No.  3  29  484 

1  Blk  Bear  No.  3 

2  Grizzly  Bear No.  4 

2  Grizzly  Bear  Cub 5  SKINS 

57    Pole    Cat 

56  White   Rabbit 

5  Common  Rabbit 

2    Swan    

180  Red  Fox 117.  44.19 

953  Prairie  Fox 646.  289.18 

2  Wolverines  No.  2 

12  Raccoons  O.  8.  4. 

4  Mink   

128  Muskrat  O.  63.  65  Kitts 

6  Lynx  

1  Martin  


292  J^  40446  90 
200  524    " 

100  19    " 

292^     5855  85 
200  66    " 

25  66  25 

20  603  20 

121^         78  62 

14  204  96 

20  7    " 

25  12  10 


2  50 


5  70 


5  60 


"  10 


"  50 


180  " 


238  25 


3  " 


2  40 


1  60 


5  12 


4  50 

"  75 

48333  90 


Shipt  N  Yk  in  Co  with  R.  Campbell  1852 Dr 

To  R  &  W  Campbell      Amount  brought  forward 48333  90 

9  Wild   Cat 30  2  70 

164  Badger 59.         60.  44  25  41    " 

1   Otter  1  50 

179  Beaver  Skins  No.  1 264 

187  Beaver  Skins  No.  2 234 

86  Beaver  Skins  No.  3 _ 127 

3  damaged  Skins 

1  piece  Skin 6  631#  250         1577  50 

49956  60 

Our   half    24978  30 

34  dys  Int.  on  No.  376  our  dft.  on  N 

Yk  5000  payable  1  Aug 28  33 

123  dys  Int  on  $8006.63 164.15  192  48 

25170  78 

SAINT  LOUIS  JULY  8th  1852 

R  &  W.  Campbell  Dr To  Office  New  York 

No.  376  our  dft.  @  22  days  date  their  favor 5000    " 

No  377  our  dft  @  4  mos.  date  favor  from  30  June 8170  78 

13170  78 
SAINT  LOUIS  AUGUST  13th  1856 

P  Chouteau  Jr.  &  C  No  4  Dr To  Upper  Miss  O  1855 

purchased  by  them  returns  of  the  Outfit  Cash  1  Aug  1856 

34243  Buffalo  Robes 4.00  136972 

546  Red  Calf 30                163  80 

2284    Prairie    Fox 25                 571 

Carried  Forward  137706  80 


SAINT  LOUIS  AUGUST  22"  1856 

P  Chouteau  Jr  &  Co  No.  4  Dr To  Upper  Miss  O  1855 

Amounts   brought   forward 137706  80 

152  Red  Fox $1                      152 

1240  large  Wolf "                    1240 

321  small  Wolf 50                 16U  50 

16  Badger  50  20  10  25c                   4  00 

28  Badger  10     6  12  7  40 

4  Wild  Cat ^^V^                1  50 

11   Wild   Cat >^0                    ^  30 

2  Cross  Fox $2                          4 

4  Large  Dog 50                    2 

49  Pole  Cat ^Va                3  07 

2  Raccoon 50                     1 

52  Muskrats  60  30  15  5c                   2  60 

11  Mink 6     3     2  4  80 

61  White  Rabbits 5c                  3  05 

16    Common    Rabbits 80 

18  Grizzly  Bear $3                        54 

4  Cub  50                    2 

5  deer   Skins 12  lbs  25                     3 

11  Elk  Skins 127  lbs  25                  31  75 

2  Shaved  Elk 18 

19  Red  Elk 177 

4  Fawn  Elk 12 

5  Gray  Elk  72 279  25                  69  75 

238  Gray  Deer 870  16^/^             145    " 

45  Red  Deer 104  35                  36  40 

5  Shaved  Deer 11  35                    3  85 

40  Gray  Elk 4«1  20                 96  20 

21  Red    Elk 181 

1  Shaved  Elk 9 

16  Fawn  31 220  20                  44  20 

117    Gray    Antelope    318 

10   Summer    17 

23   Shaved   28 

5  Big  Horn  12 375  MV^              46  88 

26  Shaved  Buffalo  172 

18  halves  &  pieces  82 254  12^               31  75 

1787    Skins    Beaver 2415  $2                    4830 

22  Raw  Buffalo  Hides 1  25                  27  50 

6  dressed  Cow  Skins 1  50                    9 

29  half  Skins 75                  21  75 

80  11/16  lbs  Cartoum 2  75                 221  88 

129  Buf  Hides 3693  lbs.  12^            470  86 

2  Sheep    Skins 15                        30 

326  5/12  perfect  Buffalo  Tongues $4  00'^           1468  87 

17  6/12  damaged  &  Calf $3                       52  50 

146964  26 


U.  M.  O.  1854  EARNINGS  1854 



Culbertson    1    share $2591.29 

Kipp  1   share 2591.29 

M.  Clark  Vi  of  1  share 1295.64 

Galpin  282  y^  of  1  share 1295.64 

Hodgkiss  283  i^  of  1  share 1295.64 

Denig  H  of  1  share 1295.64 

(These  may  be  the  figures  for  1853) 

U.  M.  O.  Statement  Dec.  1,  1857 

(Evidently  1855  statement  but  not  entered  until  Dec.  1,   1857) 

PIERRE  CHOUTEAU  JR.  &  CO.  Dr.  on  U.  M.  O.  1855. 

A  Culbertson  1  share  or  1/12 $627.73 

James  Kipp  1  share  or  1/12 627.73 

C.  E.  Galpin  H  of  1  share  or  1/24 313.86 

E.  T.  Denig  Vz  of  1  share  or  1/24 313.86 

A.  Dawson  Yz  of  1  share  or  1/24 313.86 

W.  D.  Hodgkiss  Vz  of  1  share  or  1/24..  313.86 
Interest  to  31st  December  1857  on  the  following  accounts. 

Culbertson    13.17 

Kipp  60.23 

Galpin  40.69 

Denig  40.69 

Dawson   346.24 

Hodgkiss  260.83 

Accounts  transferred  to  credit  of  following  parties.  Dec.  1,  1857. 

Culbertson    2280.20 

Hodgkiss  5017.44 

Galpin    2606.14 

Kipp  160.87 

Dawson   6200.1 1 

U.  M.  O.  1856  EARNINGS  1856 

PIERRE  CHOUTEAU  JR.  &  CO.  SAINT  LOUIS  (ledger)  Nov.  25,  1856. 

Dividend  Dec.  31,  1856.  $60,000.00 

Culbertson  1  share $5000.00 

Kipp   1   share 5000.00 

Galpin  ^  of  1  share 2500.00 

Denig  V2  of  1  share 2500.00 

Hodgkiss  V2  of  1  share 2500.00 

Dawson  Vi  of  1  share 2500.00 

To  profit  &  loss,  our  share 40000.00 



Culbertson,  balance  of  interest 245.05 

Galpin,  balance  of  interest 431.39 

Hodgkiss,  balance  of  interest 248.93 

Dec.  31,  1856.  Opening  of  new  books. 

Balance  cash  each  transferred  to  their  books. 

Culbertson    11521.63 

Galpin    10933.70 

Hodgkiss  7728.47 

Kipp  1942.05 

Dawson   5652.11 

U.  M.  O.  1857                                      EARNINGS  1857 
PIERRE  CHOUTEAU  JR.  &  CO.  SAINT  LOUIS  (ledger  book) 

Dividend  Nov.  1,  1857 $7532.65 

Chouteau  8  shares 5021.75 

Culbertson    1    share $627.73 

Kipp   1  share 627.73 

Galpin  Yi  of  1  share 313.86 

Denig  Yz  of  1  share 313.86 

Dawson  Yz  of  1  share 313.86 

Hodgkiss  V2  of  1  share 313.86 

U.  M.  O.  1858                                        EARNINGS  1857-8 
PIERRE  CHOUTEAU  JR.  &  CO.  SAINT  LOUIS  (ledger)  May  8.  1858. 

Partial  dividend  due  following  persons  Pierre  Chouteau  Jr.  &  Co.,  No.  5.      $20000.00 

Culbertson  1  share $1666.67 

Kipp  1   share 1666.67 

Dawson  ^  of  1  share 833.33 

Galpin  ^  of  1  share 833.33 

Hodgkiss  ^  of  1  share %7>Z.IZ 


U.  M.  O.  Inventories  '^^*  1852 

PIERRE  CHOUTEAU  JR.  &  CO.  SAINT  LOUIS  (ledger)  July  1,  1852. 
Following  inventories  due. 

FORT  PIERRE  $34744.47 

FORT    PIERRE   supplement 916.02 

FORT  UNION  14717.11 

FORT  BERTHOLD  4759.21 

FORT   BENTON  7369.89 

FORT  CLARK  7365.58 


FORT   ALEXANDER  en   Cache 532.28  $73635.67 

U.  M.  O.  Inventories  1853 

PIERRE  CHOUTEAU  JR.  &  CO.  SAINT  LOUIS  (ledger)  Aug.  14,  1854. 
$112,323.25  total. 

U.  M.  O.  Inventories  1856 

PIERRE  CHOUTEAU  JR.  &  CO.  SAINT  LOUIS  (ledger)  Aug.  23,  1856. 

Inventory  U.  M.  O.  1855  of  goods  remaining  on  hand  from  outfit,  1855.  viz. 

Fort  Benton  $  4686.82 

Fort  Union  19154.93 

Fort  Berthold  1552.81 

Fort  Clark 9885.84 

Fort  Pierre  1405.00 





The  biographical  sketches  of  Charles  Mercier,  Louis  Rivet  and  George 
Weippert  were  written  by  Col.  W.  F.  Wheeler  of  Helena,  Montana,  from 
notes  taken  in  interviews  with  these  "old  timers"  in  1884.  He  was  com- 
missioned by  the  Historical  Society  of  Montana  to  visit  the  employes 
of  the  American  Fur  Company  still  living  in  Fort  Benton  and  vicinity 
and  obtain  their  stories.  The  trip  from  Helena  to  Fort  Benton  was  made 
by  boat  down  the  Missouri  river  to  the  falls,  by  portage  around  the  falls 
and  by  boat  the  remainder  of  the  trip  to  Fort  Benton.  He  wrote  of  his 
experiences,  "I  saw  each  person  and  took  down  in  writing  the  story  of 
his  life,  from  the  day  of  his  earliest  recollection  and  during  his  residence 
in  Montana,  to  the  present  time.  All  were  men  of  limited  education,  one 
was  blind,  and  Mr.  Rivet  could  not  read  or  write,  yet  their  recollection  of 
dates  and  events  would  seem  almost  miraculous  for  accuracy.  In  the  old 
times  before  steamboats  began  to  arrive  at  Fort  Benton  they  received  letters 
and  newspapers  but  once  a  year,  in  the  spring  or  summer,  when  their  new 
supplies  of  goods  for  trading  arrived  from  St.  Louis.  Their  memories  were 
therefore  only_  burdened  with  events  and  occurrences  that  came  under  their 
own  observation  and  in  their  narratives  very  little  discrepancy  will  be 

Col.  Wheeler  did  not  have  the  knowledge  we  have  today  of  the  correct 
dates  as  to  the  building  of  the  posts  on  the  Upper  Missouri  and  therefore 
could  not  check  the  years  given  him  by  the  "old  timers"  for  accuracy  and 
certain  of  the  dates  were  from  one  to  two  years  earlier  than  the  actual  event. 

The  remainder  of  the  "Notes  and  References"  were  compiled  by  Mrs. 
Anne  McDonnell,  assistant  librarian  of  the  Historical  Society  of  Montana, 
who  wishes  here  to  acknowledge  her  great  debt  to  Mrs.  Annie  E.  Abel, 
editor  of  the  Fort  Clark  Journal,  1834-1839,  whose  notes  and  references  on 
the  people  and  events  of  the  LTpper  Missouri  Outfit  were  of  immense  value 
in  the  editing  of  these  journals.  Space  and  time  did  not  allow  for  the  correct 
acknowledgement  of  the  authority  for  every  statement  made.  The  Journal 
of  Rudolph  F.  Kurz  was  also  very  useful  since  the  time  of  his  journal, 
1851-1852,  was  nearer  the  period  of  the  Fort  Benton  and  Fort  Sariiy  journals. 

FORT  BENTON.     1847-1864 

1  Fort  Benton  was  the  successor  to  Fort  McKenzie  which  was 
abandoned  in  the  spring  of  1844  and  the  property  moved  down 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  river  where  Chardon  built  Fort  F.  A.  C. 
which  was  named  for  him.  This  was  not  a  desirable  location  for 
the  Blackfoot  trade  and  Culbertson  who  had  been  in  charge  at  Fort 
John  on  the  Platte  river  for  some  time  was  sent  in  the  fall  of 
1845  to  take  charge  of  Fort  Chardon.  He  burned  Fort  F.  A.  C.  and 
moved  up  to  a  point  across  the  river  and  above  the  site  of  old  Fort 
McKenzie  and  occupied  a  trading  post  which  had  been  built  by  the  opposi- 
tion firm  of  Fox,  Livingstone  &  Company  which  was  known  as  Fort  Cotton. 
This  opposition  company  had  sold  out  about  this  time  to  the  P.  Chouteau, 
Jr.,  and  Company  and  their  buildings  became  the  property  of  that  company. 
Fort  Cotton  had  not  been  in  existence  very  long  and  was  named  for  a  Mr. 
Cotton,  one  of  the  traders  of  Fox,  Livingstone  &  Company.  The  location 
is  known  as  Cotton  Bottom  today  but  few  of  the  old  timers  know  why. 

Culbertson  named  his  new  fort  Honore  in  honor  of  Honore  Picotte,  agent 
for  the  U.  M.  C,  but  Picotte  wrote  him  on  March  12,  1846,  as  follows: 
"I  am  flattered  and  thank  you  for  your  good  opinion  of  me  in  giving  my 
name  to  your  Fort,  but,  I  request  you  to  substitute  Lewis  in  the  place  of 
Honore,  which  is  much  more  suitable  and  appropriate."  (Chardon  Journal 
at  Ft.  Clark.)     And  in  this  year,  1846,  the  name  was  changed  to  Fort  Lewis. 


From  Father  Point's  journal  we  learn  that  Fort  Lewis  was  moved  May 
19,  1847,  across  the  river  and  several  miles  below  to  a  location  more  suitable 
for  trade  and  habitation.  Culbertson  told  Bradley  that  the  fort  was  chris- 
tened Benton  in  honor  of  Senator  Thomas  H.  Benton  of  Missouri  on 
Dec.  25,  1850,  at  a  Christmas  Day  celebration  at  the  fort  but  it  was  known 
as  Fort  Benton  in  the  ledgers  of  P.  Chouteau,  Jr.  and  Company  as  early  as 
1848.  Probably  a  formal  christening  was  made  on  the  day  Culbertson 
named.  The  new  fort  was  built  of  logs  but  later  the  log  buildings  were 
replaced  with  adobe  structures  which  were  a  number  of  years,  1850-1860, 
in  building.  The  P.  Chouteau,  Jr.  &  Company  about  1864  sold  out  to  the 
Northwest  Company  which  occupied  the  buildings  for  a  few  years.  The 
U.  S.  soldiers  stationed  at  Fort  Benton  were  housed  in  the  old  fort  from 
1869  to  1874,  when  quarters  in  the  town  were  rented  for  the  accommodation 
of  the  army  people. 


2  Alexander  Culbertson  was  born  in  Chambersburg,  Pennsylvania,  May 
16,  1809,  the  son  of  Joseph  Culbertson  and  his  first  wife,  Mary  Finley.  The 
Finleys  and  the  Culbertsons  were  families  of  Scottish-Irish  extraction  who 
settled  in  Franklin  county,  Pennsylvania,  prior  to  the  Revolutionary  War. 
The  memory  of  the  four  Culbertson  brothers  who  emigrated  from  Ireland 
is  perpetuated  in  such  place  names  as  Culbertson  Postoffice,  Culbertson's 
Row  and  Culbertson's  Mill. 

Alexander  was  with  his  uncle,  John  Craighead  Culbertson,  in  the  Florida 
Indian  campaigns  and  from  there  went  to  New  Orleans,  thence  up  the 
Mississippi  river  to  St.  Louis  and  made  his  entrance  into  the  fur  trade  on 
the  St.  Peter's  river  in  Minnesota  territory.  An  abstract  of  returns  made 
by  traders  in  that  territory,  Sept.  1,  1830-Sept.  1,  1831,  included  the  name 
of  A.  Culbertson.  It  must  have  been  a  profitable  experience  for  he  made 
a  trip  home  in  1832  to  visit  his  people.  His  career  on  the  Upper  Missouri 
began  the  next  year  when  he  and  a  fellow  townsman,  Edwin  T.  Denig, 
made  a  trip  up  the  river  on  the  steamboat  Assiniboine  in  1833,  which  was 
the  year  that  Prince  Maximilian  visited  Fort  Union  and  Fort  McKenzie. 
Denig  remained  at  Fort  LTnion  while  Culbertson  went  up  to  Fort  McKenzie 
with  David  D.  Mitchell,  where  he  stayed  until  he  went  down  with  the  returns 
in  the  spring  of  1836.  During  that  time  he  had  been  in  charge  during  the 
absence  of  James  Kipp,  and  three  years  later  he  received  the  recognition 
given  the  chief  traders,  an  interest  or  share  in  the  Upper  Missouri  Outfit. 
This  may  have  been  one  or  one-half  of  one  share  of  the  twelve  shares  of 
that  company.  In  January,  1840,  he  succeeded  Kenneth  McKenzie  at 
Fort  Union  when  the  latter  retired  from  active  duty  with  the  U.  M.  O. 

Culbertson  was  sent  in  the  late  summer  of  1843  to  take  charge  of  Fort 
Laramie  on  the  Platte,  where  the  business  had  fallen  oflf.  as  he  was  con- 
sidered the  best  man  in  the  service  to  regain  the  trade  for  the  company. 
He  was  back  at  Fort  Union  in  January,  1844,  when  he  sent  Denig  and 
Larpenteur  on  a  trading  expedition  to  the  Woody  Alountains  and  appears 
to  have  managed  the  affairs  of  both  forts  for  a  period.  In  the  early  summer 
of  1845  he  went  east  to  New  York  to  confer  with  Chouteau,  who  urged 
him  to  re-establish  a  post  in  the  Blackfoot  country  as  the  Chardon  fort  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Judith  river  was  not  a  success.  While  in  New  York 
Culbertson  visited  with  Audubon,  whom  he  had  entertained  at  Fort  Union 
in  1843.  Upon  his  return  to  the  LTpper  Missouri  he  proceeded  by  boat  to 
Fort  Chardon  which  he  took  over  from  Harvey,  burned  the  buildings  and 
moved  the  property  up  the  river  to  old  Fort  Cotton  on  the  south  side  of 
the  Missouri  river  and  above  old  Fort  McKenzie.  He  named  the  new  post 
Fort  Lewis,  but  since  the  location  was  not  suitable  for  trade  purposes  the 
fort  material  was  moved  across  the  river  and  a  few  miles  down  in  the 
spring  of  1847  and  Fort  Benton  established. 


The  next  year,  1848,  Culbertson  succeeded  Honore  Picotte  as  agent  of 
the  Upper  Missouri  Outfit  and  his  responsibilities  increased  with  his  pro- 
motion, for  the  agent  was  in  charge  of  all  the  forts  on  the  Upper  Missouri 
and  Yellowstone  rivers.  At  times  he  was  on  his  way  to  I-'ort  Laramie 
overland  from  Fort  Pierre,  then  in  keelboat  on  his  way  to  the  Crow  post 
on  the  Yellowstone,  or  down  the  river  in  the  spring,  by  mackinaw  or 
steamboat,  to  St.  Louis  with  the  returns.  He  traveled  thousands  of  rniles 
in  all  manner  of  conveyances  to  visit  the  various  forts,  to  meet  the  Indians 
in  their  camps;  entertained  distinguished  visitors  of  all  professions,  and 
attended  to  the  business  of  his  employers  at  all  times.  His  knowledge  of 
the  Indians  and  the  western  country  was  considered  superior  to  anyone 
of  that  time  and  his  ability  as  a  horseman  and  buffalo  hunter  was  never 
equalled  for  years. 

In  all  his  years  in  the  west  Culbertson  never  lost  contact  with  his  family 
in  Pennsylvania,  cousins  and  nephews  visited  him  at  his  home  in  the 
mountains,  presents  of  robes,  buffalo  tongues,  and  strange  souvenirs  of 
the  west  were  sent  to  his  father  and  uncles  in  the  old  home.  His  half- 
brother,  Thaddeus,  a  young  divinity  student  from  Princeton  University 
who  was  ill  with  tuberculosis,  made  a  trip  to  the  mountains  with  him  in 
the  summer  of  1850.  In  his  journal,  Thaddeus  wrote  many  times  in  the 
most  aflfectionate  and  appreciative  terms  of  the  kindness  of  his  older  brother 
who  spared  no  effort  to  make  the  trip  a  pleasant  and  profitable  one  for 
Thaddeus,  who  busied  himself  taking  scientific  notes  for  a  paper  which 
was  pubhshed  in  the  Smithsonian  Institution  reports. 

As  the  years  passed  the  fur  trade  operations  moved  farther  up  the  river 
and  the  forts  on  the  upper  river  became  the  more  important  in  the  trade. 
Fort  Union  was  first  with  Fort  Benton  second  in  importance.  Then 
gradually  the  business  disappeared  from  Fort  Union  and  Benton  took  first 
place.  The  government  made  treaties  with  the  Indians  of  the  West  and 
established  agencies  for  the  Upper  Missouri  Indians.  Governor  I.  I. 
Stevens  of  the  Survey  for  a  Pacific  Railroad  planned  a  treaty  with  the 
Blackfoot  and  Gros  Ventre  Indians  through  whose  territory  the  survey 
was  to  be  made.  Since  Culbertson  was  considered  an  authority  on  these 
Indians  and  had  their  friendship  and  regard  he  went  at  the  request  of 
Governor  Stevens  to  Washington,  in  the  fall  of  1853,  to  urge  upon  congress 
an  appropriation  for  treaty  making  funds.  He  spent  the  winter  of  1853-54 
in  Washington  lobbying  for  this  appropriation  and  his  knowledge  of  the 
Indians  proved  of  immense  value  in  securing  the  $80,000.00  finally  allotted 
for  that  purpose.  His  "company"  had  an  interest  in  securing  contracts 
for  the  transportation  of  Indian  goods  in  their  boats  wliich  a  year  or  two 
later  was  an  important  item  in  tlieir  business.  The  "company"  ledgers, 
1856,  in  St.  Louis  show  that  he  was  allowed  $1600.00  for  his  expenses  in 

The  years  1850-57  were  those  of  his  greatest  earnings,  and  with  living 
expenses  at  the  forts  very  low  his  money  accumulated  rapidly  during  this 
time  and  he  began  his  investments  in  property  in  Peoria,  Illinois.  His 
uncle,  Dr.  Samuel  D.  Culbertson  of  Chambersburg,  Pennsylvania,  had 
bought  farm  property  near  Peoria  and  this  may  have  been  responsible  for 
Alexander's  purchase  of  a  farm  on  the  outskirts  of  Peoria  in  1854,  for 
which  he  paid  $3500.00.  At  that  time  this  sum  would  buy  a  very  sub- 
stantial piece  of  property.  He  established  a  home  here  for  Natawista  and 
the  children.  His  niece.  Anna  Culbertson,  who  lived  with  the  family,  had 
charge  of  the  home  and  the  children,  who  were  not  away  at  boarding 
school,  during  the  absence  of  Alexander  and  his  wife. 

Later,  in  1858,  he  bought  another  160  acres  a  few  miles  out  of  Peoria  and 
built  the  beautiful  home  known  as  "Locust  Grove,"  where  he  maintained 
a  grand  style  of  living.  This  home  was  elegantly  furnished;  on  the  walls 
were  large  paintings  by  Stanley  painted  to  order.  The  grounds  were 
landscaped  by  an   English  gardener,  and  stables  built  for  the   fine  horses 


that  Culbertson  and  his  wife  both  loved.  One  team  of  driving  horses 
exhibited  at  all  the  county  fairs  always  carried  off  the  blue  ribbon.  This 
style  of  living  was  expensive  and  called  for  servants,  gardeners  and  stable- 
men. His  daughters  were  educated  either  at  a  convent  in  St.  Louis  or  at 
the  Moravian  Seminary  for  Women  in  Bethlehem,  Pennsylvania,  with  no 
expense  spared  for  all  the  extras  of  the  finishing  school,  drawing,  music, 
languages  and  dancing.  There  are  people  still  living  in  Peoria  who  have 
a  dim  recollection  of  the  stories  of  the  fabulous  wealth  of  Major  Culbert- 
son, of  casks  of  gold  coins  in  the  basement,  etc.,  but  in  a  few  years  it  was 
difficult  for  the  cook  to  collect  her  wages,  and  tradesmen's  bills  went 

Culbertson  had  made  investments  in  projects  promoted  by  his  good 
friend,  Senator  Thomas  H.  Benton  and  others,  in  which  he  lost  huge  sums, 
his  generosity  to  relatives  and  friends  cost  him  heavily  and  the  money 
spent  on  the  Peoria  property  brought  no  returns.  By  1866,  he  had  made 
a  trust  deed  to  a  Thomas  G.  McCulloch  of  his  Peoria  real  estate  for  a 
consideration  of  $1.00.  The  deed  provided  that  McCulloch,  a  remote  con- 
nection by  marriage,  was  to  operate  the  property  and  pay  the  net  proceeds 
to  Culbertson  as  long  as  he  lived.  In  the  event  of  his  death  the  proceeds 
were  to  be  paid  to  Natawista  during  her  lifetime  and  after  her  death  to 
Fannie  and  Joseph.  Perhaps  the  other  children  were  not  mentioned  be- 
cause they  were  considered  of  age.  Janie  died  in  1860  and  Julia  was  married 
in  1865. 

The  purpose  of  the  trust  deed  was  to  escape  Culbertson's  creditors  who 
were  numerous.  In  the  fall  of  1869,  33  creditors  filed  claims  against  the 
property,  and  Culbertson,  according  to  the  record,  could  not  be  found  in 
the  county.  He  was  in  Montana,  for  he  was  a  witness  to  the  Blackfoot, 
Gros  Ventre  and  Crow  treaties  of  1868  and  the  census  of  1870  for  Fort 
Benton  included  him,   Natawista,   Fannie  and  Joseph. 

He  was  said  to  have  retired  from  the  fur  trade  in  1859  to  make  his  home 
in  Peoria,  but  each  year  he  made  a  trip  up  the  river  accompanied  by  Nata- 
wista. He  was  considered  by  the  people  who  met  him  to  be  in  charge  of 
the  "company"  business  on  the  Upper  Missouri  and  probably  was  until 
1862.  In  that  year  Dawson  was  congratulated  by  his  friend,  Robert  Morgan, 
on  having  supplanted  Culbertson  and  being  at  last  "king  of  the  Missouri." 
By  this  time  the  company  interests  had  changed,  Fort  Union  was  sold  and 
the  only  post  owned  by  the  Choteau  firm  was  Fort  Benton  and  the  business 
had  changed  from  trade  with  the  Indians  to  a  transportation  and  mer- 
chandise business  with  the  white  people  coming  into  the  country  and 
government  contracts  for  military  and  Indian  freights,  goods,  etc. 

After  his  return  to  the  mountains  he  traded  in  a  small  way  and  acted  as 
interpreter  at  various  Indian  agencies.  Natawista  went  to  live  with  her 
people  on  the  Blood  reserve  in  Canada,  Jack  and  Joe  were  with  their  father 
at  Fort  Belknap  or  Fort  Peck,  and  his  daughters  were  in  the  east.  In  the 
late  seventies  he  went  to  the  home  of  his  daughter,  Julia  (Mrs.  George  H. 
Roberts),  in  Orleans,   Nebraska,  where  he  died  Aug.  27,   1879. 

Perhaps  the  accounts  of  his  large  fortune  were  exaggerated,  but  it  was 
wealth  for  that  time.  His  losses  may  be  blamed  on  his  ignorance  of 
the  business  methods  in  his  new  environment,  his  generosity  and  prodigal 
style  of  living.  Perhaps,  too,  overindulgence  in  liquor  lessened  his  ability 
to  care  for  his  business  during  those  years  in  Peoria. 

He  is  best  described  in  the  words  of  Father  De  Smet,  written  in  1851: 
"Mr.  Alexander  Culbertson,  superintendent  of  the  forts  on  the  Missouri 
and  Yellowstone  rivers,  is  a  distinguished  man,  endowed  with  a  mild, 
benevolent  and  charitable  temper,  though  if  need  be  intrepid  and  cour- 
ageous." Again,  in  1856:  "I  shall  never  forget  the  unbounded  kindness 
and  charity  I  have  received  from  our  good  and  great  friend  the  major." 



3  Natawista  Iksana  or  Medicine  Snake  Woman  was  the  daughter  of  the 
Blood  Indian  chief,  Men-Es-To-Kos  or  Father  of  All  Children.  Her 
brothers,  Eagle  Ribs,  Red  Crow  and  Grey  Eyes,  were  also  head  men  of 
that  tribe  and  Little  Dog  was  a  first  cousin.  She  was  married  when  a  young 
girl  to  Alexander  Culbertson  according  to  Indian  custom.  This  marriage, 
about  1840,  was  of  immense  value  to  Culbertson  in  his  business  dealings 
with  this  tribe  which  lived  north  of  the  border  in  Canada  and  traded  with 
the  British  fur  companies  who  did  their  best  to  keep  these  Indians  hostile 
toward  the  Americans.  Besides  these  advantages  in  this  marriage  it  was 
a  happy  one  in  its  other  relations.  She  was  a  beautiful  woman  with  an 
active  interest  in  all  her  husband's  movements  and  accorded  the  respect 
and  honor  given  to  the  wife  of  an  important  man  by  the  people  who  met  her. 

The  first  accounts  of  her  are  those  of  Audubon  in  his  journal  kept  at 
Fort  Union  in  the  summer  of  1843,  when  she  was  about  18  or  20  years  old. 
He  called  her  an  "Indian  princess,"  which  was  really  her  rank.  Perhaps 
Indian  girls  were  trained  as  is  European  royalty  today  in  all  manner  of 
work  and  sport.  Natawista  made  the  parfleshes  which  she  decorated  with 
dyed  porcupine  quills  and  the  feathers  of  the  golden  eagle  which  she  killed 
herself.  She  brought  Audubon  six  mallard  ducks  which  she  had  caught 
by  swimming  after  them  in  the  Missouri  river.  She  was,  so  Audubon 
wrote,  "a  most  graceful  and  expert  swimmer,  besides  being  capable  of 
remaining  under  water  a  long  time." 

Natawista  loved  to  ride  and  dressed  up  for  Audubon  in  her  Indian  cos- 
tume, mounted  her  horse  and  rode  astride  with  her  long  hair  flying  loose 
in  the  breeze.  She  and  her  Indian  maid  raced  with  the  men  for  over  a 
mile  with  a  display  of  magnificent  riding  that  could  not  be  equalled.  Kurz 
saw  her  at  Fort  Union  in  1851  and  regretted  that  he  could  not  paint  her 
picture,  but  she  had  cut  off  her  long,  lustrous  black  hair  in  token  of  grief 
for  her  young  brother's  death.  Kurz,  who  had  the  artist's  eye  for  beauty, 
described  her  as  "one  of  the  most  beautiful  Indian  women.  .  .  .  She  would 
be  an  excellent  model  for  a  Venus,  ideal  woman  of  the  primitive  race;  a 
perfect  'little  wife'." 

A  passenger  on  the  steamboat  Iowa  in  a  journey  up  the  Missouri  river 
in  the  summer  of  1849  described  her  as  "the  daughter  of  a  Blackfoot  chief 
and  married  to  a  director  of  the  Fur  company,  is  well  known  in  the  Upper 
Missouri  region,  because  of  the  happy  influence  she  exercises  there."  He 
referred  to  the  fact  that  because  of  her  understanding  of  and  relationship 
to  the  Blackfoot  Indians  she  was  influential  in  maintaining  peace  between 
these  Indians  and  the  white  traders.  No  one  appreciated  the  value  of  this 
influence  more  than  Governor  I.  I.  Stevens  who  gave  her  credit  for  inspir- 
ing the  Indians  with  confidence  in  Stevens  and  his  party. 

In  his  report  of  Sept.  16,  1854  (Ex.  Docs.  Senate,  33rd  Cong.  2nd  Sess. 
Rept.  of  the  Sec.  of  the  Interior,  Doc.  No.  86)  he  wrote: 

"I  deemed  it  highly  advisable  to  secure  the  services  of  Mr.  Culbertson, 
one  of  the  principal  partners  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  as  special 
agent.  ...  I  placed  the  more  reliance  upon  the  favorable  influence  which 
Mr.  Culbertson  might  place  upon  the  Indians,  as  he  had  married  a  full- 
blooded  Blackfoot  woman.  Mrs.  Culbertson,  who  had  fully  adopted  the 
manners,  costume  and  deportment  of  the  whites,  and  who,  by  her  refine- 
ment, presents  the  most  striking  illustration  of  the  high  civilization  which 
these  tribes  of  the  interior  are  capable  of  attaining,  rendered  the  highest 
service  to  the  expedition,  a  service  which  demands  this  public  acknowledge- 
ment. Upon  joining  Mr.  Culbertson  at  Fort  Union,  I  found  him  and  his 
wife  full  of  anxiety  as  to  the  reception  which  we  would  meet  from  the 
Blackfeet.  They  both  feared  that  some  rude  or  careless  act  from  any 
member  of  the  party  might  be  a  signal  for  a  declaration  of  war.     Full  of 


these  apprehensions,  Mrs.  Culbertson,  whom  it  was  intended  to  leave  at 
Fort  Union,  declared  to  her  husband  her  resolution  to  accompany  him 
with  the  expedition  to  Fort  Benton.  She  said  to  him  'My  people  are  a 
good  people,  but  they  are  jealous  and  vindictive.  I  am  afraid  that  they 
and  the  whites  will  not  understand  each  other;  but  if  I  go,  I  may  be  able 
to  explain  things  to  them,  and  soothe  them  if  they  should  be  irritated.  I 
know  there  is  great  danger;  but,  my  husband,  where  you  go,  will  I  go,  and 
where  j^ou  die  will  I  die.  ..."  I  had  arranged  that  the  tent  of  Mr.  Culbert- 
son should  be  pitched  outside  the  line  of  sentinels  so  as  to  be  readily  ac- 
cessible to  the  Indians.  I  soon  perceived  the  advantages  to  be  derived 
from  Mrs.  Culbertson's  presence.  She  was  in  constant  intercourse  with 
the  Indians,  and  inspired  them  with  perfect  confidence.  On  this  portion 
of  the  route,  and  afterwards  when  we  were  with  the  Gros  Ventres,  she 
heard  all  that  the  Indians  said,  and  reported  it  through  her  husband  to  me. 
It  is  a  great  mistake  to  suppose  the  Indian  to  be  the  silent,  unsociable 
people  they  are  commonly  represented  to  be.  I  found  them  on  ordinary 
occasions  the  most  talkative,  gossiping  people  I  had  ever  seen.  The  men 
and  women  were  fond  of  gathering  around  Mrs.  Culbertson  to  hear  stories 
of  the  whites.  One  evening  I  heard  shouts  of  merry  laughter  from  one 
of  these  groups.  Upon  inquiring  the  source  of  merriment,  I  learned  that 
Mrs.  Culbertson  was  telling  stories  to  her  simple  Indian  friends  of  what 
she  saw  in  St.  Louis.  As  she  described  a  fat  woman  whom  she  had  seen 
exhibited,  and  sketched  with  great  humor  the  ladies  of  St.  Louis,  it  was 
pleasant  to  see  the  delight  which  beamed  from  the  swarthy  faces  around 

Governor  Stevens  and  others  agreed  that  she  did  not  speak  English  but 
otherwise  had  acquired  the  dress  and  manners  of  the  white  people.  She 
was  the  mother  of  five  children.  Jack.  Nancy,  Julia,  Fannie  and  Joe. 
Nancy,  who  was  born  in  1848  at  Fort  Union,  was  drowned  in  the  Missouri 
river  near  there  some  time  after  1851  as  she  was  baptized  July  20,  1851,  at 
Fort  Union  by  Father  De  Smet.  Fannie  said  that  it  was  Nancy's  death 
that  caused  her  father  to  establish  a  home  for  his  family  at  Peoria.  Culbert- 
son had  at  least  one  Indian  wife  before  he  married  Natawista,  for  Maria 
Culbertson  who  was  baptized  at  Fort  Lookout  by  Father  De  Smet  on 
Nov.  5,  1846,  was  11  years  old  at  that  time.  Janie,  who  was  married  in 
1858  or  1859  and  who  died  in  1860,  was  probably  not  the  daughter  of  Nata- 
wista. Janie  was  in  school  at  the  Moravian  Seminarj^  for  Women  in 
Bethlehem.  Pennsylvania,  in  1850,  but  children  were  sometimes  sent  away 
to  school  at  a  very  early  age. 

Fannie  was  born  at  Fort  Union  about  1850  and  Joe,  the  youngest  child, 
was  born  in  Peoria,  Jan.  31,  1859.  After  he  had  settled  in  Peoria,  Culbert- 
son began  to  think  of  arranging  matters  so  that  his  children  would  be 
legalized  according  to  the  laws  of  the  country,  and  to  marry  their  mother, 
Natawista,  in  order  to  protect  her  rights  to  his  property.  The  Peoria  Daily 
Transcript,  Sept.  12,  1859,  had  the  following  account  of  their  wedding 
according  to  the  laws  of  the  church  and  state:  "An  interesting  marriage 
ceremony. — A  marriage  ceremony  of  a  peculiar  and  interesting  character 
was  performed  in  this  county  on  Friday  last  (Sept.  9,  1859).  The  parties 
were  Major  Alex.  Culbertson  and  Natawista,  daughter  of  the  chief  of  the 
Blackfoot  Indians.  Major  Culbertson  is  the  well-known  Indian  trader 
and  was  married  to  his  present  wife  according  to  the  Indian  ceremony 
some  sixteen  or  seventeen  years  ago,  but  having  latelj'^  severed  his  con- 
nection with  the  American  Fur  Company,  and  settled  down  to  an  agri- 
cultural life  near  the  city,  he  was  anxious  that  the  ceremony  might  be 
performed  according  to  civilized  rites.  The  parties  have  three  very  inter- 
esting children,  the  eldest  of  whom  is  about  fifteen  years  of  age. 

"The  marriage  was  performed  after  the  ceremony  of  the  Catholic  church 
by  Father  Scanlon  of  St.  Joseph,  Missouri.  A  very  large  number  of  invited 
guests  were  present  on  the  occasion — the  marriage  having  taken  place  at 


the  Major's  residence.  Among  them  was  Capt.  James  Kipp,  a  veteran  of 
eighty  years,  one  of  the  first  members  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  and 
an  associate  of  Major  Culbertson  since  the  latter's  connection  with  the 
fur  trade.  Like  the  Major.  Kipp  has  lately  severed  his  connection  with 
the  company  and  has  settled  down  to  spend  the  remainder  of  his  days  at 
Parksville,  Mo.  Father  Scanlon  is  an  old  intimate  friend  of  the  Major's 
and  one  who  had  interested  himself  in  the  Catholic  Mission  established  by 
his  church  among  the  Blackfoot  nation. 

"Mrs.  Culbertson  is  a  lady  of  fine  native  talent.  She  is  said  to  have 
rendered  great  service  to  Governor  Stevens  and  Major  Cummings  (now 
governor  of  Utah)  at  the  time  they  visited  the  Blackfoot  country  and  made 
the  treaty  of  the  Judith  between  the  Government  and  the  nation  to  which 
she  belonged." 

From  some  of  the  stories  told  to  her  relatives  by  Anna  Culbertson,  niece 
of  Alexander,  we  learned  something  of  Natawista's  life  in  Peoria.  She 
loved  jewelry,  but  only  the  stones  of  color  such  as  rubies  and  emeralds. 
When  autumn  came  she  would  have  a  teepee  set  up  on  the  lawn,  take 
off  her  white  woman's  clothes,  don  the  blanket  garb  of  the  squaw  and 
spend  the  Indian  summer  in  her  teepee.  Some  reports  indicate  an  in- 
dulgence in  fire-water  which  to  Natawista  in  accordance  with  Indian 
custom  would  be  a  very  natural  thing.  She  loved  fast  horses  and  one 
story  was  an  account  of  "her  having  a  team  of  half-broken  horses  harnessed 
to  a  carriage  and  when  the  horses  ran  away  and  smashed  the  carriage  she 
clapped  her  hands  in  glee. 

From  the  accounts  of  contemporary  travelers  who  met  the  Culbertsons 
on  the  steamboats  going  up  the  Missouri  river  Natawista  appeared  to  be 
with  her  husband  whenever  he  made  a  trip  to  the  mountains.  Dr.  E.  J. 
Marsh  traveled  with  her  on  the  Spread  Eagle  in  1859  and  said,  "she  dressed 
like  a  white  ladv,  and  is  said  to  be  a  very  fine  woman.  I  was  introduced 
to  her  but  as  she  cannot  speak  English.  I  can  say  nothing  to  her."  In 
1R6.3  she  and  her  husband  with  little  Toe  were  passengers  on  the  Robert 
Campbell  for  Fort  Union.  It  was  on  this  trip  that  occurred  the  incident 
known  as  the  Tobacco  Gardens  AfTair  when  several  employes  of  the 
Robert  Campbell  were  killed  bv  a  party  of  Sioux  Indians  near  Tobacco 
Gardens  creek.  Natawista's  sharp  eyes  detected  the  Indians  in  the 
bushes  along  the  river  bank  and  she  knew  them  to  be  hostile  Sioux  and 
enemies.  She  understood  the  Sioux  language  and  could  tell  from  the  talk 
of  the  Indians  who  hailed  the  boat  that  they  intended  mischief,  but  <igainst 
her  protests  the  captain  sent  a  yawl  ashore  to  the  Indians  who  proceeded 
to  kill  the  men  who  landed  in  full  view  of  the  men  on  the  steamboat. 

The  1870  census  of  Fort  Benton  gave  her  age  as  45  years  and  it  must 
have  been  soon  afterwards  that  she  went  north  to  live  with  her  people. 
Henry  Robson  of  Fort  Benton  saw  her  on  the  Blood  reserve  in  1881,  where 
she  was  known  as  Madam  Culbertson.  She  died  there  many  years  later 
and  is  buried  in  the  mission  cemetery. 

Jack  was  probably  the  oldest  of  her  children.  Julia.  Nancy,  Fannie  and 
Joseph  came  in  the  order  named.  Tack  died  sometime  in  the  80's  in  Willis- 
ton.  N.  D.  Tulia  married  George  H.  Roberts.  May  9,  1865.  at  her  father's 
home  in  Peoria  and  later  lived  in  Nebraska.  They  moved  to  Idaho  in  \^S^. 
where  Roberts  was  elected  the  first  attorney-general  of  the  state  of  Idaho 
in  1890.  He  died  in  1922  and  his  wife  lived  until  1929,  when  she  died  at 
the  home  of  her  daughters  in  Boise,  Idaho. 

Joseph  lived  in  Montana  from  the  time  he  came  with  his  father  in  the 
60's  and  until  his  death  in  1923  was  employed  at  various  Indian  agencies 
on  the  Missouri  river.  He  was  survived  by  several  children.  Fannie,  who 
attended  the  Moravian  Seminary  in  Bethlehem,  Pennsylvania,  rnarried 
Louis  S.  Irvin.  a  lawyer,  about  1880  and  lived  in  Montana  and  California 
until  her  death  in  Great  Falls,  Feb.  5.  1939.  Both  Julia  and  Fannie  were 
intelligent  and  well  educated  women  who  lived  all  of  their  lives  with  white 


people  as  their  equals  in  every  way.      Natawista's  children  were  a  credit 
to  her  and  evidence  of  a  splendid  inheritance  from  both  parents. 

4  Fort  Union,  1829-1866.  Fort  Union  was  the  most  important  and  had 
the  longest  existence  of  all  the  trading  posts  of  the  Upper  Missouri  Out- 
fit. Its  erection  was  begun  late  in  1829  under  the  supervision  of  Kenneth 
McKenzie,  located  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Missouri  river  about  three 
miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone  river.  McKenzie  was  in 
charge  of  the  post  and  agent  of  the  Upper  Missouri  Outfit  until  he  re- 
tired  in    1839. 

Many  famous  visitors  were  entertained  at  this  post,  Maximilian.  Catlin, 
Audubon  and  De  Smet.  Several  of  the  visitors  as  well  as  the  employes 
such  as  Kurz,  Larpenteur  and  others  have  written  their  impressions  and 
recollections  of  the  fort  and  its  people.  One  of  the  best  accounts  is  that  of 
Rudolph  Friederich  Kurz  who  was  there  from  1851  to  1852.  He  kept  a  de- 
tailed journal  illustrated  by  excellent  sketches  which  picture  the  Indians,  the 
white  employes,  the  buildings,  animals  and  many  of  the  details  of  the  daily 
Hfe  of  the  fort. 

At  the  time  these  journals  were  kept,  1854-56,  E.  T.  Denig  was  in  charge 
of  Fort  Union  and  after  his  departure  in  1856,  to  make  his  home  in  the 
Red  River  settlement  in  Canada,  he  was  succeeded  by  F.  G.  Riter.  In  the 
60's,  Hodgkiss,  Meldrum  and  Larpenteur  were  in  charge  of  the  fort,  but 
the  business  declined  and  by  1866  the  buildings  and  material  were  being 
moved  to  Fort  Buford  for  use  in  the  construction  of  the  army  post. 

There  have  been  a  number  of  brief  sketches  of  Fort  Union  published, 
but  its  vivid  and  interesting  story  should  some  day  be  told  in  full. 

5  Hunter.  Each  post  kept  a  hunter  whose  duty  was  to  kill  game  for  the 
fort  provision.     The  hunter  at  Fort  Benton  was  Cadotte. 

6  Dobbie  (adobe  bricks).  The  adobe  bricks  used  in  building,  vvhich  were 
made  of  the  local  mud  and  wild  grass,  about  6x4x15  inches  in  size. 

■7  Bercrier  (Bercier).  This  is  probably  the  man  mentioned  by  Chittenden 
in  "Early  Steamboat  Navigation  on  the  Missouri  River,"  vol.  1.  p.  46,  who 
was  killed  by  the  Blackfoot  Indians  on  the  Teton  river  near  Fort  Benton 
in  1865.  An  Antoine  Bercier  had  been  with  the  fur  trade  for  many  years 
and  according  to  one  account  is  said  to  have  been  the  man  killed  in  1865. 

Granville  Stuart  mentions,  June  25,  1862,  "Barcier  and  others  arrived 
from  Benton."  This  is  the  person,  no  doubt,  for  whom  the  Bercier's  Springs 
were  named  where  Harkness  camped  for  dinner,  Aug.  13,  1862,  between  the 
Dearborn  river  and  the  Bird  Tail  Rock  on  his  journey  from  Deer  Lodge 
to  Fort  Benton. 


8  This  was  probably  the  incident  described  by  Lieut.  Bradley  in  a  letter, 
Sept.  21,  1875,  to  the  Helena  Herald  in  which  he  told  the  story  as  he  heard 
it  from  Culbertson  who  gave  the  year  as  1856.  "In  the  month  of  October 
a  stranger  appeared  at  the  fort,  coming  by  the  trail  from  the  southwest, 
now  the  Benton  and  Helena  stage  road;  he  was  evidently  an  old  moun- 
taineer, and  his  object  was  to  purchase  supplies.  Producing  a  sack,  he 
displayed  a  quantity  of  yellow  dust  which  he  claimed  was  gold,  and  for 
which  he  demanded' ?^1 000.00,  offering  to  take  it  all  in  goods.  Nothing  was 
known  at  the  fort  of  the  existence  of  gold  in  the  adjoining  country  and 
Major  Culbertson  was  loth  to  accept  the  proffered  dust,  having  doubts  of 
its  genuineness.  Besides,  even  if  it  was  gold,  he  was  uncertain  of  its  value 
in  this  crude  state,  when  an  employe  of  the  fort,  a  young  man  named  Ray 
(Wray?)  came  to  the  aid  of  the  mountaineer,  and  by  his  assurances  as  to 
the  genuinf^ness  of  the  rrold  and  the  value  of  tlic  quantity  offered,  induced 
Major    Culliertson    to   accept    it.      Still    doubtful,    however,    ho    made    it    a 


private  transaction,  charging  goods  to  his  own  account.  The  mountaineer 
was  very  reticent  as  to  the  locality  where  he  obtained  the  gold,  but  in 
answer  to  numerous  questions,  he  stated  that  he  had  been  engaged  in 
prospecting  for  a  considerable  period  in  the  mountains  to  the  southwest, 
that  his  wanderings  had  been  made  alone,  and  that  he  had  found  plenty  of 
gold.  Receiving  in  exchange  for  his  gold  dust  a  supply  of  horses,  arms, 
ammunition,  blankets,  tobacco,  provisions  and  other  supplies,  he  quietly 
left  the  fort  on  his  return  to  the  mountains.  Major  Culbertson  never  saw 
or  heard  of  him  again,  and  was  ignorant  even  of  his  name.  The  following 
year  he  sent  the  gold  through  the  hands  of  Mr.  Chouteau  to  the  mint  and 
in  due  time  received  as  the  yield  thereof  $1,525.00,  the  dust  having  proved 
remarkably  pure  gold."  (Leeson's  History  of  Montana,  1885,  page  210.) 
L.  V.  Mercure,  who  was  present  when  the  man  brought  the  gold  dust  to 
Fort  Benton,  told  Bradley  that  he  recognized  the  man  several  years  later 
at  one  of  the  gold  camps  as  John  Silverthorne.  F.  H.  Woody  said  that 
Silverthorne  came  to  Montana  in  1856  from  Salt  Lake  City,  but  thi.s  date 
may  have  been  incorrect.  There  was  a  discovery  of  gold  near  Colville  in 
1854  on  the  Kootenai  river  and  it  is  possible  that  some  of  this  gold  might 
have  found  its  way  to  Fort  Benton. 

»  Coal  Makers.  This  is  a  reference  to  the  charcoal  made  for  use  in  the 
blacksmith  shop. 



By  Wm.  F.  Wheeler 

10  George  Weippert  was  born  in  Quebec,  1820.  His  father  was  a  Hol- 
lander and  his  mother  was  of  French  descent.  He  received  a  common  school 
education,  and  at  an  early  age  went  to  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  where  he  clerked 
in  his  brother's  store  for  some  years.  He  left  that  place  in  1839,  at  the 
age  of  nineteen,  and  came  up  the  Missouri  river  to  Old  Fort  Union  in  the 
employment  of  the  American  Fur  Company  as  a  clerk.  He  remained  in 
their  employment  27  years,  until  they  sold  out  to  the  Northwest  Fur  Com- 
pany in  1866.  He  has  never  been  out  of  Montana  during  the  whole  period 
since  his  arrival  here. 

He  has  always  been  a  constant  companion  of  Charles  Mercier.  He  re- 
mained at  Fort  Union  for  about  one  year,  and  then  came  up  to  Old  Fort 
McKenzie  (Ft.  Brule)  and  there  retained  his  position  as  a  trading  clerk 
until  it  was  burned  and  abandoned.  He  accompanied  Bourgeois  Chardon 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  river  and  came  with  him  up  to  the  Cotton  Fort, 
above  the  present  town  of  Fort  Benton,  and  remained  there  during  the  two 
years  the  American  Fur  Company  occupied  it  as  a  trading  post.  During 
this  time  it  was  christened  by  the  company  Fort  Henry  (Honore),  and  they 
occupied  it  until  the  spring  of  1847.  a  period  of  two  years,  when  all  the 
material  of  the  whole  post  was  floated  down  to  the  present  site  of  Fort 
Benton.  The  timbers  with  some  additional  ones  hauled  from  the  Highwood 
Mountains  were  used  in  the  construction  of  New  Fort  Benton,  which  was 
gradually  replaced  by  adobe  buildings,  some  of  which  are  still  standing  in 

Mr.  Weippert  gives  the  following  account  of  the  tragedy  that  occurred 
in  the  fall  of  1843  and  in  the  spring  of  1844  at  Old  Fort  McKenzie,  and 
which  caused  the  burning  and  abandonment  of  that  post.  He  said:  In 
the  fall  of  that  year  (1843)  a  war  party  of  the  Rlackfoot  Indians  came  to 
the  fort,  and  wanted  to  trade  for  ammunition,  knives,  etc..  as  they  were 
going  on  an  expedition  against  the  Crows,  hereditary  enemies.  It  was  the 
custom  of  the  company  to  give  war  parties  of  Indians  who  traded  with 
them,  and  who  stopped  at  their  trading  post  to  visit  them,  a  feast  or  good 
dinner,  and  also  to  supply  them  with  five  rounds  of  ammunition  for  each 


gun  in  the  party.  All  this  was  done,  but  the  Indians  demanded  double  the 
usual  quantity,  which  was  refused.  At  this  they  took  umbrage,  and  in 
the  morning  when  they  left  drove  off  the  cattle  that  belonged  to  the  fort 
and,  as  was  claimed,  killed  two  of  them. 

The  cattle  had  been  driven  up  from  Fort  Union,  and  the  head  trader  and 
chief  clerk  were  charged  for  each  one  $100.  No  excuse  for  their  loss  would 
be  accepted  by  the  company  at  St.  Louis,  and  the  trader  and  clerk  were 
held  responsible  for  their  loss,  and  consequently  they  felt  very  indignant 
at  the  Indians  for  killing  them,  as  they  believed  wantonly. 

A  negro  employee,  named  Tom  Reese,  started  after  the  Indians  to  try 
and  bring  back  the  cattle  that  they  were  driving  away,  and  in  the  pursuit 
made  a  show  of  bravado  and  made  many  threats.  The  consequence  was 
he  was  shot  dead  when  he  endeavored  to  carry  his  threats  into  execution. 
This  angered  Mr.  Chardon,  the  head  trader,  and  Mr.  Harvey,  the  chief 
clerk,  very  much  and  they  swore  that  they  would  have  revenge  and  pay- 
ment in  full  for  their  loss. 

In  the  next  spring,  at  the  last  trade,  before  the  time  for  the  annual  ship- 
ment of  furs,  etc..  to  St.  Louis,  two  chiefs  appeared  at  the  fort  and  an- 
nounced that  on  the  next  morning  a  large  party  of  their  people  would  be 
there  to  make  a  big  trade,  as  they  had  500  buffalo  robes  and  other  furs, 
and  they  wished  to  make  arrangements  for  the  trade.  They  were  invited 
into  the  fort  and  feasted  and  locked  securely  in  a  room  until  their  com- 
panions should  appear  in  the  morning  to  begin  the  trade.  They  had  no 
suspicion  of  foul  play.  They  were  not  of  the  party  that  had  killed  the 
cattle  or  the  negro  Reese  the  fall  before,  and  had  no  reason  to  expect  any 
harm  to  themselves  or  friends,  but  they  were  to  be  woefully  undeceived, 
as  the  sequel  will  show. 

Bourgeois  Chardon  was  habitually  too  drunk  to  take  much  control  of 
affairs  at  the  post,  and  Harvey,  the  chief  clerk,  who  was  ambitious  to  stand 
well  with  his  employers  and  wanted  to  become  head  trader,  treacherously 
obtained  leave  from  Chardon  to  fire  the  cannon  when  the  Indians  should 
appear  at  the  gates  of  the  fort  in  the  morning  to  trade.  This  could  only 
be  done  on  great  occasions  by  the  permission  of  the  head  trader.  This 
permission  thus  obtained,  gave  Harvey  the  opportunity  to  carry  out  his 
plan  of  revenge  against  the  Indians  for  shooting  the  cattle  and  killing  the 
negro,  the  past  fall,  although  they  were  not  the  same  Indians  who  committed 
these  deeds  but  unfortunately  belonged  to  the  same  tribe. 

Harvey  had  the  cannon  loaded  to  the  muzzle  with  all  kinds  of  missiles, 
and  in  the  morning  when  the  Indians  in  quite  a  large  body  had  come  up 
in  a  line  along  the  fort  in  front  of  the  gate  and  asked  for  their  two  chiefs 
who  had  been  detained  over  night,  they  were  told  they  were  all  right  and 
would  come  out  as  soon  as  they  had  breakfasted.  While  standing  in  this 
position,  Harvey  trained  the  loaded  cannon  in  the  bastion  so  as  to  rake 
through  the  line  when  fired,  and  ordered  a  young  Irishman  to  fire  the  piece. 
He,  to  his  everlasting  honor,  refused,  saying  it  would  be  murder.  Harvey 
knocked  him  down  and  touched  off  the  cannon  himself. 

Mr.  Weippert  saj's  that  according  to  his  recollection  four  Indians  fell 
dead  or  mortally  wounded,  and  seventeen  others  were  more  or  less  wounded. 
The  survivors  ran  away  as  fast  as  possible,  and  mounting  their  horses  fled 
for  their  lives,  leaving  the  500  robes  and  the  other  furs  and  skins  where 
they  had  unloaded  them. 

Harvey  rushed  out  of  the  fort  and  with  an  axe  crushed  the  heads  of  the 
Indians  who  had  fallen  and  scalped  them.  Mr.  Weippert  said  that  he  was 
told  by  some  of  the  employees  that  Harvey  then  licked  the  blood  from  his 
axe,  saying,  "I  will  serve  all  the  dogs  so."  He  did  not  witness  this  scene, 
but  has  often  heard  those  who  claim  to  have  witnessed  it  tell  the  story. 

.^fter  tin's  Harvey  went  back  into  the  fort  and  souglit  tlic  two  chiefs  he 
had  detained  over  night.     He  intended  to  kill  them,  Init  they  had  mystcri- 


ously  escaped.  He  was  furious  over  the  fact,  but  could  not  find  out  how 
the  escape  was  effected. 

Harvey  then  ordered  his  men  to  bring  in  the  robes  the  Indians  had  left 
in  their  camp.  But  they  were  so  horrified  none  obeyed.  He  could  not  force 
or  persuade  them  to  do  this.  He  finally  said  he  would  give  them  $2.50  for 
each  robe  they  would  bring  in.  This  offer  was  accepted  and  the  robes  were 
brought  into  the  fort,  and  he  counted  them  into  the  store  room  of  the 
company.     In  this  cruel  manner  he  was  revenged. 

Mr.  Weippert  said  Harvey  was  afterwards  called  to  account  for  this 
bloody  deed  by  the  company,  and  on  examination  of  the  affair  by  the  head 
of  the  company  at  their  office  in  St.  Louis,  he  was  dismissed  from  their 

(Note:  This  was  honorable  to  the  company,  at  least,  and  was  about  all 
they  could  do,  for  there  were  no  courts  between  St.  Louis  and  Fort  Benton. 
W.  F.  W.) 

A  few  days  after  this  occurrence,  owing  to  fear  that  the  Indians  would 
take  revenge  for  the  murder  of  their  friends  and  the  loss  of  their  robes,  and 
from  the  determination  of  the  employees  to  leave  the  fort  and  go  down 
the  river,  Chardon  and  Harvey  determined  to  burn  and  abandon  it.  Thence- 
forth it  was  called  the  "burnt  fort"  or   Fort   Brule. 

Chardon  and  Harvey  moved  everything  down  to  the  mouth  of  the  Judith 
river,  and  there  built  a  fort  which  was  named  Fort  Chardon.  This  they 
occupied  during  the  year  and  then  removed  up  to  Fort  Cotton,  above  the 
present  city  of  Benton,  which  the  company  had  bought  from  the  inde- 
pendent traders,  Fox,  Livingston,  Cotton  and  others. 

Mr.  Weippert  remained  in  the  employment  of  the  American  Fur  Com- 
pany until  they  sold  out  to  the  Northwest  Fur  Company.  He  worked  for 
the  new  company  for  a  year  or  so  as  a  trading  clerk,  and  afterwards  for 
I.  G.  Baker  &  Co.  until  1876.  He  then  went  into  the  restaurant  and  saloon 
business  for  himself  at  Fort  Benton. 

In  1880  his  eyesight  was  destroyed  by  an  accident,  and  since  that  time 
he  has  been  totally  blind.  He  feels  this  affliction  severely  on  account  of 
his  former  active  life.  He  cannot  read  the  papers  and  not  one  of  his  old 
companions  is  left  to  converse  with.  He  lives  with  his  son-in-law  (Daniel 
Blivens)  and  daughter,  a  halfbreed  woman  on  Highwood  creek,  20  miles 
from  Benton,  who  do  all  in  their  power  to  make  his  last  years  pleasant. 
Five  grandchildren  console  him  with  their  prattle,  but  he  pines  for  the 
companionship  of  his  old  associates,  most  of  whom  are  dead  or  live  far 
away  from  him.  His  health  is  generally  good,  but  he  complains  frequently 
of  utter  loneliness.  He  expects  to  die  here,  and  says  this  sketch  will  be 
the  only  memorial  that  he  ever  lived. 

(Note:  Weippert's  name  was  spelled  in  various  forms,  Weipert,  Whip- 
pert  and  Wippert.  He  died  at  the  home  of  his  son-in-law,  Dan  O.  Blevins, 
on  Highwood  creek  near  Fort  Benton,  Jan.   12,   1888.) 


1^  Chambers  and  Rose  are  the  mystery  men  of  these  journals  for  we  have 
no  record  of  either  prior  to  the  period  covered  by  these  diaries.  The  first 
record  we  have  of  Alexander  Rose  is  in  the  report  of  the  Stevens'  Survey 
when  Governor  I.  I.  Stevens  wrote  that  "Mr.  Rose,  Mr.  Culbertson's  store- 
keeper, was  to  accompany  Lieut.  John  Mullan  as  an  interpreter  to  the 
camp  of  the  Flathead  Indians  on  the  Musselshell  river."  He  was  evidently 
familiar  with  the  language  of  that  tribe.  From  the  same  source  we  learn 
that  he  was  in  charge  at  Fort  Benton  when  Lieut.  Doty  of  the  Stevens' 
expedition  visited  there  in  June,  1854,  and  he  was  still  in  charge  September 
of  that  year.  This  was  probably  during  the  absence  of  Culbertson  and 
Dawson.  When  Major  John  Owen  visited  Fort  Benton.  July  1,  1856, 
Rose  was  in  charge. 


Rose  was  also  familiar  with  the  Blackfoot  language  since  he  was  sent 
by  E.  A.  C.  Hatch,  agent  for  that  tribe,  to  bring  the  Blackfoot  and  Blood 
Indians  to  Fort  Benton  for  a  council  meeting. 

The  Hosmer  Journal  of  distances  on  the  Missouri  river  lists  a  Rose's 
Point,  same  as  Spread  Eagle  Point,  between  Wolf  Point  and  Fort  Union. 
This  must  have  been  the  location  which  Chittenden  said  was  marked  on 
all  the  steamboat  maps  of  the  Upper  Missouri  as  "Rose's  Grave"  but 
which  he  said  was  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Milk  river.  Chittenden  as- 
sumed it  was  the  grave  of  Edward  Rose,  but  since  he  was  killed  in  the 
Yellowstone  country  it  may  have  been  the  grave  of  Alexander  Rose. 

His  son,  Charley  Rose,  better  known  by  his  Indian  name  of  Yellow  Fish, 
said  his  father  died  many  years  ago  at  Fort  Benton.  Joseph  Brown  of 
Browning  said  Charley  Rose  was  of  Cree  blood  and  adopted  by  the  Black- 
foot. was  interpreter  for  the  government,  but  in  his  old  age  had  forgotten 
the  English  language.  He  died  at  Heart  Butte,  November,  1935,  aged  83 
years,  and  is  survived  by  a  son,  William  Rose,  who  lives  at  Heart  Butte. 

It  is  possible  that  Alexander  Rose  came  from  Canada  to  the  Upper 
Missouri  between  1851-1853.  The  Canadian  archives  list  an  Alexander 
Rose,  tavern-keeper  in  the  Province  of  Ontario,  1801,  who  may  have  been 
the  father  of  this  man. 

Rose  kept  the  Fort  Benton  Journal  from  May  12  to  October  17,  1856, 
and  his  entries  show  him  to  have  had  an  average  education  for  that  time. 
Since  there  is  no  mention  of  him  in  the  poll  lists  of  1864  he  had  either  died 
or  left  the  country  prior  to  that  date. 

12  Three  Butes  (near  Fort  Benton).  The  Three  Buttes  of  page  two 
were  near  Fort  Benton  but  the  Buttes  mentioned  Aug.  9,  1855,  were  the 
Sweet  Grass  Hills  of  today.  East,  West  and  Gold  Buttes.  The  Blackfoot 
Indians  told  Governor  Stevens  "Providence  created  the  hills  for  the  tribe 
to  ascend  and  look  for  buffalo." 

13  Mountain  (Highwoods).  The  mountains  were  the  Highwood  Moun- 
tains southeast  of  Benton,  where  the  timber  used  at  the  fort  was  obtained. 

14  Gros  Ventres.  The  name  Gros  Ventres  ("big  bellies")  was  given  by 
the  French  to  two  distinct  tribes  of  Indians.  One  tribe,  the  Hidatsa,  were 
known  as  the  Gros  Ventres  of  the  Missouri,  and  the  other  as  the  Gros 
Ventres  of  the  Prairie.  The  latter  were  a  detached  band  of  the  Arapaho, 
who,  according  to  F.  V.  Hayden,  because  of  a  feud  became  separated  from 
their  friends,  crossed  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  associated  themselves  with 
the  Blackfeet.  Their  former  hunting  grounds  were  on  the  tributaries  of 
the  Saskatchewan. 

LOUIS  RIVET.     1803-1902 
Personal  History  of  Louis  Rivet  or  "Revy"  by  Wm.  F.  Wheeler. 

■'•'>  Louis  Rivet,  or  "Revy",  as  he  is  always  called,  was  born  at  St.  Louis, 
Mo.,  in  1803.  He  never  had  the  advantage  of  a  single  day's  school  in  his 
life  and  never  learned  to  read  or  write.  He  was  of  French  Canadian 

St.  Louis,  according  to  his  earliest  recollection  of  it,  was  almost  an  Indian 
village,  and  was  an  Indian  trading  post.  The  white  inhabitants  were  mostly 
Spanish  and  French,  with  but  a  few  Americans.  He  was  raised  by  an 
uncle  on  his  mother's  side,  named  Roubidcau.  He  worked  as  a  laborer  in 
clearing  up  the  woods,  hauling  logs,  building  cabins  and  any  kind  of  work 
that  ofifered.  When  he  was  about  fifteen  years  old,  a  Mr.  Wiggins  started 
a  ferry  at  St.  Louis,  at  first  using  skifTs,  which  young  Rivet  rowed  for  him 
for  several  years.  Afterwards  Mr.  W.  replaced  the  skiflfs  by  a  keel  boat 
which  was  propelled  by  a  sort  of  tread-mill  wheel,  upon  which  two  men 
at  a  time  tramped  for  an  hour  when  they  were  relieved  by  two  others. 


After  using  these  keel  boats  for  two  or  three  years  Mr.  Wiggins  procured 
a  horse  boat,  employing  from  four  to  eight  horses  to  get  sufficient  po\yer 
to  propel  it.  The  city  was  growing  rapidly,  and  frequent  communication 
between  the  two  sides  of  the  river  became  necessary  to  accommodate  the 
tide  of  immigrants  coming  into  the  new  purchase  from  the  east,  farmers 
and  market  people  passing  to  and  fro.  Missouri  had  become  a  state. 
American  energy  prevailed  in  the  new  order  of  things.  As  eastern  people 
moved  into  the  city  and  country  the  old  Spanish  settlers  mostly  left  for 
New  Orleans  or  New  Mexico.  Trade  was  increasing  and  steamboats  were 
plying  between  St.  Louis,  Cincinnati  and  New  Orleans  regularly.  It  was 
several  years  after  steamboating  commenced  before  Mr.  Wiggins  dis- 
carded his  old  horse  ferry  and  put  on  a  steam  ferryboat.  These  changes 
threw  Mr.  Rivet  out  of  employment.  Indeed,  he  left  ferrying  when  the 
first  horse  ferryboat  was  bought. 

At  about  18  years  of  age  Mr.  R.  went  to  Jacksonville,  111.,  with  W.  L. 
Neay,  a  Kentuckian,  and  worked  for  him  three  years  on  a  farm.  Mr.  N. 
and  other  farmers  owned  slaves  and  worked  them. 

When  about  21  years  old  Mr.  Rivet  engaged  as  a  hand  on  a  keel  boat 
plying  between  St.  Louis  and  the  lead  mines  at  and  near  Galena,  111.  They 
carried  bacon,  corn,  flour  and  groceries,  etc.,  to  the  mines  and  returned 
with  the  lead  produced  to  St.  Louis  for  a  market.  He  continued  in  this 
business  for  several  summers,  and  labored  in  the  winter  at  other  employ- 

In  the  spring  of  1829,  Mr.  Rivet  was  employed  by  the  American  Fur 
Company  to  help  take  keel  boats  up  the  Missouri  river  to  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  which  were  loaded  with  goods  for  their  various  trading  posts 
along  the  upper  river.  The  boats  left  St.  Louis  in  March  under  the  com- 
mand of  Mr.  James  Kip  (Kipp)  and  arrived  at  Old  Fort  McKenzie,_  eight 
miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  Marias,  in  September  and  there  delivered 
their  cargoes. 

Mr.  R.  remained  at  the  fort  during  the  winter  of  1829-30  (1831-32),  and 
in  the  spring  accompanied  the  keel  boat,  which  was  loaded  with  the  furs, 
robes  and  peltries  that  had  been  traded  for  during  the  winter,  down  to 
Fort  Union.  Here  the  cargo  was  transferred  to  the  company's  stearner, 
if  one  had  arrived  from  St.  Louis,  or  if  not,  continued  on  down  the  river 
until  one  was  met,  when  the  transfer  was  usually  made;  but  if  out  of  the 
hostile  Indian  country,  would  continue  on  to  St.  Louis. 

From  Fort  Union  Mr.  Rivet  was  sent  with  a  party  of  trappers  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Shayenne  (Cheyenne)  river,  and  trapped  for  beaver,  otter 
and  mink  up  that  stream  and  across  the  country  to  the  forks  of  the  Platte 
river  near  to  where  the  North  Fork  joins  with  the  Laramie  river,  where 
the  company  had  a  fort  (Fort  William),  the  name  of  which  he  cannot 
remember.  'This  was  his  first  experience  as  a  trapper.  The  party  was 
very  successful,  for  beaver  were  very  plentiful.  Each  man  of  the  party 
was  provided  with  a  riding  and  pack  horse,  and  the  journey  was  both 
pleasant  and  profitable.  There  were  between  thirty  and  forty  men  in  this 
party  and.  being  well  armed,  they  were  strong  enough  to  protect  them- 
selves against  the  Indians  who  were  very  hostile. 

The  wages  of  a  trapper  were  $300.00  per  year,  and  he  must  buy  his  own 
clothing  and  kill  his  own  meat  while  trapping,  and  was  only  fed  by  the 
company  when  necessarily  detained  at  the  forts  by  it.  The  company  fur- 
nished the  arms,  ammunition,  traps  and  horses.  On  the  expedition  re- 
ferred to  above  one  Provo,  a  Canadian  Frenchman,  was  their  guide  and 
leader.  The  trappers  had  to  remain  at  this  fort  until  the  supplies  for  the 
Indian  trade  and  the  outfit  for  the  trappers  should  arrive  from  St.  Louis. 
This  detained  them  six  weeks  or  two  months,  but  they  lost  no  time  as  it 
was  summer  when  no  trapping  was  done. 

About  the  last  of  August  Mr.  Fontenelle.  who  had  charge  of  the  com- 
pany's post,  formed  a  party  of  trappers  to  go  west  across  the  mountains. 


The  party  numbered  about  150  men  and  were  commanded  by  Fontenelle 
himself,  Provo  still  being  the  guide.  The  party  traveled  up  the  Laramie, 
crossed  over  to  and  traveled  up  Green  river  and  met  at  the  rendezvous  on 
Snake  river  at  the  Old  Park  late  in  the  fall.  During  this  long  journey  the 
party  was  constantly  annoyed  by  hostiles  who  infested  the  route  through 
which  they  passed,  and  several  trappers  were  killed  in  the  numerous  attacks. 

On  arriving  at  the  rendezvous  on  Snake  river,  the  trappers  who  had  been 
staying  in  the  mountains  hunting,  met  them  with  great  quantities  of  furs 
which  they  had  taken.  When  all  were  thus  assembled  they  numbered  over 
five  hundred.  As  provisions  were  scarce  the  men  were  divided  into  small 
parties  of  from  thirty  to  fifty  each,  outfitted  and  assigned  to  different  streams 
to  engage  in  hunting  to  provide  themselves  with  provisions  until  spring 
should  open,  and  for  trapping  together  in  supporting  distance  of  each  other. 

After  the  winter  and  spring  campaign  of  trapping  was  over,  all  met  again 
at  the  rendezvous  on  Snake  river  and  brought  in  the  furs  they  had  taken. 
They  remained  at  or  near  the  rendezvous  during  the  summer  and  hunted 
deer,  elk  and  buffalo,  and  caught  fish  (for  they  had  to  find  their  own  pro- 
visions) until  about  the  15th  of  September,  when  they  again  went  out  in 
parties  for  the  fall  hunt  for  furs.  When  these  were  brought  in,  they  out- 
fitted for  the  winter  and  spring  hunt. 

The  reason  for  remaining  in  camp  from  May  until  September  was  that 
the  furs  taken  in  the  summer  were  not  of  good  quality. 

Mr.  Rivet  remained  in  the  mountains  hunting  and  trapping  in  the  summer 
for  the  companj'  for  three  years.  During  this  time,  besides  trapping  on 
Snake  river,  he  trapped  and  hunted  on  the  principal  tributaries  of  the 
Missouri  down  as  far  as  the  present  town  of  Gallatin  city,  also  on  the 
Deer  Lodge  river,  as  far  down  as  the  mouth  of  the  Little  Blackfoot. 

In  the  summer  of  1832,  while  the  party  of  trappers  to  which  Mr.  Rivet 
belonged  were  hunting  on  a  tributarj^  of  Snake  river,  they  discovered  a 
large  party  of  Indians  who  they  found  out  were  Blackfeet  coming  into  the 
valley  where  they  had  their  principal  camp.  They  immediately  sent  mes- 
sengers to  all  their  friends  to  come  into  their  rendezvous  at  once,  as  they 
apprehended  an  attack  from  the  Indians.  The  messengers  were  also  in- 
structed to  give  warning  to  all  parties  of  trappers  known  to  be  in  the  vicinity. 
In  a  short  time  all  their  own  friends  and  other  parties  had  arrived.  He 
remembered  that  to  their  great  joy,  Sublette  and  Campbell,  leaders  of  the 
rival  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company,  were  met  unexpectedly.  The  Indians 
were  astonished  to  find  so  many  white  men  gathered  together  so  suddenly 
when  they  had  seen  but  comparatively  few.  They  therefore  immediately 
fortified  themselves  in  the  edge  of  a  swampy  wood  and  awaited  the  attack 
of  the  whites,  which  was  not  delayed.  The  Indians  fought  bravely  from 
behind  their  log  and  brush  breastworks,  but  would  not  leave  it.  Their  fire 
was  returned  with  interest  by  the  trappers,  and  they  were  so  surrounded 
that  it  seemed  impossible  for  them  to  escape,  and  they  would  not  surrender. 
Several  white  men  had  been  killed  or  wounded.  Captain  Sublette  had  been 
shot  through  the  shoulder.  A  number  of  Indians  were  seen  to  fall.  Some 
were  killed  and  some  wounded.  The  fight  lasted  until  night,  when  the 
whites  withdrew  into  the  edge  of  the  woods,  determined  to  renew  the 
attack  on  the  fort  in  the  morning.  When  they  crept  through  the  woods 
and  brush  to  renew  the  fight  they  found  the  fort  deserted  and  the  Indians 
gone.  The  fight  had  been  bloody,  for  blood  could  be  seen  in  spots  all 
around.  A  number  of  dead  Indians  and  horses  were  found  in  the  enclosure. 
The  wounded  had  been  carried  away.  Several  white  men  were  killed  and 
wounded,  as  were  a  number  of  friendly  Indians  who  joined  in  the  fight. 
The  Blackfeet  did  not  attack  the  trappers  in  force  again.  They  would  only 
attack  from  ambush,  or  in  superior  numbers. 

(Note:  I  had  read  an  account  of  a  battle  in  Bonneville's  travels  which 
occurred  about  the  time  mentioned  by  Mr.  Rivet,  and  told  him  I  believed  it 
was  the  same.     On  my  return  home  I  consulted  Bonneville,  Chapter  VI, 


where  he  very  graphically  describes  the  battle  of  Pierre's  Hole,  and  1  am 
perfectly  satified  it  was  the  same  as  that  described  by  Rivet.— W.  F.  W.) 

(Rivet's  next  statement  checks  with  the  Wyeth  Correspondence  and 
Journals,  1831-36,  p.  196.  "May  29,  1833.  4  hunters  left  us  today  to  hunt 
beaver  in  the  Blackfoot  country,  Pellew,  Charloi,  Narbesse,  Rivey.") 

In  the  fall  of  his  third  year  as  trapper  and  hunter  (1833)  Mr.  Rivet 
trapped  up  Snake  river  and  on  the  headwaters  of  the  Missouri,  and  down 
that  stream  until  he  reached  the  company's  post  at  Old  Fort  McKenzie, 
from  which  he  had  been  absent  three  years  and  a  half.  For  ten  years 
thereafter  he  remained  in  the  employment  of  the  company  as  hunter,  scout 
and  messenger  for  the  fort. 

In  1843  Mr.  Rivet  left  the  service  of  the  company  and  went  to  Fort 
Garry  on  the  Red  River  of  the  North  in  British  America.  His  object  in 
going  there  was  to  place  his  three  daughters  in  the  Catholic  convent  to  be 

Mr.  Rivet  had  previously  married  Mary  Arnell,  a  halfbreed  Indian  woman 
whose  father's  name  is  given  to  an  island  in  the  Missouri  river  and  to 
Arnell's  creek  in  Chouteau  county.  By  her  he  had  the  three  daughters 
mentioned.  He  maintained  them  at  the  convent  for  fourteen  years,  and 
they  were  well  educated.  One  of  them  accompanied  the  Sisters  to  Elk 
Lake  in  the  British  N.  W.  Territory,  and  was  there  married.  He  has  never 
seen  her  or  her  children  since  they  parted  at  Fort  Garry.  The  youngest 
accompanied  him  to  Cypress  Mountain  on  a  trading  expedition  and  there 
died.  The  third  is  married  to  Mr.  Amiel  Paul,  a  farmer,  and  they  are  now 
living  on  the  Shonkin  in  Chouteau  county. 

Mr.  Rivet  himself  lived  in  British  America  for  seven  years.  He  pro- 
cured a  license  or  permit  from  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  to  trade  on  his 
own  account  in  any  part  of  their  territory  on  condition  of  selling  his  furs 
to  them  at  a  fixed  price.  He  purchased  his  supplies  mostly  at  "St.  Pauls' 
(Minn.)  as  the  old  trading  post  there  was  then  called.  He  traded  in 
various  parts  of  the  H.  B.  country,  and  had  a  post  one  year  on  the  shore 
of  Hudson's  Bay. 

Mr.  R.  returned  to  Montana  in  1850,  and  has  almost  constantly  smce 
been  employed  as  trader  at  various  posts,  and  as  interpreter  for  traders 
and  for  the  government,  for  which  he  is  peculiarly  well  qualified,  as  he 
is  familiar  with  everv  Indian  dialect  of  the  plains  and  the  mountains,  from 
St.  Louis  to  the  Rockies,  and  from  the  Platte  river  to  Hudson's  Bay. 
When  out  of  employment  he  hunts  and  traps  on  his  own  account. 

In  1866.  he  built  Fort  Hawley  on  the  Missouri  for  Hubbell  and  Hawley 
and  had  charge  of  it  for  one  year.  In  1867  he  built  a  trading  post  for 
himself  at  the  Big  Bend  of  Milk  river  and  traded  one  season  there.  In 
1868  he  was  employed  by  I.  G.  Baker  &  Co.  to  trade  and  interpret  for 
them  at  Fort  Browning.  In  1869  he  built  a  trading  post  at  Cypress  Moun- 
tain for  Alichael  Laugevine  and  Lorieau  of  Fort  Benton,  and  there  traded 
for  them  during  the  following  winter.  In  1871-2  he  interpreted  for  I.  G. 
Baker  &  Co.  at  their  post  eight  miles  above  Fort  Belknap  on  Milk  river. 
Since  that  time  Mr.  R.  has  worked  for  himself  at  various  places  in  the 
Spring  and  Summer,  but  when  September  comes  he  outfits  for  a  Fall  and 
Winter  campaign  of  hunting  and  trapping,  which  has  been  his  habit  for 
more  than  fifty  years  and  which  he  cannot  resist,  and  is  now,  at  the  age 
of  81  years,  preparing  for  another  trapping  expedition  with  all  the  ardor 
of  a  young  man,  as  soon  as  he  finishes  raking  up  the  hay  for  Tom 
O'Hanlon,  the  trader  at  Belknap,  which  will  be  about  the  first  of  Septem- 
ber. Last  spring  Mr.  R.  lost  his  cabin,  camping  outfit,  arms,  clothing  and 
provisions  and  many  valuable  furs  by  fire  during  his  temporary  absence 
from  home.  He  says  he  must  therefore  try  his  fortune  again  at  trapping 
and  hunting,  for  he  will  be  dependent  upon  no  one  as  long  as  he  can  do 
for  himself.  If  all  the  travels  and  adventures  of  this  sturdy  and  inde- 
pendent  old   trapper   could   be   recorded — his   many   battles   with   his   life- 


long  enemies,  the  Indians,  his  strategy  to  avoid  or  circumvent  them,  his 
skill  and  cunning  as  hunter  and  trapper,  his  contests  with  the  savage 
grizzly  bears,  whose  marks  he  carries,  his  sufferings  and  hardships  in  his 
many  years  of  travel — they  would  make  a  volume  of  true  adventure  and 
heroic  bravery  that  no  imaginary  story  could  surpass;  yet,  he,  like  most 
men  of  his  kind,  count  all  he  has  done  and  endured  as  but  the  common- 
place everyday  work  of  life.  Now  at  his  advanced  age  he  is  hale  and 
hearty,  and  looks  forward  to  a  winter  of  enjoyment  in  the  mountains 
alone  as  his  favorite  pursuit.  May  he  fully  realize  all  his  anticipations  of 
pleasure  and  profit,  for  such  men  as  he  have  made  it  possible  for  Montana 
to  be  settled  in  safety  from  savage  attacks,  and  her  people  to  build  up  for 
themselves  pleasant  and  happy  homes. 

Note:  Since  the  above  was  written  I  have  learned  that  Mr.  Rivet  went 
on  his  trapping  expedition  in  the  fall  of  1884,  and  in  about  three  months 
caught  beaver  enough  to  bring  him  $800  in  cash. — W.  F.  W. 

(Louis  Rivet  died  Dec.  31,  1902,  at  the  home  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Paul, 
who  was  living  on  Milk  river  at  the  time.  He  lacked  six  months  of 
reaching  the  century  mark. 

Rivet's  wife,  Mary  Arnell,  was  living  in  1925,  at  the  home  of  her  daugh- 
ter, Mrs.  Paul,  in  Browning.  Mary  Arnell  was  married  to  Rivet  at  12 
years  of  age,  so  she  claimed,  but  her  daughter,  Mrs.  Paul,  says  that  it 
could  not  have  been  before  1834,  (?)  which  was  the  year  Rivet  came  to  Fort 
McKenzie.  In  1876  or  1877  Mary  Arnell  married  another  Frenchman, 
Philip  Deschamps,  who  ran  a  saloon  in  Fort  Benton.  He  died  four  years 
later.  (Died  in  Fort  Benton,  July  9,  1891.)  Mrs.  Deschamps  made  her 
home  with  Mrs.'  Paul  from  1910  until  her  death.  Her  father  was  Augustus 
Hammell,  who  was  an  interpreter  at  Fort  Benton.  His  name  is  some- 
times given  as  Hamell,  Armell  and  Arnell.  Mrs.  Louise  Paul,  now  living 
at  Browning,  Montana,  is  the  daughter  of  Rivet  and  Mary  Arnell  and  was 
born  over  seventy  years  ago.) 

16  Horse  Guard.  An  employe  whose  work  was  to  guard  the  horses 
belonging  to  the  fort  from  theft  by  Indians. 

17  Tevis,  Mr.  (John  C).  John  C.  Tevis  of  St.  Louis  made  a  trip  up 
the  river  to  Fort  Benton  in  the  fall  of  1852  and  returned  in  September, 
1853,  in  a  mackinaw  boat  with  Lieutenant  Saxton  and  others  of  the  Stevens 
expedition.  A  merchant  of  this  name  was  listed  in  the  St.  Louis  directory 
from  1842  to  1855  and  since  it  was  said  that  he  was  traveling  for  his 
health  he  may  have  died  on  his  return  from  his  last  trip  in  1854. 

He  made  a  second  trip  to  Fort  Benton  in  the  summer  of  1854,  for 
Lieutenant  Doty  of  the  Stevens  expedition  said  that  Mr.  Tevis  of  St.  Louis 
who  was  coming  in  the  company  boat  to  spend  the  winter  at  Fort  Benton 
would  look  after  the  weather  observations  for  the  government  party  as 
Doty  had  to  leave.  Tevis  evidently  changed  his  mind  about  staying,  for 
Stevens  reported  that  he  returned  to  St.  Louis  early  in  the  winter  of 
1854-55,  which  would  agree  with  the  journal. 

18  Cadotte  (Pierre).  The  name  of  Cadotte  was  an  old  one  in  the  annals 
of  the  fur  trade,  for  Jean  Baptiste  Cadotte  who  married  an  Indian  woman 
in  1756  founded  a  family  whose  descendants  followed  the  frontier  to  the 
Pacific  ocean.  There  were  at  least  two  Cadottes  at  Fort  Benton  at  this 
time,  a  father  and  son,  and  the  father  may  have  been  the  Pierre  Cadotte 
for  whom  Stevens  named  the  pass.  On  Sept.  18,  1853,  he  wrote:  "We 
called  it  Cadotte's  pass  from  Cadotte,  one  of  our  guides  who  passed  over 
it  two  years  since."  This  pass,  in  the  Rocky  Mountains  between  the  head- 
waters of  the  Dearborn  and  Blackfoot  rivers,  is  still  known  as  Cadotte's 

Pierre  was,  no  doubt,  the  man  whom  Kurz  described  as  the  "best  stag 
hunter  in   this   region.      He   is   a   genuine   'mountaineer,'    possessing   to   a 


marked  degree  both  their  good  and  their  less  favorable  qualities.  He  is 
unrivaled  in  the  skill  of  starting,  pursuing,  approaching,  shooting  and 
carving  a  deer.  In  other  respects  he  is  heedless,  wasteful  and  fool-hardy 
— half^Canadian  and  half  Cree."  ,  .       ^    ,  ,•    i   >t 

From  the  Chambers  journal  we  learn  that  the  older  Cadotte  died  Nov. 
17    1855    from  the  accidental  discharge  of  his  gun  while  hunting  with  his 
son  near   Fort  Union.     The   Indians   say  that   the   great   "Pierre   Cadotte 
who  discovered  the  pass  of  that  name  died  of  tuberculosis  at  the   Badger 
Creek  agency  on  the  Blackfoot  reservation  in  1873. 

A   Peter  Cadotte  was  a  witness  to  the   Blackfoot   treaty,   Benton,   Sept. 
1,  1868,  as  an  interpreter.     The  1870  census  for  Fort  Benton  included: 
'  Louis  Cadotte,  45  years  old,  halfbreed,  born  in  Montana. 

Peter  Cadotte,  30  years  old,  halfbreed,  born  in  Montana. 

if>  Paul.  There  were  several  men  of  this  name  on  the  Upper  Missouri 
in  the  50's  and  earlier.  Paul  Pellot,  a  mulatto,  was  a  pilot  on  the  mackinaw 
boats  for  many  years.  E.  A.  C.  Hatch  mentioned  one  Paul  who  was 
employed  on  the  trip  from  Fort  Union  to  Fort  Benton,  July,  1856. 

Paul  Polache  (Pellot?)  was  one  of  the  pilots  for  the  two  mackinaw 
boats  that  brought  the  government  goods  from  Fort  Union  to  the  council 
grounds  at  the  Judith. 

20  Little  Dog— 1866.  Little  Dog,  a  Piegan  chief,  was  described  by  W.  T. 
Hamilton  as  a  "fine  looking  specimen  of  an  Indian  chief,  over  six  feet  in 
height,  straight  as  an  arrow."  Vaughan  said  he  was  considered  to  be  one 
of  the'  bravest  and  proudest  Indians  on  the  plains.  Governor  Stevens 
reported  him  to  be  a  man  of  character  and  probity. 

He  and  his  son  were  murdered  near  Benton,  May  28,  1866,  by  Indians 
led  by  Three  Sons.  He  was  buried  at  Fort  Benton.  According  to  one 
report,  he  was  a  first  cousin  of  Mrs.  Culbertson. 

21  Blood  Indians.     See  Note  32.     Blackfeet  Indians. 

HUGH  MONROE.     1784-1892 

A  Brief  Sketch  of  the  Life  of  the  Oldest  Man  in  Montana- 
Still  Vigorous  at  106  Years  of  Age. 
(From  The  River  Press,  Feb.  19,  1890) 

22  The  subject  of  this  sketch,  whose  portrait  appears  above,  now  lives  on 
Two  Medicine  Lodge  creek,  near  the  Piegan  Indian  agency,  in  the  north- 
western part  of  Choteau  county,  and  is  the  oldest  old-timer  in  Montana. 
He  was  born  near  Montreal,  Canada,  May  4,  1784,  and  is  therefore  in  his 
106th  year.  His  father,  also  named  Hugh,  was  a  captain  in  the  French 
army  in  Canada,  and  his  mother,  whose  maiden  name  was  Sophie  Larue, 
was  born  in  Canada  when  that  country  was  under  French  dominion.  In 
his  youth  Hugh  received  a  good  education,  having  attended  the  English 
school  at  Montreal  for  three  years  and  the  Priests'  college  over  four  years. 

When  he  was  eighteen  years  of  age,  at  the  solicitation  of  a  half  brother, 
Joseph  Larock,  who  was  then  in  the  employ  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company 
in  the  "Indian  territories."  Hugh  went  "west"  and  was  given  the  position 
of  apprentice-clerk  at  the  Edmonton  House,  one  of  the  company  s  forts 
on  the  Saskatchewan  river.  He  remained  in  the  company's  employ  three 
years  and  at  the  age  of  twenty-one  married  a  Blackfoot  woman.  At  this 
time  Hugh  had  a  disagreement  with  the  company's  governor  of  that  dis- 
trict, who  seems  to  have  been  rather  a  harsh  individual,  and  he  determined 
to  join  the  Indians,  among  whom  he  has  lived  ever  since,  and  until  recently 
his  home  has  been  with  the  Kootenais.  ,,        ,        r  , 

He  speaks  various  Indian  languages  and  as  a  sign  talker  has  tew  equals. 
In    1832,    Hugh,   having   heard   from   some   Indians  of   the   arrival   of   the 


American  Fur  Company's  traders  at  the  mouth  of  the  Marias,  made  a 
long  journey  from  his  northern  home,  accompanied  by  his  wife,  to  visit 
them  and  to  lay  in  a  stock  of  tobacco  and  other  necessaries.  In  1836,  being 
then  with  his  friends,  the  Kootenais,  he  discovered  and  christened  St. 
Mary's  lake.     He  erected  a  larj?e  cross  there  at  that  time. 

Between  this  and  1853  he  continued  his  roving  life,  making  occasional 
trips  to  Fort  Benton  and  other  outposts,  and  became  known  far  and  wide 
as  a  man  of  great  influence  among  the  restless  northwestern  tribes.  In 
1853  he  acted  as  interpreter  and  guide  for  Governor  Stevens'  survey  party 
from  Fort  Benton  to  Walla  Walla,  from  where  he  again  went  back  to  the 

The  old  man  is  quite  vigorous  and  manages  to  get  around  fully  as  lively 
as  his  two  sons  with  whom  he  now  lives,  the  older  of  whom  is  now  75 
years  of  age.  He  mounts  a  horse  with  the  agility  of  a  boy  and  goes  with 
them  to  the  mountains  for  wood,  and  never  fails  to  catch  a  mess  of  trout. 
Often  he  visits  the  agency  and  to  see  him  stepping  along  as  briskly  as  a 
man  of  forty  is  surprising,  considering  the  life  of  exposure  and  danger  he 
has  led.  Not  long  since  while  crossing  the  square  enclosure  of  the  agency 
he  met  a  very  feeble,  decrepit  old  man  by  the  name  of  Burd,  who  was 
barely  able  to  get  along  with  his  stick  and  the  assistance  of  his  wife,  and 
who  is  about  90  years  of  age.  Having  passed  him,  Mr.  Monroe  turned 
quickly  around,  saying:  "Poor  man!  He's  getting  pretty  old  and  I  feel 
sorry  for  him." 

Hugh  is  the  father  of  ten  children,  only  three  of  whom  are  living.  His 
wife  died  on  Upper  Sun  river  at  an  extreme  old  age  fourteen  years  ago. 
When  asked  if  he  ever  thought  of  marrying  again  he  replied,  "Well,  I'm 
getting  rather  well  along  in  years,  but  if  I  could  find  a  woman  to  my  taste 
I  would  try  to  get  her,  and  you  bet  I  would  make  her  a  good  husband,  too." 

Mr.  Monroe  has  used  tobacco  from  boyhood  and  once  in  a  while  takes  a 
little  spirits,  but  he  has  never  been  intemperate.  Meat  has  been  his  prin- 
cipal diet.  He  yet  has  his  old  flint  lock  gun,  a  smooth  bore  of  great  length, 
with  which  he  has  killed  almost  every  variety  of  game  known  to  the  North 
American  continent.  He  has  participated  in  many  conflicts  with  hostile 
tribes,  and  has  had  many  hair  breadth  escapes  and  thrilling  adventures, 
many  of  which  will  be  given  in  book  form  in  a  history  of  his  life  which 
will  soon  be  published.  He  carries  on  his  person  the  scars  of  several  old 
arrow  wounds  and  is  blind  in  his  left  eye.  The  latter  injury  is  the  result 
of  a  personal  encounter  forty  j^ears  ago  with  a  Sioux  Indian.  Mr.  Monroe 
never  belonged  to  a  Montana  legislature,  which,  with  his  other  temperate 
traits,  may  account  for  his  longevity. 

Hugh  Monroe  died  at  Milk  river,  Dec.  7,  1892,  aged  109  years;  buried  at 
Holy  Family  Mission  graveyard,  Dec.  9.  1892.  (Records  of  the  Holy 
Family  Mission.) 

23  Little  Grey  Head.  The  Little  Grey  Head  was  one  of  the  principal 
chiefs  of  the  Piegan  Indians,  according  to  the  report  of  E.  A.  C.  Hatch, 
agent  for  the  Blackfoot  Indians,  in  1856.  He  signed  the  Blackfoot  treaty 
of  Oct.  17,  1855,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  river. 


24  James  Bird,  Sr.,  was  born  in  Acton,  Middlesex  county,  England,  about 
1773  and  entered  the  service  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  at  York 
Factory  in  1788.  From  that  date  until  his  retirement  in  1824  he  was  em- 
ployed by  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  in  the  Saskatchewan  river  section 
and  in  the  latter  years  of  his  service  was  governor  of  this  district.  Alex- 
ander Henry  met  Bird  and  his  Indian  family  in  1809  near  Cumberland 
House.  The  mother  of  these  children  may  have  been  the  Indian  woman 
he  married  March  30,  1821.  who  died  in  October,  1834.  He  had  three  half- 
breed  sons,  James,  Joseph  and  Nicholas.     After  his  retirement  from  the 


fur  trade  he  lived  in  the  Red  River  Settlement,  married  a  white  woman, 
Mrs.  Mary  Lowman,  in  1835  and  had  two  sons  by  this  marriage.  One  of 
these  sons,  Dr.  James  Curtis  Bird,  was  speaker  of  the  Manitoba  Legis- 
lature 1873-74.  James  Bird,  Sr.,  held  several  important  government 
positions  in  Manitoba  and  died  in  Winnipeg,  Oct.  18,  1856,  and  was  buried 
in  the  churchyard  of  the  old  cathedral. 

Joseph  Bird,  born  in  1800,  joined  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  in  1815, 
employed  in  the  Edmonton  district,  1818-19,  an  active  and  industrious 
young  man.  In  1819  returned  to  the  Red  River  colony  and  was  baptized, 
Jan.  12,  1826.  (Colin  Robertson's  Letters,  1817-1822,  pub.  1940.)  Nicholas 
G.  Bird  went  to  Oregon  with  the  Red  River  immigration  in  1841. 

James  Bird  may  have  been  the  oldest  son  of  the  first  marriage,  for  he 
was  with  Pierre  C.  Pambrun  in  1816,  who  was  in  charge  of  a  brigade  of 
five  boats  for  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  when  both  were  taken  prisoners 
by  the  Northwest  people  at  the  time  of  the  attack  on  the  Selkirk  Settle- 
ment by  men  of  the  Northwest  Company.  In  the  hearing  that  was  held 
later  Bird  gave  his  testimony  as  to  the  capture  of  the  men  and  boats  and 
also  his  version  of  the  talk  made  by  one  of  their  Indian  captors.  This 
would  indicate  that  in  1816  he  was  old  enough  to  occupy  a  position  of 
some  responsibility  and  understood  the  Indian  language.  His  age  at  the 
time  of  his  death  in  1892  was  given  as  107  years,  which  would  make  the 
year  of  his  birth  1785  and  his  father  eight  years  old  at  that  time.  He  may 
have  been  born  between  1790  and  1800  and  about  18  or  20  years  old  in 
1816  when  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Northwest  Company  employes. 

The  next  mention  of  James  Bird,  Jr.,  is  in  the  Fort  Tecumseh  (later 
Fort  Pierre),  S.  D.,  Journal,  when  he  was  interpreter  for  the  American 
Fur  Company: 

"April  27,  1832:  Messrs.  McKenzie,  Kipp  and  Bird  with  nine  Blackfeet 
arrived  in  a  bateau  from  Fort  Union. 

"May  1,  1832:  Mr.  Bird  and  the  Blackfeet  Indians  left  here  in  the 
morning  on  a  visit  to  the  Sioux  camp. 

"May  4,  1832:  Mr.  Bird  and  the  Indians  returned  from  the  Sawon 
(Siouan)    camp." 

Maximilian  met  him  at  Fort  McKenzie  in  August,  1833,  and  described 
him  as:  "Bird,  a  halfbreed,  a  treacherous,  very  dangerous  man  who  had 
great  influence  over  the  Blackfeet  .  .  .  had  been  with  the  American  Fur 
Company,  then  with  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  and  cheated  both  ...  a 
tall,  strong  man.  brownish  complexion,  thick  black  hair,  spoke  Blackfoot 
language  fluently.  In  1833  he  was  not  in  the  service  of  either  company 
but  trapping  beaver  and  hunting  on  his  own  account."  Bird  set  up  his 
tent  among  the  poplars  near  Black  Chief's,  of  the  Blackfoot  Indians,  lodge 
and  visited  the  fort  frequently.  He  annoyed  the  people  there  by  telling 
them  that  he  was  about  to  make  a  trip  to  the  north,  presumably  to  the 
forts  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  who  were  the  rivals  of  the  American 
company,  for  the  trade  of  the  Blackfoot  Indians.  There  was  a  suspicion 
that  he  aroused  the  hostility  of  the  Indians  toward  one  another  and  the 
"company."  At  this  time  bands  of  the  Blood  and  Blackfoot  Indians  visited 
the  fort  and  the  traders  endeavored  to  keep  peace  between  the  Indians 
and  maintain  friendly  relations  on  the  part  of  the  company  and  the  various 
tribes.  This  called  for  continual  demonstrations  of  good  will  and  gen- 
erosity on  the  part  of  the  "company." 

David  Mitchell,  the  chief  trader,  angered  Bird  by  refusing  to  sell  him 
one  of  his  best  horses.  An  Indian  told  the  traders  later  that  Bird  had 
endeavored  to  get  the  Indians  to  go  north  with  their  furs.  Since  Bird 
had  assured  Mitchell  he  would  use  his  influence  for  the  American  com- 
pany it  was  evident  that  he  was  insincere  and  dangerous.  As  the  company 
felt  none  too  secure  in  the  friendship  of  the  Blackfoot  Indians  and  the 
fear  of  losing  their  trade  to  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  was  always  with 
them,  such  an  individual  could  be  a  real  menace.     Maximilian  thought  "it 


would  be  highly  important  to  the  company  to  deprive  this  dangerous, 
influential  halfbreed  of  the  power  of  injuring  them."  Was  he  suggesting 
that  the  company  have  Bird  murdered? 

The  Battle  of  Pierre's  Hole,  July  18,  1832,  between  the  Blackfoot  Indians 
on  the  one  side  and  the  white  traders  and  hunters,  the  Flathead  and  Nez 
Perce  Indians  on  the  other,  was  precipitated  by  the  treacherous  murder 
of  a  Blackfoot  by  Antoine  Godin  and  a  Flathead.  As  the  Indian  advanced 
under  a  truce,  Godin,  as  he  clasped  the  hand  of  the  Blackfoot,  motioned 
to  the  Flathead  to  shoot  him.  This  was  Godin's  revenge  for  the  murder 
of  his  father  by  the   Blackfoot   Indians  some  years  previous. 

In  the  summer  of  1836  a  band  of  Blackfoot  Indians  led  by  a  white  man 
named  Bird  appeared  across  the  river  from  Fort  Hall  and  their  leader 
signalled  Godin  to  cross  over  to  them  with  a  canoe  as  thej^  had  beaver  to 
trade.  Godin,  alone  in  the  canoe,  landed  near  the  Indians  and  smoked 
the  pipe  of  peace  with  them.  While  he  smoked  the  pipe  in  his  turn  Bird 
signalled  to  an  Indian  behind  Godin  who  shot  him  in  the  back.  Bird 
scalped  him  while  he  was  still  alive  and  cut  Wyeth's  initials  N  J  W  in 
large  letters  upon  his  forehead.  He  then  called  to  the  fort  people  to  bury 
the  carcass  and  went  off  with  his  party.  N.  J.  Wyeth  was  in  charge  of 
Fort  Hall  at  the  time.  This  was  the  account  that  John  McLeod  of  the 
Hudson's  Bay  Company  gave  to  John  K.  Townsend  at  Fort  Walla  Walla, 
Sept.  1,  1836.  McLeod  said  Bird  had  been  with  Hudson's  Bay  Company, 
taken  prisoner  by  the  Blackfoot  and  had  lived  with  them  ever  since,  was 
a  great  chief  and  leader  of  their  war  parties.  He  had  a  feud  with  Godin 
and  had  sworn  to  kill  him  at  the  first  opportunity. 

It  was  several  years  later  that  John  Dunn  (The  Oregon  Territory, 
pub.  1844)  heard  Mr  M'Kay  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  tell  the  story 
of  Bird  in  the  "bachelors'  hall"  of  Fort  Vancouver.  "This  young  Bird 
was  a  son  of  a  Mr.  Bird,  a  gentleman  some  years  ago  in  the  service  of  the 
company.  He  had  received  a  fair  education  and  could  converse  in  French 
and  English  and  had  been  employed  for  a  time  by  the  company  but  found 
the  work  too  hard  and  joined  the  Blackfoot  Indians,  was  made  a  chief 
and  became  a  prominent  man  in  the  tribe.  He  was  called  by  the  trappers 
"Jemmy  Jock"  and  was  much  disliked  by  the  American  trappers  and  it 
was  said  a  reward  of  $500  had  been  offered  for  his  head  as  he  was  sup- 
posed to  have  been  a  leader  of  a  band  of  Blackfoot  that  cut  off  an  Ameri- 
can party  and  killed  a  number  of  the  men.  At  that  time  (1840)  he  had 
been  living  with  the  Blackfoot  20  years.  M'Kay  said  one  time  when  his 
party  was  in  camp  he  thought  there  were  Blackfeet  in  the  country  because 
of  certain  signs  and  accordingly  gave  strict  orders  to  the  Canadians  on 
watch  to  be  alert.  .  .  .  But  Jemmy  Jock,  dressed  as  a  Canadian  voyageur, 
came  into  the  camp  unobserved,  walked  up  to  the  chief  guard  and,  speak- 
ing to  him  in  Canadian  French,  said  he  had  'received  orders  that  the 
horses  which  were  in  camp  should  be  turned  out  to  graze.'  The  watch- 
man thought  the  order  came  from  M'Kay  and  ordered  the  horses  turned 
out.  Soon  the  camp  was  aroused  by  the  Blackfoot  warwhoop;  some  of 
the  horses  were  mounted  by  the  Indians  and  others  driven  off  before  them. 
The  trappers  were  left  to  make  their  way  afoot  as  best  they  could. 

"One  of  his  jokes  was  to  leave  a  letter  tied  to  a  stick  for  the  benefit  of 
a  trapper  who  might  pass  that  way.  He  would  state  that  he  had  camped 
there  a  short  time  before  and  give  information  which  at  one  time  would 
be  true  and  valuable  and  again  false  and  misleading,  and  the  unfortunate 
trapper  who  believed  the  letter  might  find  himself  misled." 

Mr.  Rundle,  an  English  Wesleyan  missionary  to  the  Indians  near  Fort 
Edmonton,  had  as  an  interpreter  in  1841-46  "a  Mr.  Bird,  the  halfbreed 
son  of  a  chief  factor,"  who  may  have  been  James  or  one  of  his  brothers, 
but  Rundle's  entry  in  his  diary  for  April  21,  1841,  would  indicate  that  it 
was  James:  "Among  the  Blackfeet.  Saw  my  interpreter  and  asked  him 
if  he  intended  speaking  for  me  and  he  refused."     This  surly  answer  was 


typical  of  Bird.  In  his  entry  for  May  31,  1846,  Rundle  wrote:  "Service 
was  held  in  Mr.  Bird's  tent  when  about  65  were  present."  Again,  June  28, 
1846,"  "In  this  neighborhood  (Banff)  lies  buried  a  half-caste  girl,  a  daughter 
of  Mr.  Bird,  who  I  trust  to  meet  in  My  Father's  House  above.  I  baptized 
her  at  Rocky  Mountain  House  and  she  made  a  hopeful  end.  She  took 
great  delight  in  religion  and  once  when  prayers  were  held  in  her  father's 
tent  and  she  was  unable  to  sit  up  without  assistance,  she  was  held  in  her 
father's  arms  so  that  she  could  take  part." 

Father  De  Smet  on  a  journey  in  search  of  the  Blackfoot  Indians  met 
Bird  at  Fort  Edmonton  in  1845  and  the  missionary  wrote  in  his  letter  of 
Oct.  30,  1845:  "My  greatest  perplexity  is  to  find  a  good  and  faithful  inter- 
preter; the  only  one  now  at  the  fort  (Bird)  is  a  suspicious  and  dangerous 
man;  all  his  employers  speak  ill  of  him — he  makes  fine  promises.  In  the 
alternative  ...  I  accept  his  services. 

"Dec.  31,  1845.  On  the  31st  of  October  I  took  leave  of  Mr.  Harriotte 
.  .  .  my  interpreter  did  not  long  leave  me  in  doubt  of  his  true  char- 
acter ...  he  became  sullen  and  peevish,  always  choosing  to  halt  in  those 
places  where  the  poor  beasts  of  burden  could  find  nothing  to  eat.  .  .  The 
farther  we  penetrated  into  the  desert,  the  more  and  more  sulky  he  became. 
It  was  impossible  to  draw  from  him  a  single  pleasant  word,  and  his  in- 
coherent mutterings  and  allusions  became  subjects  of  serious  apprehension. 
Thus  passed  ten  sorrowful  days;  my  last  two  nights  had  been  nights  of 
anxiety  and  watching;  when  fortunately  I  encountered  a  Canadian  with 
his  family,  on  whom  I  prevailed  to  remain  with  me  some  time.  The 
following  day  my  interpreter  disappeared  .  .  .  beware  of  placing  your 
dependence  upon  a  morose  halfbreed,  especially  if  he  has  been  for  some 
time  a  resident  among  the  savages;  for  such  men  usually  possess  all  the 
faults  of  the  white  man  joined  to  the  cunning  of  the  Indian.  .  .  ." 

John  Rowand,  chief  factor  at  Fort  Edmonton,  wrote  to  De  Smet,  Dec. 
3,  1845:  "Beware,  my  good  sir,  of  your  interpreter  Bird.  He  hates  every- 
thing connected  with  the  French  or  Canadians.  Munroe  (Hugh  Munro) 
is  not  a  bad  sort  of  man,  but  I  cannot  recommend  him  as  fit  to  interpret 
what  you  have  to  say  to  the  natives.  Munroe  does  well  enough  at  a 
trading  post  and  the  shop." 

J.  E.  Harriott,  factor  at  Rocky  Mountain  House  on  the  North  Fork  of 
the  Saskatchewan  river,  wrote  in  a  letter  to  De  Smet,  March  30,  1846: 
"We  have  seen  a  great  number  of  Blackfeet  and  Surcess,  since  I  last 
wrote,  but  nothing  of  Bird  or  Munroe.  I  am  very  doubtful  whether  we 
shall  see  them  from  what  the  Assiniboin  who  saw  them  last  say  about 

Paul  Kane,  the  Canadian  artist,  found  Jemmy  Jock,  a  Cree  half-breed, 
in  temporary  charge  of  Rocky  Mountain  House  when  he  visited  there  in 
April,  1848.  Though  neither  (latholic  nor  Protestant  missionaries  had  any 
respect  for  Jemmy  Jock  and  gave  him  a  bad  reputation  throughout  the 
country,  Kane  found  him  hospitable  and  trustworthy.  He  was  told  that 
the  trader  had  been  sent  out  by  the  "Company"  many  years  before  to 
learn  the  Blackfoot  language  to  help  with  the  trade,  but  he  had  married 
a  chief's  daughter  and  liking  the  life  of  the  Indian  so  well  left  the  service 
of  the  "Company"  to  live  with  the  Indians.  Kane  learned  much  of  the 
customs  of  the  tribe  from  Jemmy  Jock,  who  had  lived  with  them  thirty 
or  forty  years. 

Thomas  Pambrun,  son  of  Pierre  C.  Pambrun  of  the  H.  B.  Company, 
published. a  series  of  reminiscences  in  the  Teton  Times  (Choteau,  Montana) 
and  in  one  of  these  articles  he  would,  if  it  were  not  for  one  or  two  state- 
ments, appear  to  be  describing  James  Bird.  In  the  issue  of  Alarch  4,  1893, 
he  wrote:  "On  these  plains  (east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains)  roamed  the 
most  treacherous,  cruel,  and  therefore  dreaded  man.  His  name  was  James 
Bard  (Bird)  alias  Jim  My  Joke  (Jemmy  Jock?).  Educated  in  England,  a 
finely  proportioned  man,  very  fair  for  a  halfbreed  and  his  beautiful  tresses 


hung  down  to  his  shoulders.  He  was  undoubtedly  the  finest  specimen 
of  a  man  I  ever  saw.  Disagreeing  with  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  he 
joined  the  Indians,  first  one  tribe  and  then  another  as  his  whim  or 
imaginary  injuries  or  concocted  schemes  dictated.  He  had  women  and 
children  in  every  tribe  and  wherever  he  headed  was  victorious.  The  asso- 
ciation with  his  name  was  enough.  He  was  therefore  courted  by  all,  even 
by  the  company  who  paid  him  stipulated  sums  in  goods  annually  to  keep 
peace.  His  movements  were  closely  watched  by  all  inimical  tribes  and 
trappers  as  well.  He  has  been  known  to  go  as  far  south  as  Snake  river 
in  the  vicinity  of  Fort  Boise." 

Pambrun  heard  of  these  exploits  at  Fort  Edmonton  on  his  journey  east 
to  Fort  Garry  and  did  not  give  the  date,  but  it  was  between  1840  and 
1850.  James  Doty  of  the  Stevens  expedition  wrote  to  Governor  I.  I. 
Stevens,  Dec.  28,  1853:  "Good  interpreters  for  the  government  are  very 
difficult  to  procure,  because  such  can  get  higher  wages  from  the  traders 
than  the  government  pays.  The  only  man  I  can  at  present  recommend 
is  a  Mr.  Bird.  He  is  a  halfbreed,  English  and  Blackfoot;  is  an  elderly 
man,  respectable  and  intelligent,  and  the  best  interpreter  in  the  country. 
He  may  not  wish  the  situation  of  interpreter  at  the  agency,  but  can,  no 
doubt,  be  engaged  for  a  council." 

In  the  squabbling  between  Governor  Stevens  and  Commissioner  Gum- 
ming at  the  Judith  council  Culbertson  was  accused  by  Stevens  of  being 
too  friendly  with  Gumming.  Culbertson  felt  that  he  was  wronged  by 
Stevens  and  refused  to  act  as  interpreter  for  the  Blackfoot  Indians  at  the 
council,  his  place  being  taken  by   Bird. 

James  Bord  (Bird)  was  at  the  Fort  Belknap  Indian  agency  in  1873-74, 
but  returned  to  the  Blackfoot  reservation  in  his  extreme  old  age.  It  would 
seem  that  Bird  acquired  respectability  with  age  and  the  malicious  pranks 
of  "Jemmj'  Jock"  were  ended.  From  the  comments  of  Chambers  who 
called  him  "old  Bird"  and  Doty  who  said  he  was  an  "elderly  man"  he 
was  an  old  man  in  1855  but  he  was  still  alive  and  with  the  Blackfoot 
Indians  in   1890.     (See  Note  22 — Hugh  Munro.) 

In  the  Choteau  Montanian,  Dec.  16,  1892,  appeared  the  following  item: 
"The  oldest  person  on  the  reservation  is  a  white  man  named  Burd,  whose 
age  is  said  to  be  94.  Mr.  Burd,  however,  lacks  the  vigor  of  strength  always 
displayed  by  Munroe,  and  it  is  hardly  probable  that  Burd  will  ever  attain 
the  extreme  age  of  the  pioneer  who  just  passed  away." 

The  records  of  the  Holy  Family  Mission  on  Two  Medicine  creek  contain 
the  following:  "James  Bird,  halfbreed,  died  Dec.  11,  1892,  and  was  buried 
in  the  Holy  Family  Mission  graveyard,  Dec.  13.  1892,  age  107  years.  Died 
before  priest  could  reach  him.     Place  of  birth  is  given  as  Winnipeg." 

When  Mr.  John  B.  Ritch  inquired  concerning  Bird  on  a  visit  to  Brown- 
ing, Montana,  March,  1940,  he  was  told  by  Eli  Guardipee  that  James  Bird 
was  a  white  man,  who  spoke  the  Blackfoot  language  fluently  and  acted 
as  chief  interpreter  at  the  treaty  of  1855.  He  was  married  to  Hawk 
Woman,  a  Blackfoot  squaw.  He  ranged  over  great  areas  of  the  Northwest 
and  was  known  in  the  British  territory  as  "Jim  Jack." 


25  The  Champaignes  were  French  Canadians  and  probably  Baptiste  and 
Michel  were  brothers.  Both  had  been  with  the  Upper  Missouri  posts  for 
many  years,  but  Michel  held  more  responsible  positions  than  Baptiste  and 
was  better  paid. 

Baptiste  or  Jean  Baptiste,  which  was  his  full  name,  was  at  the  Blackfoot 
post  in  the  summer  of  1844,  as  he  was  a  witness  against  Moncrevie  that 
year  for  giving  liquor  to  the  men  on  the  boat  going  up  the  river.  He  was 
often  pilot  of  the  boats  used  by  the  company.  There  was  also  a  younger 
Jean  Baptiste,  son  of  Michel,  who  was  born  about  1834,  baptized  by  Father 


Hoecken  at  Fort  Union,  June  28,  1840,  at  the  age  of  six  years.  He  acted 
as  interpreter  for  Father  Point  in  the  fall  of  1846  when  he  visited  the 
Piegan  camp  near  Fort  Benton.  He  may  have  been  the  Baptiste  Cham- 
paigne  who  acted  as  guide  for  the  Stevens  party  in  1853  from  Fort  Benton 
to  the  Bitter  Root  valley. 

The  Blackfoot  treaties  of  Nov.  16,  1865,  and  Sept.  1,  1868,  at  Benton, 
were  witnessed  by  a  Baptiste  Champaigne  as  an  interpreter,  who  could 
have  been  either  of  these  men.  The  census  of  Chouteau  county,  Montana 
territory,  1870,  has  a  Baptiste  Champaigne,  aged  30  years,  white,  born  in 
Canada,  and  the  poll  list  for  Chouteau  county,  Oct.  24,  1864,  included  a 
Baptiste  Champaigne. 

Pete  Champaigne,  who  died  near  Dupuyer,  Montana,  in  March,  1899, 
was  born  at  Fort  Benton  in  1867,  the  son  of  Baptiste  Champaigne  who 
had  been  in  the  employ  of  the  St.  Louis  Fur  Company  for  many  years 
and  who  died  at  Chouteau  in  1886. 


26  This  man,  according  to  the  baptismal  records  of  Father  Point  when 
Champaigne  acted  as  godfather  for  some  of  the  people  baptized  at  Fort 
Benton,  was  the  son  of  Simon  and  Lizette  Champagne  of  the  Mackinaw 
district  of  Michigan,  but  the  Michael  Champagne  who  was  married  to 
the  Indian  woman,  Marie  Nitchetoaki,  Dec.  27,  1846,  at  Benton  by  Father 
Point,  was  described  as  the  son  of  Louis.  Father  Point  in  his  journal  of 
his  trip  down  the  river  from  Fort  Benton  in  the  spring  of  1847  when 
Michel  was  pilot  of  the  boat,  wrote:  "Michel  Champagne,  who  was  then 
(1833)  and  still  is  captain  of  the  barge.  .  .  .  Always  the  first  at  duty,  he 
gave  to  the  others  an  example  of  patience  and  courage.  ...  He  was 
equipped  with  stature,  strength  quite  beyond  the  ordinary,  everything 
contributed  to  give  the  rowers  an  esteem  for  his  person." 

The  name  of  Michel  Champaigne  appears  on  the  American  Fur  Com- 
pany ledger  June  7,  1829,  in  the  equipment  list.  During  his  service  with 
the  company  he  held  positions  of  some  responsibility,  such  as  store- 
keeper, and  was  also  a  trader  on  his  own  account.  In  the  St.  Louis  ledgers 
of  the  P.  Chouteau,  Jr.,  and  Company  his  balance  in  the  Dec.  31,  1852, 
entry  was  $4120.79,  and  that  year,  July  31,  he  was  charged  with  the  sum 
of  $112.70  for  payment  of  his  daughter's  expenses  at  the  Sacred  Heart 
convent  near  St.  Louis.  This  was  probably  the  daughter  that  C.  W.  Frush 
met  at  Fort  Benton  in  the  fall  of  1858  when  he  was  there  with  Major 
Owen.  Her  father,  in  the  absence  of  Mr.  Dawson,  was  in  charge  of  the 
post  and  Miss  Champaigne,  who  had  just  returned  from  school  in  St.  Louis, 
was  dressed  in  the  latest  style  and  an  intelligent,  interesting  young  lady. 
She  may  have  been  the  little  girl,  Josette,  of  whom  Father  Point  wrote, 
who  was  born  about  1839  at  a  trading  post  on  the  Missouri  river  below 
Milk  river.  She  and  her  little  sister,  Mary,  were  among  the  most  devout 
of  Father  Point's  charges  and  he  felt  that  their  piety  would  justify  his 
stay  with  the  Indians. 

Michel  Champaigne  was  included  in  the  list  of  men  living  at  Benton 
in  the  winter  of  1862-63  and,  no  doubt,  died  near  there  or  on  the  reserva- 
tion since  he  was  an  old  man  at  that  time. 

ST  Hamils  Houses.  A  winter  trading  camp  of  Augustin  Hamell  on  the 
Marias  river  between  Dry  Fork  and  Birch  creek. 

AUGUSTIN  HAMELL.     1800-1859,   1860 

-"A  Augustin  Hamell,  the  son  of  Augustin  and  Maria  Louisa  La  Motte 
Hamell  of  Canada,  was  married  to  Helena  (Pehama  et  Scienike)  Dec.  27, 
1846,  by  Father  Point  at  Fort  Benton.  They  had  been  married  a  number 
of  years  previously  by  Indian  custom  and  had  several  children  who  were 
baptized   by    Father    Point   in      the   winter   of    1846-47.      Hamell    had   one 


daughter,  Margaret,  by  a  previous  marriage,  who  married  first  Louis  Rivet 
and  second,  a  Mr.  Deschamps.  There  were  ten  children  of  Hamell's 
second  marriage,  and  one  daughter,  Mrs.  Susan  Arnoux,  is  Hving  today 
(1940)   at  Browning,  Montana. 

Hamell's  name  is  spelled  in  various  fashions,  Hamelin,  Hamell,  Ham- 
mell,  Ammell  and  Armell,  but  the  spelling  used  by  Father  Point  in  his 
register  kept  at  Fort  Benton  is  used  here.  Alexander  Henry  of  the  North- 
west Fur  Company  of  Canada  in  his  journals  mentions  several  Hamells, 
and  since  Henry  traded  with  the  Blackfoot  Indians  it  is  probable  that 
Augustin  Hamell  was  either  the  Hamell  who  was  with  Henry  or  his  son 
for  he  knew  the  Blackfoot  language  and  acted  as  interpreter  for  Governor 
I.  I.  Stevens  at  the  council  he  held  with  these  Indians  at  Fort  Benton, 
Sept.  21,  1853.  Stevens  said  he  was  "an  intelligent  voyageur  who  had 
been  in  the  country  many  years."  Hamell  may  have  come  to  the  United 
States  territory  after  the  consolidation  of  the  Northwest  Company  and 
the   Hudson   Bay   Company  in   1821. 

Culbertson  said  that  Hamell  was  at  Fort  McKenzie  in  May,  1835.  His 
daughter,  Mrs.  Deschamps,  said  they,  Hamell  and  his  family,  lived  first 
at  the  post  at  the  mouth  of  Knife  river  (Fort  Clark),  then  at  Fort  Union, 
Fort  McKenzie  and  Fort  Benton.  Hamell  built  several  trade  houses  which 
were  known  as  Hamell's  houses.  The  Stevens  report  mentioned  Hamell's 
houses  on  the  Milk  river  and  Hamell's  houses  on  the  Marias  river,  about 
15  or  20  miles  below  Birch  creek.  He  also  had  a  trading  post  on  Buffalo 
Island,  which  Mrs.  Deschamps  said  was  a  few  miles  above   Fort  Benton. 

Sometime  after  1850  Hamell  moved  his  family  down  the  river  in  a 
mackinaw  boat  which  carried  the  furs  to  Sioux  City.  He  settled  on  a 
farm  near  Yankton,  S.  D.,  where  his  daughter,  Ellen,  who  later  married 
Thomas  Stuart,  brother  of  James  and  Granville  Stuart,  was  born  Dec. 
31,  1852.  Hamell  returned  to  Fort  Benton,  as  he  was  there  when  the 
Stevens  expedition  was  at  the  fort  in  1853. 

Major  A.  J.  Vaughan,  agent  for  the  Blackfoot  Indians,  said  in  his 
report  for  1859:  "I  was  induced  to  employ  A.  Hamel  for  the  present 
year  (as  interpreter),  his  character  and  capacity  as  a  Blackfoot  interpreter 
being  unexceptionable  and  acknowledged  throughout  the  nation.  Having 
retired  from  the  country  last  year  after  a  long  residence  and  settled  him- 
self and  family  on  a  farm  in  the  neighborhood  of  Sioux  City,  I  found  him 
loth  to  return  here,  and  to  secure  his  consent  was  forced  to  offer  him 
$600.00  a  year,  being  $200.00  more  than  usual." 

Hamell  died  at  the  age  of  59  years  at  his  farm  near  Yankton,  which 
would  have  been  about   1859-60. 

Armells  creek,  a  branch  of  the  Missouri  river  in  Fergus  county,  was 
named  for  him. 

28  White  Calf.  1835-1903.  J.  W.  Schultz  said  the  correct  translation  of 
White  Calf's  Indian  name  Onistai  Pokuh  meant  "wonderful  child,"  but 
the  traders  interpreted  it  as  White  Calf.  He  was  born  about  1835  and 
while  still  very  young  became  noted  for  his  bravery,  intelligence  and 
charity  to  the  old,  poor  and  friendless. 

He  signed  the  Blackfoot  treaty.  No.  7,  on  the  Bow  river  in  Canada, 
Sept.  22,  1877.  After  the  death  of  Big  Lake  in  1873  he  was  unanimously 
elected  chief  of  the  Blackfoot  nation.  He  died  in  Washington,  D.  C., 
Jan.  29,  1903,  while  on  a  visit  to  the  capital  on  business  connected  with 
tribal  affairs. 

29  Perry.  This  may  be  an  incorrect  spelling.  It  might  have  been  in- 
tended for  Perrault.  There  was  a  Charles  Perry,  interpreter  at  Fort 
Belknap  agency  in  1892,  who  might  have  been  the  same  person  as  the 
Charles  Perrault  of  Chouteau  county  poll  list  of  1864. 


MALCOLM  CLARK.     1817-1869 

30  The  biographical  sketches  of  Malcohn  Clark  written  by  his  sister,  Mrs. 
C.  W.  Van  Cleve,  and  his  daughter,  Helen  P.  Clark,  respectively,  and 
published  in  volumes  one  and  two  of  the  Contributions  of  the  Historical 
Society  of  Montana,  while  the  very  sympathetic  and  partial  accounts  that 
one  would  expect,  give  all  the  details  of  his  life.  Clark's  entrance  in  the 
service  of  the  company  is  given  in  one  source  as  1839  and  in  another  as 
1841,  and  it  was  somewhere  about  that  time. 

He  was  next  to  Culbertson  in  command  at  Fort  Benton  in  1850-53,  and 
had  an  interest  or  share  in  the  U.  M.  O.  for  the  ledger  of  1854  shows  that 
he  owned  one-half  of  one  share,  but  in  the  report  for  1856  his  name  is 
replaced  by  Dawson's  as  a  shareholder.  From  1855  to  1861  Clark  either 
traded  independently  or  worked  for  the  opposition.  In  June,  1862,  he 
formed  a  partnership  with  Chouteau  and  Dawson  at  Fort  Benton  to  trade 
with  the  Indians  on  equal  shares.  This  firm  did  not  last  very  long  as 
Dawson  sold  his  interests  at  Fort  Benton  in  1864  and  returned  to  Scot- 

Clark  located  on  his  ranch  at  the  mouth  of  Little  Prickley  Pear  Canyon 
in  1864-65,  and  it  was  there  that  he  was  killed  by  a  Piegan  Indian  on 
Aug.  17,  1869.  He  had  at  least  two  Indian  wives  and  was  married  in 
June,  1862,  by  Father  De  Smet  to  "his  young  wife"  at  Fort  Benton.  The 
1870  census  of  Lewis  and  Clark  county  listed  Mary  Clark,  aged  45  years, 
who  was  probably  his  first  wife,  and  five  children,  ranging  in  age  from 
23  to  12  years.     His  grandchildren  live  near  Glacier  Park  today. 

If  Clark  had  lived  longer  he  would  probably  have  occupied  a  prominent 
place  in  the  affairs  of  the  territory.  He  was  appointed  one  of  the  com- 
missioners of  Edgerton  (Lewis  and  Clark)  county  in  1865  and  was  one 
of  the  twelve  members  of  the  Historical  Society  of  Montana  which  was 
incorporated  in  1865. 

31  Fort  Campbell.  Fort  Campbell  was  the  opposition  post  at  Benton, 
built  in  1846  by  the  Harvey,  Primeau  Company  which  was  organized  in 
St.  Louis  that  year.  The  first  post,  according  to  a  manuscript  note  of 
Lieutenant  Bradley,  was  built  of  wood  and  located  on  the  south  bank  of 
the  Missouri  river  on  bottom  land  opposite  and  a  little  above  the  Cra- 
con-du-Nez,  about  100  yards  from  the  river.  When  Culbertson  moved 
Fort  Lewis  down  and  across  the  river  from  its  original  location  and  estab- 
lished Fort  Benton  in  the  spring  of  1847,  Harvey  moved  his  fort  and 
located  it  a  short  distance  above  Fort  Benton  on  a  point  between  Butte 
and  Rondin  streets  of  the  present  town.  One  reason  for  moving  was 
that  the  supply  of  timber  at  the  first  location  was  about  exhausted  and 
also  the  new  position  was  better  for  trade.  The  new  post  was  built  of 
adobe  about  1847-48  and  preceded  the  adobe  buildings  of  Fort  Benton. 
The  fort  was  sold  to  the  Chouteau  company  in  the  spring  of  1860  and  in 
the  fall  of  1861  Dawson  offered  the  use  of  the  fort  buildings  to  the  Jesuit 
missionaries  until  permanent  quarters  would  be  found.  It  was  occupied 
by  the  missionaries  until  the  spring  of  1863,  when  the  mission  was  built 
at  the  mouth  of  Deep  creek. 

32  Blackfeet.  The  Blackfoot  Indians  was  a  name  applied  to  three  dif- 
ferent bands,  the  North  Blackfeet.  the  Bloods  and  the  Piegans.  The  Gros 
Ventres  of  the  Upper  Missouri,  who  were  sometimes  known  as  the  Falls 
Indians,  also  belonged  to  the  Blackfeet.  The  North  Blackfeet  and  the 
Bloods  occupied  a  territory  north  of  that  of  the  Piegans  who  lived  south 
of  the  Canadian  boundary. 

33  WraJ^  Mr.  J.  F.  In  the  article  on  Fort  Benton  by  Lieutenant  Bradley, 
Contributions  of  the  Historical  Society  of  Montana,  vol.  3,  mention  was 
made  of  a  "young  man  named  Ray,  a  relative  of  Major  Culbertson's"  who 


was  probably  the  Wray  of  the  journal.     He  was  a  clerk  at  Fort  Union  in 
August,  1860,  when  Maynadier  stopped  there  on  his  way  down  the  river. 

34  Box  Elder  Creek.  A  stream  that  empties  into  the  Milk  river  from  the 
east  above  Havre. 

•■^5  Little  Robe.  The  Little  Robe  band  of  Indians  was  mentioned  by 
Catlin  in  1832  and  according-  to  Father  De  Smet  the  band  was  almost  entirely 
destroyed  in  1845  in  a  battle  with  the  Crows  but  the  name  was  still  used  in 
1848,  as  Larpenteur  mentioned  "a  band  of  Blackfeet,  called  the  Little  Robes 
after  the  name  of  their  chief"  who  came  to  trade  at  Fort  Benton  in  1848. 

36  Knees  (part  for  boat).  David  Hilger  said  that  "knees"  were  a  certain 
shaped  root  or  limb  which  was  used  in  the  construction  of  the  mackinaw 
boats.  It  was  used  to  support  the  sides  and  had  to  fit  the  angle  of  the 
bottom  and  sides. 

3"  Keel  Boat.  The  keel  boat  was  usually  made  from  50  to  75  feet  long 
with  15  to  20  feet  beam.  It  was  a  staunch  vessel,  well  modeled,  sharp  bow 
and  stern  and  built  by  skilled  workmen  after  the  most  approved  methods 
of  shipcraft  of  that  day.  Such  a  boat  had  a  carrying  capacity  of  ten  to 
twenty  tons,  a  draft  of  thirty  inches  light,  and  cost  usually  from  $2,000  to 
$3,000.  Amidship  was  the  cabin,  extending  four  or  five  feet  above  the  hull, 
in  which  was  stored  the  cargo  of  Indian  merchandise.  On  each  side  of  this 
cabin  was  a  narrow  walk  on  which  the  boatman  walked  in  pushing  the  boat 
along  with  poles.  The  appliances  used  for  ascending  the  river  were  the 
cordelle,  the  pole,  the  oar  and  the  sail.  (Chappell.  A  history  of  the  Mo. 
River.     Kan.  City,  Mo.  n.  d.) 

•■'S  Mackinaw  Boat.  The  mackinaw  boat  was  made  entirely  of  Cottonwood 
plank  about  two  inches  thick.  They  were  built  about  50  to  60  feet  long 
with  12-foot  beam  and  had  a  flat  bottom.  The  gunwales  arose  about  three 
feet  above  the  water-line  amidship  and  increased  in  height  toward  the  bow 
and  stern.  In  the  bottom  of  the  boat  were  the  stringers,  running  fore  and 
aft,  and  to  these  were  spiked  the  bottom  plank,  in  the  first  years  with  wooden 
pins,  but  later  with  iron  nails.  The  sides,  which  were  also  of  plank,  were 
supported  by  knees,  at  proper  distances.  The  keel  showed  a  rake  of  30 
inches,  fore  and  aft,  and  the  hold  had  a  depth  of  four  feet  amidship  and 
about  five  feet  on  the  stern  and  bow. 

In  the  middle  of  the  boat  was  a  space  partitioned  off  with  bulkheads, 
similar  to  the  cargo-box  of  the  keel  boat.  In  this  was  stored  the  cargo  of 
furs  (put  up  in  bales).  .  .  .  The  voyage  was  always  made  on  the  June 
rise,  and  as  the  current  was  then  swift,  and  men  was  all  that  was  necessary, 
as  the  boat  simply  floated  down  the  stream  with  the  current.  The  only 
danger  anticipated  was  from  the  snags  in  the  bends,  and  the  Indians,  and 
these  had  to  be  carefully  guarded  against. 

As  the  mackinaw  boat  was  only  intended  for  a  single  voyage  down  the 
river,  they  were  cheaply  built.  There  was  near  every  large  trading  post 
on  the  river  a  boatyard,  called  by  the  French  a  chantier,  where  the  lumber 
was  gotten  out  and  the  boat  constructed.  .  .  .  The  lumber  was  sawed  out 
with  a  whipsaw. 

For  mutual  protection  the  mackinaw  boats  usually  went  down  in  fleets 
of  from  six  to  twelve,  but  it  was  not  unusual  for  a  single  boat  to  make  the 
voyage.     (Chappell.     A  history  of  the  Mo.  River.     Kan.  City,  Mo.     n.  d.) 

38A  Crows.  The  name  "Crows"  was  a  translation  of  their  own  name, 
Absarokee,  which  meant  bird  and  was  translated  by  the  French  as  "gens  des 
corbeaux"  or  people  of  tlie  Crow.  They  were  a  Siouan  tribe,  forming  part 
of  the  Hidatsa  group  from  whom  they  separated  about  1776.  The  Crows 
withdrew  from  the  Missouri  river  and  migrated  toward  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains.   At  this  period,  1854-56,  they  occupied  the  country  of  the  Big  Horn, 


Powder  Horn  and  Wind  rivers  as  far  south  as  the  North  Fork  of  the  Platte, 
the  Yellowstone  river  area  to  the  mouth,  and  north  to  the  headwaters  of  the 
Musselshell  river.     Hayden  said  it  was  the  finest  game  country  in  the  world. 

3!)  BufTalo  Tongues.  The  buffalo  tongues  were  salted  and  dried,  some- 
times painted  over  with  molasses  and  water  to  give  them  a  dark,  smoky 
color.  Kurz  said  Denig  refused  a  dollar  apiece  for  these  choice  morsels, 
which  brought  a  higher  price  in  the  eastern  markets  where  they  were  con- 
sidered a  great  delicacy. 

■»«  Big  Feather.  Big  Plume.  Big  Feather  or  Big  Plume  signed  the  Black- 
foot  treaty  of  Oct.  17,  1855,  as  The  Feather,  and  Big  Plume  signed  the 
Blackfoot  treaty  at  Benton,  Sept.  1,  1868.  In  the  Bradley  manuscript  article 
on  Sir  St.  George  Gore  he  states  that  Big  Plume  was  a  brother-in-law  of 
Alexander  Culbertson. 

OPPOSITION  COMPANY.     1846-1860 

•*i  The  "opposition  company"  was  the  St.  Louis  Fur  Company,  organized 
in  the  summer  of  1846  and  composed  of  four  partners,  Alexander  Harvey, 
Charles  Primeau,  Joseph  Picotte  and  A.  R.  Bonis,  all  former  employes  of 
the  Chouteau  company.  The  new  organization  was  financed  by  Robert 
Campbell  of  St.  Louis  and  trading  posts  were  established  at  various  points 
along  the  Upper  Missouri  river  where  the  "old  company"  was  also  in 
business.  Fort  Campbell  was  built  just  above  Fort  Benton,  the  old  adobe 
buildings  of  Fort  Wiilliam  were  occupied,  Fort  Primeau  was  located  op- 
posite Fort  Clarke  and  so  on.  One  year,  1848-49,  a  fort  was  built  on  the 
Yellowstone  near  Fort  Alexander  for  the  Crow  trade.  According  to  the 
story  of  Augustus  Barlow  who  went  up  with  the  party  to  build  this  post,  it 
was  200  feet  square  with  several  log  buildings  inside  the  stockade.  Harvey 
was  in  charge  at  Fort  Campbell,  Primeau  at  Fort  William  and  Picotte  at 
the  post  on  the  Little  Missouri  in  1849. 

The  entry  in  the  St.  Louis  ledger  for  July,  1852,  of  the  Chouteau  Company 
would  indicate  that  the  returns  of  the  Harvey,  Primeau  Company  were  sent 
to  Robert  Campbell  and  he  in  turn  disposed  of  the  furs  through  the  Chouteau 
Company,  the  latter  taking  S07c  of  the  proceeds  for  handling  the  furs. 
Honore  Picotte  wrote  to  Andrew  Drips,  Jan.  3,  1852,  that  the  "opposition 
company  is  about  to  fold  up.  Owe  Campbell  more  than  they  can  pay, 
etc.  .  .  ."  Very  likely  the  profits  of  the  four  partners  were  not  so  large 
after  the  final  sale  of  the  furs.  Kurz  in  his  journal  for  1851  remarked, 
"these  'dobies'  (the  occupants  of  Fort  William  were  known  to  the  Fort 
Union  people  as  'dobies'  because  their  fort  was  built  of  adobe  bricks)  have 
held  their  own  for  an  unusually  long  time,  but  still  make  inconsiderable 
profit,  only  Campbell,  in  charge  of  their  drinking  house  in  St.  Louis,  is 
making  a  success."  By  "drinking  house"  Kurz  probably  meant  Campbell's 
commission  business  in  the  liquor  trade  in  which  the  Harvey,  Primeau 
Company  did  not  share. 

Harvey  died  in  July,  1854,  while  on  a  trip  down  to  Fort  Union  in  a 
mackinaw  boat  and  was  buried  at  that  fort.  After  his  death  the  company 
gradually  changed  hands  and  a  new  concern.  Frost,  Todd  and  Company, 
took  over  the  "opposition"  at  various  stations.  Malcolm  Clark  was  em- 
ployed by  Frost  in  1857  and  the  company  in  charge  of  Fort  Campbell  and 
Fort  William  was  known  as  Clark,  Primeau  and  Company  with  Clark  in 
charge  at  Fort  Campbell.  In  1860  the  "opposition"  was  bought  out  by  the 
Pierre  Chouteau,  Jr.,  and  Company  and  all  the  property  of  the  various  trad- 
ing posts  turned  over  to  that  company. 

As  Kurz  remarked,  this  company  had  lasted  longer  than  any  other  "op- 
position"— from  1846  to  i860. 


ANDREW  DAWSON.     1818-1871 

42  The  biographical  sketch  of  Andrew  Dawson  by  his  son,  James,  pub- 
lished in  volume  seven  of  the  Contributions  of  the  Historical  Society  of 
Montana,  tells  the  story  of  a  man  engaged  in  the  fur  trade  for  over  twenty 
years  and  the  last  representative  of  the  P.  Chouteau,  Jr.,  and  Company  at 
Fort  Benton.  He  was  born  in  Scotland  in  1818  and  died  at  his  old  home  in 

The  Fort  Benton  journal  was  kept  most  of  the  time  by  Dawson,  who 
was  in  command  of  the  fort  during  the  absence  of  Culbertson.  He  took 
the  furs  down  in  the  spring  and  had  charge  of  the  boats  bringing  up  the 
goods  from  Fort  Union.  He  was  chief  trader  at  Fort  Clark  from  1850  until 
the  fall  of  1854,  when  he  came  up  to  Fort  Benton  where  he  remained  until 
his  retirement  in  1864.  The  St.  Louis  ledgers  show  that  Dawson's  earnings 
increased  very  substantially  from  1854  to  1864,  and  he  was  one  individual 
who  ended  his  career  in  the  fur  trade  with  a  sizable  fortune  for  those  days. 

Letters  to  Dawson  and  the  accounts  of  people  who  visited  Fort  Benton 
show  him  to  have  been  a  most  genial  and  hospitable  host  and  at  the  same 
time  he  never  neglected  the  interests  of  the  company.  His  friend  Morgan 
of  the  Red  River  Settlement,  Canada,  wrote  to  him  in  February,  1862,  that 
he  was  glad  to  hear  that  he  (Dawson)  had  supplanted  Culbertson  and  was 
at  last  "King  of  the  Missouri." 

Through  an  accidental  fall  in  1858  Dawson  was  badly  crippled  and  event- 
ually lost  the  use  of  his  lower  limbs.  He  spent  his  remaining  years  in  Scot- 
land as  an  invalid,  but  scenes  of  his  old  home  and  the  association  with  his 
relatives  and  old  friends  helped  make  his  life  more  bearable  than  it  would 
have  been  in  the  rude  and  lonely  existence  of  Fort  Benton.  The  two  sons, 
James  and  Thomas,  who  accompanied  him  home,  returned  after  his  death 
to  Montana  and  Thomas  is  still  living,  in  1940,  at  Glacier  Park.  Several 
grandchildren  live  in  North  Dakota. 

43  Pit.    Pit  for  burning  charcoal. 

44  Dawson's  wife  (died  Mar.  11.  1855).  James  Dawson  said  that  his 
father  had  three  Indian  wives.  He  married  first  Josette  Garreau,  daughter 
of  Pierre  Garreau,  at  Fort  Clark,  who  was  the  mother  of  James.  His 
second  wife  was  a  Brule  Sioux,  and  the  third  a  Gros  Ventre.  She  was 
the  mother  of  Thomas  Dawson. 

45  Pablo's  Island.  There  were  two  islands  of  this  name  in  the  Upper 
Missouri  river.  This  island  was  about  16  miles  above  Benton  and  named 
for  a  Mexican  who  was  killed  by  the  Blackfoot  Indians  near  there  in  1848. 

The  other  Pablo  Island  was  about  six  miles  above  Arrow  creek,  and 
Pablo's  Rapids  were  124  miles  below  Benton  in  the  same  river. 

4e  Hermaphrodite  Keel  Boat.  A  boat  that  was  one-half  keel  and  one- 
half  mackinaw. 

47  Clark's  Houses.     See  Clark,  Malcolm.     Note  30. 

48  Big  Lakes  Band.  This  Indian  was  described  by  Father  De  Smet  in 
1846-47  as  "head  chief  of  the  Piegan  band  of  the  Blackfeet."  He  signed 
the  Blackfoot  treaty  of  Nov.  16,  1865,  as  a  Piegan  and  in  the  report  of 
H.  D.  Upham,  agent  for  the  Blackfoot  in  1866,  he  is  named  as  one  of  the 
two  head  chiefs  of  that  tribe,  Little  Dog  was  the  other. 

40  White  Cow  Against  the  Bank.  A  Gros  Ventre  Indian,  White  Cow 
in  the  Middle,  signed  the  treaty  of  Nov.  16,  1865,  and  a  Blood  Indian,  The 
Bank,  signed  the  same  treaty.  The  Bank  may  have  been  the  same  person 
as  White  Cow  Against  the  Bank. 


5>o  Picotte  (Jos.) — 1868.  Joseph  Picotte,  a  nephew  of  Honore  Picottc, 
agent  of  the  U.  M.  O.  for  many  j'ears,  born  in  Canada  and  employed  by 
the  American  Fur  Company  or  the  Chouteau  Company  before  he  became 
a  partner  of  Harvey,  Primeau  Company  in  1846.  His  children,  Emilia, 
Paul,  Suzanna  and  Marie,  were  baptized  by  Father  De  Smet,  Nov.  5,  1846, 
at  Medicine  Creek  near  Fort  Bonis  on  the  Missouri  river.  In  1862  Picotte 
was  employed  by  the  La  Barge,  Harkness  Company,  the  "opposition"  of 
that  period.     He  died  at  Yankton  Agency,  S.  D.,  in  1868. 

•'Ji  Rising  Head.  Rising  Head  was  a  North  Piegan  and  signed  the 
Blackfoot  treaties  of  Nov.  16,  1865,  and  Sept.  1,  1868,  at  Fort  Benton. 

52  Henry's  boy  (born  April  13,  1855).  This  may  be  a  reference  to  Henry 
Mills,  whose  son,  Dave  Mills,  later  an  interpreter  at  the  Blood  Reserve 
in  Canada,  was  born  about  this  time. 

53  Jackson  (Thomas) — 1894.  Thomas  Jackson  was  born  in  Virginia  and 
entered  the  service  of  the  American  Fur  Company  about  1835  and  was 
employed  as  a  tailor  at  Fort  Benton.  He  married  Amelia  Munro,  daughter 
of  Hugh  Munro,  and  the  famous  scout,  William  Jackson,  was  his  son. 
According  to  information  received  from  his  descendants  now  living  at 
Browning,  Montana,  Thomas  Jackson  died  at  Cut  Bank,  Montana,  in  1894. 

5-1  Packs  (buffalo  and  furs).  The  bufifalo  robes  were  packed  ten  at  a 
time  in  a  press  2J/4  by  4  feet  and  tied  with  a  rawhide.  Two  men  were 
needed  to  handle  each  bale. 

55  Press.     See  Packs   (buffalo  and  furs).     Note  54. 

50  Government  Goods,  Wagons  and  Two  Government  Men.  The  refer- 
ences to  the  government  camp,  goods  and  men  is  to  the  Governor  I.  I. 
Stevens  equipment  and  people. 

57  Surround.  The  journalist  here  refers  to  what  was  known  as  the 
"horse  surround"  method  of  hunting  the  buffalo.  When  the  herd  was  seen 
the  horsemen  mounted  on  "buffalo  horses"  surrounded  the  herd  and  began 
to  kill  when  the  animals  were  bunched  in  a  close  herd. 

5S  Cabree.  The  antelope  was  known  as  "Cabri",  from  the  French  word 
for   kid. 

59  Government  Men  (two).    See  government  camp,  goods,  etc.    Note  56. 

60  Bird's  Son.  This  may  have  been  Thomas  Bird,  son  of  James  Bird, 
described  by  George  B.  Grinnell  as  "Thomas  Bird,  an  intelligent  half- 
breed,  translated  part  of  the  Bible  into  Blackfoot  for  an  Episcopalian 

61  Cypress  Mts.  Cypress  Mountains  north  of  the  boundary  in  southern 

62  Yellow  Hair.  Yellow  Hair  was  hired  by  the  Stevens  expedition  in  the 
fall  of  1853  as  a  guide  for  the  party  which  made  a  survey  of  the  country 
between  Fort  Benton  and  St.  Mary's  by  way  of  Cadotte  pass.  Yellow  Hair 
and  Yellow  Head  was  probably  the  same  person.  See  also  Kelchiponesta's 
son.     Note  124. 

63  St.  Mary's  (village).  St.  Mary's  refers  to  the  village  or  settlement 
near  Fort  Owen  on  the  St.  Mary's  or  Bitter  Root  river,  which  was  the 
name  of  the  Catholic  mission  founded  there  in  1841  and  abandoned  in  1850. 

64  Stevens,  Gov.  I.  I.  1818-1862.  Isaac  Ingalls  Stevens  was  born  in 
Andover,  Massachusetts,  March  18,   1818,  and  graduated  first  in  his  class 


from  the  U.  S.  Military  Academy  in  1839.  He  was  appointed  governor 
of  Washington  territory  in  1853  and  that  same  year  was  placed  in  charge 
of  an  expedition  to  explore  a  northern  route  for  a  Pacific  railroad.  He 
represented  the  United  States  government  in  various  councils  with  the 
Indians  of  the  northwest  in  1854-55. 

In  1857  he  resigned  as  governor  of  Washington  territory  and  was  elected 
to  congress  from  that  territory  for  two  terms.  At  the  outbreak  of  the 
Civil  war  he  entered  the  Union  army  and  was  killed  at  the  Battle  of 
Chantilly,  Sept.  1,  1862. 

*»■'•  Barnes.  In  Vaughn's  "Then  and  Now"  a  Phil  Barnes  is  mentioned 
as  an  employe  of  the  fur  company  at  Fort  Benton  in  1859.  The  list  of 
people  living  at  Fort  Benton,  1862-63,  includes  a  Phil  Barnes,  negro  cook. 

«*■'  Snakes.  These  were  the  Snake  Indians  who  had  come  to  attend  the 
council  at  the  Judith  river. 

•J"   Dot3\  Mr.  (James).  -1857.   James  Doty  was  a  son  of  James  Duane 

Doty  who  was  a  member  of  congress  and  a  governor  of  Wisconsin  and 
Utah.  James,  Jr.,  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  Stevens  expedition  in 
1853  to  make  "astronomical  and  magnetic  observations."  He  was  left  at 
Fort  Benton  for  the  winter  to  prepare  the  way  for  a  proposed  treaty  with 
the  Blackfoot  Indians.  Governor  Stevens  gave  him  high  praise  for  his 
intelligence,  fidelity  and  energy.  Just  before  the  Blackfoot  council  he 
made  a  long  and  strenuous  ride  into  Canada  to  recover  horses  stolen  from 
Indians  who  had  come  to  attend  the  council.  Doty  acted  as  secretary  for 
the  commission  at  the  treaty  making  in  October,  1855,  and  after  the  com- 
pletion of  the  council  returned  to  the  west  with  Governor  Stevens.  He 
died  in  Washington  Territory  in  1857. 

68  Three  Buttes  (Sweet  Grass  Hills— East,  West  and  Gold  Buttes).  See 
Note  10. 

69  Crosby,  Col.  Henry  R.  Crosby,  a  member  of  the  Stevens  expedition, 

^0  Big  Snake.  -1858. 

Paul  Kane  met  Big  Snake,  a  chief  of  a  Piegan  Indian  band  who  was 
also  known  as  Loud  Voice  and  Black  Snake  Man,  on  the  Saskatchewan 
river  in  June,  1848.  His  brother  told  Kane  that  Big  Snake  was  the  leader 
of  the  band  of  Indians  that  visited  Fort  McKenzie  in  the  fall  of  1843  and 
killed  the  cattle  belonging  to  the  fort.  This  act  was  responsible  for  the 
cannon  being  fired  without  warning  on  another  band  of  Indians  who  visited 
the  fort  the  following  spring. 

Big  Snake  was  said  to  be  the  father-in-law  of  White  Calf.  A  band  of 
Crees  who  came  to  Norway  House  soon  after  Kane's  visit  with  Big  Snake 
told  Kane  that  one  of  their  war  chiefs  had  killed  Big  Snake  in  single 
combat.  The  report  was  not  true  for  certain  "winter  counts"  show  that 
he  lived  another  ten  years  and  died  in   1858. 

71   Fort  McKenzie.  1832-44.     Fort  McKenzie  was  built  in  1832  by  David 

D.  Mitchell  of  the  American  Fur  Company  on  the  north  side  of  the  Mis- 
souri river,  six  miles  above  the  Marias.  On  Feb.  19,  1844,  occurred  tlic 
incident  which   was   responsible   for  the  abandonment  of   Fort   McKenzie. 

E.  A.  C.  Hatch,  agent  for  the  Blackfoot  tribe,  in  his  report  for  1856  made 
the  following  reference  to  this  event: 

"During  the  summer  of  1843  and  winter  of  1843  and  1844  they  (the 
North  Blackfeet)  had  considerable  trouble  with  the  fur  company,  brought 
on  by  evil  disposed  Indians  from  the  north.  An  extract  from  the  private 
journal  of  a  man,  now  dead,  who  was  at  that  time  in  the  employ  of  the 
company,  reads  thus:     'February  19,  1844.     Fight  with  the  north  Blackfeet, 


in  which  fight  we  killed  six  and  wounded  others;  took  two  children  pris- 
oners. The  fruits  of  our  victory  were  four  scalps,  twenty-two  horses,  three 
hundred  forty  robes,  and  guns,  bows  and  arrows,  etc.  etc'  Since  this 
unfortunate  aflFair  few  of  them  visited  the  trading  posts  within  the  territory 
of  the  United  States,  until  the  present  winter." 

Chardon  was  in  charge  of  Fort  McKenzie  at  this  time  and  it  is  difificult 
to  understand  the  wanton  killing  of  the  Blackfoot  Indians  by  two  men 
who  had  so  much  experience  in  the  fur  trade  as  Chardon  and  Harvey.  The 
policy  of  the  company  was  always  to  maintain  friendly  relations  with  the 
Indians  upon  whose  good  will  depended  the  success  of  their  trade.  Neither 
of  the  men  appeared  to  have  been  censured  by  the  company  for  this  act. 
Both  were  retained  in  the  employ  of  the  company  on  the  same  basis  as 

Later  Harvey  quarreled  with  Chardon,  Clark  and  others  of  the  company 
and  went  down  to  St.  Louis  where  he  filed  charges  before  the  Superin- 
tendent of  Indian  Affairs  that  Chardon  had  sold  liquor  to  the  Indians  at 
Fort  AIcKenzie  from  May  1,  1843,  to  March  31,  1844.  This  latter  date 
indicates  the  day  that  Fort  McKenzie  was  deserted,  for  it  was  in  the 
spring  of  1844  that  Fort  F.  A.  C.  was  built  at  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  by 

With  the  exception  of  the  brief  existence  of  Fort  Piegan,  1831-32,  and 
Fort  Lewis,  1845-47.  the  forts  of  the  Blackfoot  station  were  Fort  McKenzie 
and  Fort  Benton,  and  Alexander  Culbertson  was  in  charge  of  both  forts 
for  most  of  the  vears.  1832  to  1864.  His  history  of  this  period  as  told  to 
Lieutenant  Bradley  and  published  in  vol.  3  of  the  Contributions  of  the 
Historical  Society  of  Montana  gives  a  comprehensive  account  of  the  story 
of  Fort  McKenzie. 

"2  Pearson,  W.  H.  W.  H.  Pearson,  a  native  of  Philadelphia,  about  35 
years  of  age,  was  the  expressman  with  the  Stevens  expedition,  1853-55. 
He  had  been  a  Texas  ranger  and  Indian  scout.  He  made  two  marvelous 
rides  while  with  the  expedition.  Governor  Stevens  in  his  report  described 
the  first  trip  as  follows:  "Pearson  rode  1750  miles  by  the  route  he  took 
from  the  Bitter  Root  valley  to  Olympia  and  back  to  Benton,  in  28  days, 
during  some  of  which  he  did  not  travel.  He  was  less  than  three  days 
going  from  Fort  Owen  to  Fort  Benton,  a  distance  by  the  route  he  pur- 
sued of  some  260  miles,  which  he  traveled  without  a  change  of  animals, 
having  no  food  but  the  berries  of  the  country,  except  a  little  fish." 

He  made  the  second  ride  to  bring  the  news  of  the  Indian  outbreak  in 
Washington  territory  to  Governor  Stevens  and  arrived  from  Walla  Walla 
at  the  governor's  camp,  near  Benton,  Oct.  29,  1855. 

"•^  Doty  &  Jackson.  Governor  Stevens  had  promised  the  various  tribes 
that  all  the  Indians  would  behave  in  a  friendly  fashion  and  their  lives  and 
property  would  be  safe.  On  Aug.  29,  1855,  four  Pend  d'Oreilles  Indians 
came  to  his  camp  with  a  message  from  tlieir  chief,  Alexander,  that  four 
horses  thev  had  placed  in  the  government  herd,  much  against  their  better 
judgment,  had  been  stolen  by  two  Blackfoot  boys  of  the  northern  tribe. 
The  Pend'Oreilles  horses  had  been  taken  out  of  a  herd  of  over  100 

To  keep  his  word  to  these  Indians  Stevens  had  to  recover  the  horses 
and  sent  Little  Dog  to  hunt  the  animals,  but  he  was  not  successful.  So 
Doty  with  one  man,  Jackson,  went  north  to  the  Blackfoot  camp  on  the 
Saskatchewan  as  it  was  thought  the  thieves  would  think  they  would  be 
hunted  on  the  Missouri  instead  of  farther  north.  The  two  men  made  50 
miles  a  day,  reached  the  Row  river,  over  200  miles  from  Benton,  and 
entered  the  Indian  camp  two  hours  after  the  stolen  horses  arrived. 

Doty  called  the  chiefs  and  demanded  the  stolen  horses  and  received 
three  of  them,  which  he  placed  in  charge  of  Little  Dog  who  had  followed 
him  into  camp.     The  fourth  horse  had  been  made  off  with  by  an   Indian, 


but  Doty  pursued  him  to  the  Elk  fork  of  the  Saskatchewan,  70  miles 
farther,  and  recovered  the  last  animal.  On  the  sixteenth  day  after  the 
horses  had  been  stolen  they  were  returned  to  the  Pend  d'Oreilles. 

74  Boats.  Boats  bringing  government  annuity  goods  and  presents  for 
Indian  council  meeting  on  the  Missouri  river  near  the  mouth  of  the  Judith. 

75  Kipp  (James),  1788-1880.  James  Kipp  was  born  in  Canada  about 
1788  and  came  to  the  Missouri  river  with  the  Columbia  Fur  Company 
about  1822.  He  built  the  first  post  for  the  Blackfoot  Indians  in  1831  and 
was  in  the  employ  of  the  fur  company  on  the  Upper  Missouri  until  his 
retirement  about  1859-60.  He  had  several  Indian  families  as  well  as  a 
white  wife  and  children  who  lived  on  his  farm  home  near  Independence, 
Missouri.  Joe  Kipp,  born  Nov.  29,  1849,  at  Heart  River,  was  the  son  of 
James  Kipp  and  Earth  Woman,  daughter  of  Four  Bears,  Mandan  chief. 
After  his  retirement  to  his  farm  in  Missouri,  Kipp  made  occasional  trips 
in  the  summer  to   Fort  Benton  to  visit  his  old  friends. 

He  died  at  Parksville,  Missouri,  June  2,  1880,  at  the  age  of  93  years. 

76  Hatch  (Maj.  E.  A.  C).  1825-1882.  Edwin  A.  C.  Hatch  was  born  in 
New  York,  March  23,  1825,  and  came  to  Minnesota  in  1843  and  located 
in  St.  Paul.  He  was  appointed  agent  for  the  Blackfoot  Indians  in  1855, 
which  office  he  held  until  1857,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Major  Vaughan. 
Hatch  returned  to  Minnesota  and  died  in  St.   Paul,  Sept.   13,   1882. 

His  diary  for  the  period  June  7  to  Oct.  13,  1856,  is  in  the  library  of  the 
Minnesota  Historical  Society  and  the  following  brief  summary  of  this 
trip  to  Fort  Benton  from  Fort  Union  is  from  this  diary: 

"The  St.  Mary,  steamboat,  went  up  the  Missouri  river  to  15  miles  above 
the  Big  Muddy,  where  the  goods  were  unloaded  and  three  boats  built  to 
proceed  up  the  river  to  Fort  Benton.  With  a  crew  of  58  men  for  the 
cordelle,  two  on  the  bows,  three  cooks,  one  watchman,  three  pilots,  An- 
drew Dawson  and  Hatch,  the  slow  journey  up  the  river  began  July  27, 
1856.  Culbertson  and  his  party  made  the  trip  overland.  Hatch  left  the 
boats  at  Wolf  Point  and  with  Chouquette  went  with  horses  to  Benton, 
reached  there  Aug.  14,  1856.  He  left  there  in  a  skifT  Sept.  15,  1856,  to 
meet  the  Indians  and  boats  below  the  Judith.  A  council  was  held  there 
and  the  annuities  distributed,  Sept.  20-23,  1856.  From  that  point  Hatch 
proceeded  down  the  river  on  his  return  to   Minnesota." 

JAMES  H.  CHAMBERS.     1820-1866? 

77  James  H.  Chambers  would  appear  to  be  the  mystery  man  of  the  fur 
trade  in  Montana,  for  there  is  no  mention  of  him  in  any  of  the  accounts 
of  this  period  with  the  exception  of  the  Harkness  diary  which  mentions 
him  as  being  at  the  Dauphin  post  in  1862.  From  his  entry  of  March  20, 
1855,  we  know  he  was  born  in  1820,  and  on  June  15,  1855.  he  ate  "radishes 
and  lettuce"  for  the  first  time  in  six  years  which  would  indicate  that  he 
had  been  in  the  Indian  country  since  1849. 

The  St.  Louis  directory  of  1847  lists  a  James  Chambers,  riverman,  and 
the  directory  of  1848  has  a  James  Chambers,  bookbinder,  and  since  the 
original  journal  has  a  hand-made  leather  binding  he  may  have  been  this 
man.  We  could  find  no  information  that  would  connect  him  with  the 
family  of  Col.  A.  B.  Chambers  of  St.  Louis  who  was  secretary  for  the 
treaty  of  Fort  Laramie  in  1851,  but  it  is  possible  there  was  a  relationship 
for  he  knew  of  Colonel   Chambers'  Indian   child. 

The  St.  Louis  ledgers  of  the  Chouteau  company  show  that  Chambers' 
earnings  were  very  modest  for  tlic  list  of  men  of  1855,  U.  M.  O.,  July 
31,  1856,  includes  his  name  with  a  balance  of  $307.90,  which,  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  scale  of  wages  paid,  would  be  that  of  a  skilled  laliorer 
at  the  fort  or  a  minor  trader.      In   no  place  in  the  journal   does  he  write 


anything  that  might  be  a  clue  to  his  past  life  and  we  do  not  know  whether 
this  was  deliberate  or  not  but  it  seems  so.  There  is  no  mention  of  a 
letter  written  to  or  received  from  relatives  or  friends  at  home  and  there 
are  no  entries  in  the  company  ledgers  to  show  that  he  sent  money  to 
anyone,  as  was  customary  with   many  employes. 

Larpenteur  was  not  in  the  Upper  Missouri  country  from  1849  to  1859, 
which  was  probably  the  reason  for  no  mention  of  Chambers  in  his  journal. 
His  name  does  not  appear  in  the  Kurz  journal  of  1851-52,  which  might 
have  been  because  he  was  in  the  Crow  country  or  traded  from  the  forts 
on  the  Platte  river  for  those  years.  He  said  that  he  made  a  trip  in  search 
of  the  Crows  to  Little  Powder  river  in  the  winter  of  1852-53,  and  this 
might  have  been  from  the  Platte  river. 

From  his  comments  on  Fort  Union  when  he  arrived  there  in  May,  1855, 
he  was  not  very  familiar  with  that  place,  which  might  signify  that  he  had 
been  at  Fort  Sarpy  most  of  the  time  since  his  connection  with  the  Chou- 
teau company.  He  knew  the  Crow  language  by  1855,  which  would  mean 
a  residence  of  several  years  in  their  country,  although  his  squaw,  "Bricks," 
was  a  Gros  Ventre. 

He  remained  in  the  Upper  Missouri  country  for  there  are  casual  references 
to  him  by  several  people.  P.  W.  McAdow  said  Chambers  was  the  guide  for 
his  party  in  1861  from  Owen  McKenzie's  fort  to  Benton,  and  Harkness 
employed  him  in  1862  at  their  trading  establishment  near  Milk  river.  His 
name  is  on  the  poll  list  of  Oct.  24,  1864,  of  Chouteau  county,  but  we  can 
find  no  later  mention  of  him.  In  Vaughn's  Then  and  Now  in  an  account 
of  the  various  people  killed  in  the  60's  by  the  Indians  was  one  James 
Chambers  killed  by  Blackfoot  Indians  at  Dearborn.  In  1897  there  was 
some  discussion  of  his  journal  in  the  Historical  Society  library  and 
Matthew  Carroll  who  was  asked  concerning  him  said  he  had  been  a  clerk 
for  the  American  Fur  Company  and  had  moved  to  Three  Forks,  where  he 
died  in  1864.  Since  he  was  at  Fort  Benton,  Oct.  24,  1864,  this  date  must  be 
wrong.  It  is  very  likely  that  he  died  in  the  late  60's,  probably  killed  by 
Indians  during  those  years  1865-69  when  a  number  of  white  men  were 
murdered   by   the   Blackfoot. 

"8  Cumming,  Col.  Alfred.  1802-1873.  Col.  Alfred  Cumming,  born  in 
Georgia,  1802,  was  a  sutler  with  the  U.  S.  army  in  the  Mexican  war  and 
served  as  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs,  central  division,  1853-56.  He 
was  one  of  the  three  commissioners  appointed  to  treat  with  the  Blackfoot 
Indians  at  the  council  held  at  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  river,  October,  1855. 
Governor  Stevens  and  Cumming  were  the  only  members  of  the  commission 
present  at  the  council.  Stevens  came  from  the  West  and  Cumming  came 
up  the  Missouri  river  by  steamboat  to  Fort  Union  and  from  there  to  Benton 
overland.  The  two  commissioners  had  many  disagreements  during  the 
council  meeting,  but  the  treaty  was  completed  and  Cumming  returned  down 
the  river,  Oct.  23,  1855. 

In  1857  he  was  appointed  governor  of  Utah  territory  by  President  Bu- 
chanan and  held  that  office  until  1861.  He  died  in  Augusta,  Georgia,  Oct.  9, 

"S>  Lansdale,  Dr.  R.  H.  1811.— Dr.  Richard  Hyatt  Lansdale,  born  in 
Montgomery  county,  Maryland,  Dec.  23,  1811.  Studied  medicine  in  Ohio. 
He  served  with  the  Missouri  volunteers  in  the  Mexican  war  of  1848  and  in  the 
spring  of  1849  emigrated  to  California,  and  from  there  to  Oregon.  He  was 
appointed  Indian  agent  for  the  Flatlicad  tribe  in  1855-56  and  in  1857  was 
given  charge  of  the  tribes  north  of  tlic  Columbia  and  east  of  the  Cascades. 
He  was  living  with  his  family  in  Olympia,  Wash.,  in  1893. 

80  Lame  Bull.  Another  name  for  Lame  Bull  was  Nee  Ti  Nee  or  "Only 
Chief,"  sometimes  translated  as  Lone  Chief.  Culbertson  said  Lame  Bull 
was  the  leader  of  the  Piegans  that  were  attacked  by  the  Assiniboines  at 


Fort  McKenzie  in  1833  when  Maximilian  was  there.  Governor  I.  I.  Stevens 
described  him  as  a  Piegan  chief  of  about  100  lodges,  "sincere  in  his  desire 
to  live  at  peace  with  other  tribes."  He  attended  the  Judith  council  in 
October,  1855,  and  signed  the  treaty  as  chief  of  his  tribe.  His  memory  is 
still  revered  by  the  Blackfoot  people  and  he  is  said  to  have  been  killed  in 
a  buffalo  stampede  sometime  in  the  60's. 

81  Eagle  Chief.  Eagle  Chief  was  a  Gros  Ventre  chief  whom  Governor 
Stevens  met  near  the  Milk  river,  Aug.  23,  1853.  He  was  the  father  of  White 
Eagle  who  was  later  head  chief  of  the  Gros  Ventres.  Eagle  Chief  signed 
the  Blackfoot  treaty  of  Oct.  17,  1855,  and  the  Blackfoot  treaty  of  Sept.  1. 

ALFRED  J.  VAUGHAN.     1801-1871 

82  Alfred  J.  Vaughan,  born  in  Virginia  (?)  in  1801,  was  in  the  Indian 
service  from  his  own  account  in  a  letter  to  Father  De  Smet,  May  20,  1857, 
IS  years  at  that  date,  which  would  mean  that  he  entered  in  1842.  He  was 
agent  at  the  Osage  agency  in  1845,  and  sub-agent  for  lowas.  Sacs  and 
Foxes,  1848-49. 

The  agency  for  the  Upper  Missouri  Indians  was  created  in  1852  and 
James  H.  Norwood,  the  iirst  agent,  was  murdered  sometime  between 
Sept.  16,  1852,  when  he  sent  in  his  report,  and  November  30  of  the  same 
year,  for  the  Commissioner  of  Indian  Affairs  wrote  in  his  report  of  that 
date  that  they  had  lately  received  word  of  his  death  by  violence.  Nor- 
wood was  succeeded  by  Alfred  J.  Vaughan,  who  held  the  position  until 
1857,  when  he  was  replaced  by  A.  H.  Redfield  and  Vaughan  became  agent 
for  the  Blackfoot  Indians.  He  established  the  agency  at  Sun  river  and  held 
office  until  1861. 

William  T.  Hamilton  met  Vaughan  at  the  Blackfoot  agency  on  Sun  river 
Oct.  18,  1857.  and  described  him  as  "a  fine  looking  old  man  from  the  state 
of  Mississippi."  He  had  a  son  who  came  up  the  river  with  Commissioner 
Cumming's  party  in  1855,  for  Culbertson  told  of  "young  Vaughan's  Virginia 
blood"  being  aroused  by  some  hostile  action  of  an  Indian.  Gumming  wrote 
in  his  report,  "Mr.  Vaughan,  Jr.,  and  Mr.  Kennedy  accompanied  me  to  the 
Judith."  This  seemed  to  be  his  first  and  only  visit  to  the  Upper  Missouri 

Major  Vaughan  had  an  Indian  wife  who  was  with  him  on  the  Shreveport 
in  1862.  W.  C.  Gillette,  a  passenger  on  the  same  boat,  told  an  interest- 
ing incident  concerning  the  couple:  "Major  Vaughn  was  one  of  the 
passengers.  He  was  formerly  an  Indian  agent  under  President  Buchanan 
and  had  with  him  his  Indian  wife  and  child.  Her  relatives  lived  in  the 
vicinity  of  Fort  Pierre.  It  appears  that  the  Major  had  purchased  at  St. 
Joseph  for  his  wife  an  elegant  silk  gown,  brocaded  with  satin  figures.  She 
went  on  shore  for  a  visit  with  her  relatives,  and  with  them  went  on  a  berry- 
ing expedition  attired  in  this  gown.  When  she  returned  this  garment  was 
a  sight  to  behold,  and  the  Major,  using  language  more  forcible  than  polite, 
declared  that  hereafter  she  should  be  clad  only  in  the  regulation  Indian 

Father  De  Smet  baptized  Fanny,  four  months  old,  daughter  of  Agent 
Vaughan,  July  11,  1864,  on  board  the  Yellowstone. 

Larpenteur  described  Vaughan  as  "a  jovial  old  fellow  with  a  fme  paunch 
for  brandy.  .  .  .  He  was  one  who  remained  most  of  his  time  with  his  In- 
dians, but  what  accounts  for  that  is  the  fact  that  he  had  a  pretty  young 
squaw  for  a  wife;  and  as  he  received  many  favors  from  the  company  his 
reports  must  have  been  in  their  favor."  This  was  the  usual  sour  comment 
of  Larpenteur,  but  no  doubt  there  is  a  great  deal  of  truth  in  it.  The  fault 
is  that  he  gave  only  the  weak  or  evil  characteristics  of  the  person  described. 
Major  Vaughan's  reports  to  the  Commissioner  of  Indian  Affairs,  1853-61. 
show  that  he  spent  a  great  deal  of  his  time  with  the  Indians  in  his  charge, 
and  made  long  and  arduous  journeys  to  contact  the  various  tribes  in  his 


districts.  He  had  an  earnest  desire  to  perform  his  duty  toward  the  Indians 
and  also  had  a  practical  knowledge  of  what  was  best  for  them.  He  worked 
hard  to  carry  out  the  obligations  of  his  office,  but  the  Civil  war  caused  the 
retirement  of  many  officials  who  might  be  considered  Southerners. 

Major  Vaughan  was  in  Montana  the  summer  of  1868  when  the  treaties 
were  made  with  the  Blackfoot,  Gros  Ventres  and  Crows,  and  did  special 
work  for  U.  S.  Commissioner  Cullen  among  these  various  tribes  and  signed 
the  three  treaties  as  a  witness.  He  died  in  Marshall  county,  Mississippi,  in 
June,  1871,  aged  70  years. 

83  Two  Elks.  Major  Hatch,  Indian  agent,  mentioned  Two  Elks  as  a 
Gros  Ventre  chief. 

84  Kennerly,  H.  A.  1835-1913.  Henry  Atkinson  Kennerly,  born  at  Jef- 
ferson Barracks,  St.  Louis,  Dec.  2,  1835,  the  son  of  George  Hancock  and 
Alziere  Menard  Kennerly,  was  a  grandson  of  Pierre  Menard  who  built  the 
Three  Forks  fort  in  1809.  Henry  A.  Kennerly  accompanied  Colonel  Curn- 
ming  when  the  latter  came  up  the  Missouri  river  to  meet  the  Indians  in 
council  near  the  Judith  river  in  1855. 

Kennerly  returned  to  Montana  in  1863  and  was  a  resident  of  Montana 
until  his  death  at  Cut  Bank,  July  9,  1913.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Fourth 
Territorial  Session,  1867,  of  the  Montana  Legislature  and  served  as  county 
treasurer  of  Chouteau  county. 

85  Willson.  This  is  probably  the  E.  S.  Willson  who  signed  the  treaty  of 
Oct  17,  1855,  and  he  may  have  come  from  St.  Paul  with  Major  Hatch. 
There  is  an  entry  in  the  St.  Louis  ledgers  of  the  fur  company,  Aug.  9,  1856. 
for  drayage  charges  on  the  trunk  of  E.  S.  Willson  to  St.  Paul. 

86  De  Roche,  Benj.  1827-1878.  Benjamin  De  Roche  was  the  son  of 
August  Durocher  and  Marie  Louise  Hortiz,  born  in  1827.  The  change  in 
the  spelling  of  the  name  is  probably  due  to  pronunciation  of  Durocher,  which 
in  French  would  be  Du  Roch  and  easily  mistaken  for  De  Roche.  At  the 
time  of  the  death  of  his  mother  in  St.  Louis,  Dec.  30,  1863,  Benjamin  was 
living  in  Fort  Benton  and  was  included  in  the  poll  list  for  Chouteau  county. 
Oct.  24,  1864.  He  signed  the  Blackfoot  treaty  of  Nov.  16,  1865,  at  Benton 
as  an  interpreter  and  was  included  in  the  1870  census  of  Chouteau  county. 
He  was  described  as  a  trader,  born  in  Missouri,  with  a  half-breed  family  of 
three  children.  His  son  Benjamin,  Jr.,  died  in  Fort  Benton,  December. 
1869.  of  smallpox  and  Benjamin,  Sr.,  died  at  Fort  McLeod,  Canada,  Dec. 
28.  1878. 

8"  Henry.     See  Mills,  Henry.     Note  135. 

«8  Pend  d'Oreilles.  A  tribe  of  the  Selish  group  which  occupied  territory 
in  the  Flathead  lake  region  of  western  Montana.  These  Indians  came  to 
attend  the  council  which  Governor  Stevens  was  to  hold  at  the  Judith  river. 

89  Deep  river  (Smith  river).  Present  day  Smith  river  in  Meagher  county, 

90  Oct.  4.  1855.  It  was  the  intention  of  Governor  Stevens  and  Commis- 
sioner Gumming  to  hold  the  Indian  council  near  Fort  Benton,  but  the  boats 
were  so  Ions?  delayed  in  coming  up  tlic  river  that  it  was  decided  on  Oct.  5. 
1855,  to  hold  the  council  at  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  river  since  the  Indians 
were  all  arriving  and  the  boats  would  be  25  days  longer  in  reaching  Fort 
Benton.  So  messengers  were  sent  to  the  various  Indian  camps  to  notify 
them  that  the  council  v.ould  be  held  at  the  Judith.  Governor  Stevens  ar- 
rived at  the  council  grounds  October  11,  where  the  boats  were  unloading 
and  by  October  15  all  the  Indians  had  assembled.  3,500  in  all.  The  council 
opened  Tuesday,   October   16,   and   on   October   17   the   treaty  was   signed. 


During  the  next  three  days,  October  18-20,  presents,  coats  and  medals  were 
distributed  and  speeches  made.  Since  there  are  no  entries  in  the  Journal 
from  October  4  to  18,  the  journalist  evidently  attended  the  council.  The 
Indian  tribes  represented  were  the  Blackfoot  nation,  the  Flatheads, 
Upper  Pend  d'Oreilles,  Kootenay  and  Nez  Perce.  The  treaty  was  known 
as  a  "peace  treaty"  since  it  was  intended  to  establish  peaceful  relations 
among  these  tribes  as  well  as  to  define  the  boundaries  of  the  hunting 
grounds,  etc. 

91  Citadel  (Mo.  R.)  A  prominent  landmark  on  the  Upper  Missouri  river 
about  63  miles  below  Fort  Benton. 

92  Indian  Outbreak,  W.  T.  Tribes  of  the  Upper  Columbia  broke  out  in 
open  war.  Pearson  made  a  fast  and  dangerous  ride  to  bring  news  of  the 
outbreak  to  Stevens  at  Benton. 

93  Boat  Arrival,  Nov.  5,  1855.  Hazard  Stevens  in  his  biography  of  his 
father,  I.  I.  Stevens,  accused  the  fur  company  of  purposely  delaying  the 
boats  which  brought  the  government  goods  to  the  council  at  the  Judith. 
The  reason  for  the  company's  action  was  that  the  distribution  of  the  govern- 
ment goods  spoiled  the  trade  of  company  goods  with  the  Indians. 

9-1  Star  Robe.  Star  Robe  was  a  Gros  Ventre  Indian  who  signed  the 
treaty  of  Oct.  17,  1855,  and  those  of  Nov.  16,  1865,  at  Benton,  and  July  13, 
1868,  at  Fort  Hawley.  He  was  described  as  being  in  1862  the  wealthiest 
Indian  among  the  Gros  Ventres.    (N.  D.  Hist.  Coll.,  v2,  pt.  2,  p.  63.) 

95  Belt  Mountain  creek.  Present  day  Belt  creek,  a  branch  of  the  Mis- 
souri river  from  the  south  above  Fort  Benton. 

96  Missouri  Falls.    The  Great  Falls  of  the  Missouri  river. 

97  Skunk.  A  Gros  Ventre  Indian  who  signed  the  treaty  of  Oct.  17,  1855, 
at  the  Judith  council. 

98  Low  Horn.  Low  Horn,  according  to  Governor  Stevens,  was  the  prin- 
cipal Piegan  chief  at  the  Judith  council  where  he  signed  the  treaty  of  Oct. 
17,  1855.  He  was  described  as  "Low  Horn,  the  quiet  and  even  meek  spokes- 
man at  the  council  (Benton,  September,  1853)  and  the  trumpet-toned  chief 
in  the  presence  of  his  men;  crossed  the  Missouri  river  in  1855  with  his 
whole  band,  moved  up  the  Judith,  and  camped  on  the  Muscleshell — the  first 
man  who  extended  the  hand  of  welcome  and  friendship  to  the  western 
Indians  as  they  crossed  the  mountains  on  their  way  to  the  council,  showing 
most  conclusively  that  faith  can  be  put  in  Indians." 

Low  Horn  signed  the  Blackfoot  treaty,  No.  7,  Sept.  22,  1877,  on  the  Bow 
river  in  Canada  and  is  said  to  have  died  of  extreme  old  age  on  the  Marias 
river,  but  the  date  is  not  certain.  His  original  name,  according  to  the  In- 
dians, was  Four  Persons. 

99  Spotted  Eagle.  Walter  McClintock  wrote  of  an  old  Blackfoot  medi- 
cine man  on  the  reservation  in  1896  named  Spotted  Eagle. 

100  Red  Horn.  There  was  a  Blackfoot  Indian  of  this  name  at  Fort  Mc- 
Kenzie  in  1833,  when  Maximilian  was  there. 

191  Rotten  Belly.  This  name  was  borne  by  several  Indians.  A  famous 
Crow  chief.  Rotten  Belly,  was  killed  by  the  Blackfoot  near  Fort  McKenzie 
in  1834. 

192  Sitting  Woman.  Sitting  Woman,  Sitting  Squaw  or  F"emmisee  was  a 
Gros  Ventre  chief.  His  father,  who  bore  the  same  name,  was  killed  in 
battle  between  the  Gros  Ventres  and  Assiniboines  at  the  Cypress  moun- 


tains  before  1853.    Sitting  Women  signed  the  treaties  of  Oct.  17,  1855;  Nov. 
16,  1865,  at  Fort  Benton,  and  July  13,  1868,  at  Fort  Hawley. 

103  "Chantier."  The  "chantier,"  so-called  from  the  French  word  for 
boatyard  as  the  mackinaw  and  keel  boats  were  built  here,  being  close  to 
timber.     It  is  the  Shonkin  creek  of  today. 

10-1  Bad  Head.  Signed  the  Blackfoot  treaty  of  Oct.  17.  1855,  at  Judith 

105  Chine,  P.  This  name,  pronounced  "Shane,"  was  spelled  in  various 
manners,  Chene,  Chane,  Shienne,  etc.  The  founder  of  the  family,  Pierre 
Chene,  was  born  in  France,  1654,  emigrated  to  Canada,  married  and  his 
descendants  moved  from  Montreal  to  Detroit,  to  St.  Louis  and  finally  the 
Upper  Missouri  river.  A  Pierre  Chaine  was  employed  by  the  Missouri  Fur 
Company  in  1812-13,  probably  the  father  of  Pierre  Chine  of  Fort  Benton. 
Father  De  Smet  baptized  at  Fort  Union.  July  20,  1851,  La  Croix,  aged  4 
years,  and  Caroline  Chene,  10  months,  children  of  Pierre  Chine  by  his  first 
wife,  a  Blackfoot  woman.  He  later  moved  to  the  Crow  Indian  country  on 
the  Yellowstone,  where  he  was  employed  as  an  interpreter  at  the  agency. 
He  was  a  witness  to  the  Crow  treaty  of  1873  and  is  included  in  the  1870 
census.  Big  Horn  county,  as  Pierre  Shane,  aged  41  years,  born  in  Canada. 
He  married  a  Crow  woman  and  his  children  live  today  on  the  Crow  reserva- 
tion. George  C.  Berry,  who  saw  him  in  June,  1876,  described  him  as  an 
oldish  man,  slender  and  short,  a  French-Canadian. 

IOC  Bellies  River.  The  Belly  river,  a  branch  of  the  Bow  river  in  southern 
Alberta,  Canada. 

lOT  The  Rider.  The  Rider  signed  the  treaty  of  Oct.  17,  1855,  as  aGros 
Ventre,  but  his  picture  is  included  in  a  group  of  Blackfoot  chiefs  in  H. 
Stevens'  biography  of  his  father. 

los  Calf's  Robe  (Blood).  Calf's  Robe  and  Calf's  Shirt  were  different 
translations  of  this  Blood  chief's  name.  Hatch,  Indian  agent,  spoke  of  him 
as  Calf's  Shirt  and  it  was  that  name  he  signed  to  the  treaty  of  Oct.  17,  1855. 

There  was  another  Blood  chief  of  this  name  whom  W.  T.  Hamilton  met 
in  October,  1858,  "one  of  the  head  chiefs  of  the  Blood  Indians."  The  treaty 
of  Sept.  1,  1868,  at  Benton  was  signed  by  Calf's  Shirt  and  Treaty  No.  7,  in 
Canada,  was  signed  by  "Onistah,  Calf  Robe,"  on  Sept.  21.  1877.  S.  C.  Ashby 
was  in  charge  of  a  trading  post  on  the  Marias  for  I.  G.  Baker  in  1868-69, 
and  that  winter  Calf  Shirt  and  his  band  came  from  Canada  to  the  post.  It 
was  their  first  visit  to  the  United  States  since  the  murder  of  12  men  in  1865 
on  the  Marias  river  near  Benton  by  Calf  Shirt's  band.  They  spent  the 
winter  near  the  Ashby  post  and  at  one  time  Calf  Shirt  while  drunk  attempted 
to  murder  Father  Imoda. 

J.  W.  Schultz  in  "Sign  Posts  of  Adventure"  gave  the  name  of  this  chief 
as  Onistai'  yi.  which  correctly  translated  meant  Sacred  or  Miraculous  Robe. 
A  note  in  the  Bradley  manuscript  states  that  Calf  Shirt  was  killed  by  Joe 
Kipp  at  Whoop-up  the  winter  of  1873-74.  Culbertson  met  him  on  the  Bow 
river  in  1870. 

109  Big  Bend.  Big  Bend  and  Grand  Tour  are  the  same  and  refer  to 
either  the  Big  Bend  of  the  Milk  or  the  Missouri  rivers. 

110  Two  Forks.     The  North  and  West  forks  of  the  Milk  river. 

111  Mr.  Dawson's  Comrade.  A  term  used  in  the  fur  trade  which  meant 
a  certain  Indian  singled  out  for  special  favors  because  of  his  loyalty  and 


112  Father  of  All  People.  Men-es-to'-kos,  a  Blood  chief,  whose  name 
was  translated  in  various  forms,  as  Father  of  All  People,  Father  of  All 
Children,  Children  Everywhere,  the  latter  being  the  name  that  is  used  by 
J.  W.  Schultz.  Grinnell  also  said  this  was  the  correct  meaning  and  may 
have  had  Schultz  for  his  authority.  This  chief  was  the  father  of  Mrs. 
Culbertson.  He  was  present  when  the  Blackfoot  treaty,  No  7,  was  made 
on  the  Bow  river,  when  he  was  said  to  be  "the  oldest  Indian  present." 

Grinnell  said  he  was  living  in  1892.  He  signed  the  treaty  of  Oct.  17,  1855, 
and  the  treaty  of  Nov.  16,  1865,  at  Benton. 

113  Sleepers.     Skids  for  pulling  boats  out. 

114  Old  Sunn  (Blackfoot).  E.  A.  C.  Hatch,  agent  for  the  Blackfoot,  in 
his  report  of  1856  spoke  of  Old  Sun  or  Natose-Apiw  as  a  Blackfoot  chief. 
He  signed  the  treaty  of  Sept.  1,  1868,  at  Benton  and  Treaty  No.  7  on  the 
Bow  river,  Canada,  Sept.  21,  1877,  as  chief  of  the  North  Blackfoot  tribe. 
Schultz  said  the  correct  translation  of  the  name  Natos'  Api  is  Sun  Old  and 
its  last  bearer  was  a  Sun  priest  of  the  Blackfoot. 

115  Big  Sun,  Bull  Sitting  Down,  The  Tail  that  Goes  up  the  Hill.  The 
reference  is  to  the  cannon  that  was  fired  on  these  Indians,  Feb.  19,  1844. 
See  Note  79,  Fort  McKenzie. 

116  Tail  That  Goes  Up  the  Hill.  The  Blackfoot  Indians,  interviewed  by 
Mr.  J.  B.  Ritch  at  Browning  in  March,  1940,  told  him  that  this  was  the 
name  of  the  Indian  known  as  Heavy  Runner  who  was  killed  in  the  Baker 
massacre  on  the  Marias  river,  January,  1870. 

iiy  Soldier  Bands.  E.  T.  Denig's  account  of  the  Assiniboine  Indians 
published  in  the  forty-sixth  annual  report  of  the  Bureau  of  American 
Ethnology,  described  the  soldiers  as  follows: 

"The  soldiers,  Ah-kitche-tah.  These  are  the  bravest  and  most  orderly 
men  of  from  25  to  35  years  of  age.  They  have  been  and  are  still  warriors 
and  leaders  of  parties  to  war;  are  chosen  expressly  to  carry  out  the  decrees 
of  the  council  even  at  the  risk  of  their  lives,  to  punish  people  for  raising 
the  buffalo,  setting  the  prairie  on  fire,  govern  the  camp,  entertain  and  feast 
the  same,  arrange  preliminaries  of  peace,  trade,  and  generally  to  aid  their 
chief  in  carrying  out  his  views  and  decisions  of  council." 

ns  White  Eagle.— 1881.  White  Eagle,  the  son  of  Eagle  Chief,  was 
second  in  command  of  the  Gros  Ventre  Indians,  according  to  George  B. 
Wright,  Indian  agent  in  1866.  Sitting  Woman  was  head  chief  of  the  tribe. 
White  Eagle  signed  the  treaties  of  Oct.  17,  1855;  Nov.  16,  1865,  and  July  13, 
1868,  as  a  Gros  Ventre  chief.  He  died  at  Clagett,  Montana,  Feb.  9,  1881, 
about  60  years  of  age,  and  had  been  a  chief  for  over  20  years. 

119  Mountain  Chief. — 1872.  Mountain  Chief  was  the  name  of  several 
chiefs  of  the  Piegan  tribe,  one  of  whom  still  lives  at  Browning.  Montana 
(1940),  92  years  old.  Hayden  spelled  the  name  Ni-na-sta'-ko-i,  but  it  was 
also  given  as  Mena-es-to-ka  in  another  reference.  W.  T.  Hamilton  met 
Mountain  Chief  in  October,  1858,  and  said  at  that  time  he  was  second  in 
rank  of  the  Piegan  chiefs.  He  signed  the  three  treaties  of  1855.  1865  and 
1868  as  a  Piegan.  In  the  River  Press  (Fort  Benton),  Dec.  14,  1892,  an  In- 
dian named  Mountain  Chief  was  described  as  the  son  of  the  Mountain  Cliief 
who  killed  Vandenberg,  the  trapper,  on  the  Yellowstone  river  in  1832.  The 
Mountain  Chief  of  the  journal  was  a  large  man,  had  five  wives,  all  sisters. 
and  twenty  children.  He  was  killed  by  anotlier  Blackfoot  Indian,  who  fired 
into  his  tent  under  the  impression  that  he  was  shooting  at  an  enemy.  This 
is  said  to  have  happened  in  March,  1872. 


120  Three  Bulls.  Three  Bulls  was  a  Blackfoot  chief  whose  name  Hayden 
wrote  as  "Noh'-ska-stum'-ik."  He  was  one  of  the  head  chiefs  and  signed 
the  treaty  of  Oct.  17,  1855,  and  the  treaty  of  Sept.  1,  1868.  at  Benton. 

121  Bull's  Head.  Hayden  gives  his  name  as  "Stum'-i-ko-tu'-kan."  Bull's 
Head's  people  lived  on  the  Saskatchewan  and.  according  to  the  report  of 
H  D  Upham,  deputy  Indian  agent  for  the  Blackfoot  in  1866,  it  was  his 
band  of  North  Piegans  or  Blackfoot  that  attacked  the  government  farm  on 
Sun  river,  April,  1866,  and  killed  two  white  men.  Bull's  Head  signed  the 
Blackfoot  treaty  at  Benton,  Nov.  16,  1865,  and  Sept.  1,  1868.  An  Indian  of 
the  same  name  signed  the  Gros  Ventre  treaty  at  Fort  Hawley,  July  13,  1868. 
as  a  Gros  Ventre.  He  was  probably  the  same  Bull's  Head  who  signed 
Treaty  No.  7,  Sept.  21,  1877,  in  Alberta  as  head  chief  of  the  Sarcees,  which 
was  a  band  that  belonged  to  the  North  Blackfoot. 

122  Owen,  Maj.  1818-1889.  Major  John  Owen  was  the  owner  of  Fort 
Owen,  a  trading  post  in  the  Bitter  Root  valley  near  the  present  town  of 
Stevensville,  Montana.  Major  Owen  bought  the  buildings  and  site  of  St. 
Marv's  mission  from  the  Jesuit  missionaries,  November,  1850.  He  left  his 
home  March  10,  1856,  for  his  journey  to  Fort  Benton.  In  his  journal  he 
made  the  following  entrv,  March  26,  1856:  "Left  Mr.  Dawson  with  some 
regret  for  he  had  given  Myself  &  party  the  hospitality  of  Fort  Benton  in 
an  open  and  liberal  manner  he  is  a  Scotchman  &  one  of  the  partners  in  the 
fur  trade  on  the  Mo  river."  Major  Owen  visited  Fort  Benton,  Aug.  20-27, 
1855,  when  Governor  Stevens  was  in  camp  nearby. 

123  Yellow  Head.     See  Note  124,  Kelchiponesta's  son. 

124  Kelchiponesta's  Son.  This  Piegan  name  was  spelled  "Kitch-eepone- 
istah"  when  he  signed  the  treaty  of  Oct.  17,  1855.  His  son  was  known  as 
Yellowhead,  and  Owen  in  his  journal  entry  called  him  "Sartair,  whose 
Blackfoot  name  was  Keitse  Pern  Sa."  He  arrived  at  Fort  Owen,  May  1, 
1856  the  first  friendly  visit  of  a  Blackfoot  to  the  Flathead  country,  which 
spoke  well  for  the  result  of  the  council  of  Oct.  17,  1855.  He  left  Fort  Owen 
May  11,  1856,  for  Fort  Benton  with  Major  Owen's  letter.  Yellow  Head 
and  Yellow  Hair  was  probably  the  same  person.  Yellow  Hair  was  em- 
ployed as  a  guide  in  September,  1853,  by  Lieutenant  Donelson  of  the  Stevens 
expedition  in  an  exploration  of  Cadotte's  pass. 

125  Point  Frenchman.  There  were  two  points  on  the  Upper  Missouri 
known  by  this  name,  one  about  30  miles  below  Poplar  river  and  the  other 
between  the  Musselshell  and  Armell's  creek. 

CHARLES  CHOUQUETTE.     1823-1911 

126  Charles  Chouquette,  residing  near  Browning,  Teton  county,  is  prob- 
ably one  of  the  earliest  of  the  Montana  pioneers  who  have  remained  in  the 
state  and  lived  to  come  in  touch  with  modern  life.  As  trapper,  Indian 
fighter,  freighter,  range  rider  and  stockman  he  has  had  a  long  and  eventful 
experience,  and  the  story  of  his  life  is  much  of  the  history  of  Montana.  He 
was  born  at  St.  Charles,  Mo.,  Feb.  9,  1823,  the  son  of  Henry  and  Rosalie 
(Piquette)  Chouquette.  In  1844,  when  20  years  of  age,  he  signed  articles 
with  Pierre  Chouteau,  the  manager  of  a  large  fur  company  operating  on 
the  Upper  Missouri,  and  was  placed  in  charge  of  a  crew  transporting  a  boat- 
load of  goods  to  Fort  Union,  the  merchandise  to  be  traded  with  the  Indians 
for  furs  and  skins.  The  distance  from  St.  Louis  to  Fort  Union  was  2,000 
miles,  and  the  journey  was  long,  hazardous  and  embittered  by  numerous 
hardships.  Seventy-two  days  elapsed  before  the  expedition  arrived  at  Fort 
Union,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone  river.  In  those  days  encounters 
with  savage  and  hostile  tribes  of  Indians  were  numerous  and  oftentimes 


One  of  the  most  notable  Indian  battles  in  which  Mr.  Chouquette  was 
engaged  occurred  in  April.  1849,  on  the  site  of  the  city  of  Great  Falls.  He 
and  Anton  Bussette  and  Louis  La  Breche  had  fortunately  joined  the  famous 
trapper,  "Jim"  Bridger,  who  had  eighty  men  in  his  following.  While  in 
camp  on  the  Missouri  at  the  point  mentioned  they  were  fiercely  attacked 
by  400  savages,  and  for  a  time  the  scale  of  battle  hung  about  equally  between 
the  contending  forces.  At  last  the  Indians  were  repulsed,  leaving  forty- 
seven  of  their  companions  dead  on  the  field.  This  was  during  Mr.  Cho- 
quette's  first  trip  up  the  river,  when  he  assisted  in  moving  the  stores  of 
Fort  William  to  Fort  Benton.  From  1844  until  1863  he  was  connected  with 
the  American  Fur  Company.  Later  he  built  the  first  house  erected  in  Fort 
Benton,  and  then  for  six  years  was  in  the  employment  of  lion.  T.  C.  Power. 
In  1871  he  erected  the  first  house  built  in  Chouteau  county,  seven  miles  from 
the  old  Indian  agency,  moved  thither  and  engaged  in  farming  and  freighting 
until  1887.  For  the  past  seven  years  Mr.  Chouquette  has  resided  on  the 
Blackfoot  reservation  in  Teton  county,  where  his  family  have  a  ranch  of 
320  acres  of  fine,  well  improved  land  on  Willow  creek,  five  miles  from 
Browning,  devoted  to  the  raising  of  cattle  and  horses  and  the  raising  of 
hay.  At  Fort  Benton,  in  1854,  Mr.  Chouquette  was  married  to  Rosa  Lee 
(Rosalie)  ?,  an  Indian,  the  ceremony  being  performed  by  Father  De  Smet. 
They  have  six  children,  Melinda  (Mrs.  John  Wren),  Louise  (Mrs.  How- 
burg),  Josephine  (Mrs.  John  Grant),  Anton  and  George,  all  living  on  the 
Published  about  1900. 

Note:  Charles  Chouquette  died  near  Browning,  May  18,  1911,  and  was 
buried  at  Holy  Family  Mission,  May  20,  1911.  His  daughter.  Melinda  C. 
Wren,  died  at  Browning,  Feb.  29,  1940. 

JACOB  SCHMIDT.     1832-1907 

127  Jacob  Schmidt  was  born  at  Etiinger,  in  the  vicinity  of  Heidelburg, 
Germany,  August  8,  1832,  and  died  at  Choteau,  Montana,  March  1,  1907, 
aged  74  years,  8  months  and  23  days. 

Mr.  Schmidt  learned  the  tailor  trade  in  his  native  village  and  in  Frankfort 
on  the  Main.  When  sixteen  years  of  age  he  worked  his  way  across  the 
Atlantic  to  New  York  City,  from  which  place  he  later  migrated  to  St.  Louis, 
Mo.,  and  the  same  year  embarked  on  a  steamboat  en  route  to  Fort  Benton, 
Mont.,  via  the  Missouri  river,  arriving  there  in  the  spring  of  1854.  Here 
he  secured  employment  at  his  trade  from  Andrew  Dawson,  with  whom  he 
remained  until  1863,  when  he  removed  to  Deer  Lodge,  and  in  the  spring  of 
1864  to  Silver  City,  Lewis  and  Clarke  county,  where  he  opened  a  grocery 

In  1865  he  removed  his  grocery  store  to  Helena  and  added  to  the  enter- 
prise a  bakery.  One  year  later  he  returned  to  Fort  Benton,  where  he  built 
the  Overland  hotel,  conducting  the  same  one  season,  thence  going  back 
to  Silver  City,  where  lie  remained  through  the  winter.  In  1867  we  find 
Mr.  Schmidt  at  Old  Mission,  near  where  is  at  present  located  Ulm  station 
on  the  Great  Northern  railway,  and  here  for  the  following  two  years  he 
engaged  in  the  stock  business.  From  1869  until  1874  Mr.  Schmidt  was 
settled  at  St.  Peter's  Mission,  twelve  miles  from  Cascade,  continuing  in  the 
same  enterprise;  thence  removing  to  Haystack  Butte,  on  the  South  Fork 
of  Sun  river,  where  he  engaged  in  general  farming  and  cattle  raising.  Dur- 
ing the  following  sixteen  years  he  resided  at  Chouteau.  While  here  he 
served  six  years  as  school  trustee,  and  among  his  last  acts  was  to  address 
the  school  children.  He  was  honored  by  being  elected  coroner  for  three 
successivr  terms.  For  the  past  seven  years  he  with  his  family  have  resided 
in  this  couiitv  of  Teton  on  the  Cut  Rank  river. 


At  Fort  Benton,  Dec.  25.  1856,  Mr.  Schmidt  was  united  in  marriage  to 
Miss  Margaret  Miller.  To  this  union  was  born  eleven  children,  six  of 
whom  have  gone  to  join  the  great  majority,  along  with  five  grandchildren. 
He  leaves  a  widow,  three  daughters,  Mrs.  Armstrong,  Mrs.  Momberg, 
Mrs.  Kerr;  two  sons,  Carroll  and  George;  eighteen  living  grandchildren, 
and  two  great  grandchildren.    (The   Choteau   .^cantha,  March  7,   1907.) 

REV.  ELKANAH  MACKEY.     1826-1858 

12S  Rev.  Mackey  was  a  missionary  sent  out  by  the  Board  of  Missions  of 
the  Presbyterian  Church  to  establish  a  mission  for  the  Blackfoot  Indians  in 
Nebraska  territory  in  the  summer  of  1856.  He  was  born  in  Colerain,  Pa., 
Sept.  16,  1826,  and  graduated  from  the  College  of  New  Jersey  in  1852.  He 
entered  the  theological  seminary  of  Princeton  University  and  finished  his 
studies  there  in  1856  and  was  ordained  as  a  missionary  to  the  Indians.  Be- 
fore leaving  for  the  West  he  married  Miss  Sarah  E.  Armstrong  of  Cecil 
county,  Maryland,  who  accompanied  him  to  the  country  of  the  Blackfoot 
Indians.  Evidently  the  hardships  and  loneliness  of  the  life  of  the  trading 
post  proved  too  much  for  Mrs.  Mackey  and  they  left  Fort  Benton,  Sept. 
15,  1856,  for  the  States  and  their  home  in  Maryland.  Rev.  Mackey  died 
there  Sept.  6,  1858. 

E.  A.  C.  Hatch,  agent  for  the  Blackfoot  Indians,  was  at  Fort  Benton  at 
the  time  the  Mackeys  were  there  and  made  the  following  references  to 
them  in  his  journal: 

"July  29,  1856.  Met  Culbertson  and  party:  Mackeys  with  him  'the  first 
white  woman  in  the  country.' 

"Aug.  15,  1856.  Culbertson  party  reached  Benton.  .\ug.  16,  1856.  The 
Priest  and  his  wife  appear  to  be  pleased  with  the  place,  Indians  and  country 
— will  probably  get  enough  of  it  before  spring. 

"Aug.  17,  1856.  Today  probably  for  the  first  time  the  walls  of  Fort  Ben- 
ton echoed  to  the  sound  of  Protestant  divine  services.  Not  a  very  numerous 
audience  but  very  attentive.     I  did  not  attend. 

"Aug.  18,  1856.     Mrs.  Mackey  and  Mr.  Culbertson  both  unwell. 

"Aug.  20,  1856.  Mrs.  Mackey  some  better  and  they  talk  of  going  down 
again  this  fall. 

"Aug.  31,  1856.     Preaching  up  stairs. 

"Sept.  1,  1856.     Mr.  Mackey  started  for  the  falls  with  Chouquette. 

"Sept.  7,  1856.  Mr.  Mackey  did  not  preach  today.  .  .  .  Why?  I  do  not 

"Sept.  15,  1856.  Mr.  Culbertson  and  wife,  missionary  and  wife  started 
by  land  down  the  river." 

Blackfeet  Mission.  Measures  were  adopted  in  the  early  part  of  the 
summer  for  the  establishment  of  a  mission  among  the  Blackfeet  Indians 
who  reside  on  the  headwaters  of  the  Missouri,  four  or  five  hundred  miles 
northwest  of  Fort  Union  and  near  the  base  of  the  Rocky  mountains.  This 
is  known  to  be  one  of  the  largest  and  most  interesting  of  all  the  Indian 
tribes  in  the  region.  They  are  at  the  same  time  surrounded  by  many  smaller 
bands,  who  would  share  in  the  benefits  of  the  mission.  The  attention  of 
the  executive  committee  was  especially  called  to  the  claims  of  these  Indians 
by  Alexander  Culbertson,  Esq.,  who  had  resided  for  some  time  among  them 
as  agent  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  and  who  felt  a  sincere  desire  to 
see  them  brought  under  the  influence  of  Christian  civilization.  Rev. 
Elkanah  D.  Mackey  of  the  Presbytery  of  Newcastle,  and  Mrs.  Mackey,  were 
appointed  to  commence  this  mission,  and  left  home  in  the  month  of  June 
for  that  purpose,  but  did  not  reach  Fort  Benton,  the  proposed  headquarters 


of  the  mission,  until  the  middle  of  August.  From  Fort  Union  they  had  to 
travel  by  wagons,  using  tents  at  night,  to  Fort  Benton  and  were  three  weeks 
in  performing  this  journey.  They  were  very  cordially  received  by  the 
Indians,  and  much  gratification  was  expressed  at  the  prospect  of  having 
Christian  missionaries  to  live  with  them.  Mrs.  Mackey's  health  failed,  how- 
ever, and  Mr.  Mackey  felt  it  his  duty  to  return  with  her  after  a  sojourn  of 
six  weeks  at  Fort  Benton,  hoping  to  be  able  to  return  in  the  spring  and 
resume  his  work. 

Mr.  Mackey  has  communicated  much  valuable  information  about  the 
Indian  tribes  in  that  region — the  nature  of  the  climate,  the  soil  and  pro- 
ductions of  the  country — all  of  which  go  to  show  the  importance  of  sus- 
taining a  permanent  mission  among  that  people.  As  they  are  migratory  in 
their  habits,  however,  and  dwell  almost  altogether  in  tents,  very  little  good 
can  be  affected  for  them,  except  by  establishing  a  boarding  school  for  their 
children.  This  cannot  be  done,  however,  without  large  expense;  and,  as 
it  is  presumed  that  the  government  would  cheerfully  make  an  appropriation 
for  this  purpose,  a  proposition  to  this  effect  has  been  submitted  to  them. 
Until  this  has  been  acted  upon,  no  further  measures  will  be  adopted  for 
carrying  on  the  mission. 

(Minutes  of  the  Gen.  Assembly  of  the  Pres.  Church  in  the  U.  S.  A.,  V15, 
(1857)  20th  ann.  rept.  of  the  Board  of  Foreign  Missions  of  the  Pres.  Church 
in  the  U.  S.  A.,  pp.  26-27.) 

129  Hamilton,  Maj.  (of  the  opposition).  1811-1867.  Major  Joseph  Var- 
num  Hamilton,  who  was  in  charge  of  Fort  Campbell  for  the  Opposition, 
should  not  be  confused  with  James  Archdale  Hamilton  of  Fort  Union  who 
died  in  St.  Louis  in  1840.  Joseph  V.  Hamilton  born  at  Fort  Madison, 
Iowa,  in  1811,  the  son  of  Major  Thomas  Hamilton  of  the  U.  S.  army, 
was  in  the  service  of  the  American  Fur  Company  at  an  early  date.  At  one 
time  he  was  acting  Indian  agent  under  Major  Drips.  In  his  later  years  he 
lived  in  South  Dakota  and  died  at  Fort  Randall,  Zi.  1867.  (S.  D.  Hist. 
Coll.  vol.  8,  p.  177.) 

130  The  Treaty.  This  refers  to  Major  E.  A.  C  Hatch's  meeting  with  the 
Indians  near  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  river  to  receive  the  goods  which  were 
brought  up  the  river  from  Fort  Union  by  mackinaw  boats  to  that  point. 
Hatch  received  the  goods  Sept.  22,  1856,  and  distributed  the  annuities  and 
presents  to  the  Indians.  He  said  there  were  about  8,000  Indians  present  at 
the  council. 

131  The  Fathers,  One  of  (Rev.  Jos.  Menetry).  1812-1891.  This  is  a 
reference  to  Father  Joseph  Menetry,  one  of  the  Jesuit  priests  from  St. 
Ignatius  mission  in  western  Montana,  who  was  born  in  Switzerland  in  1812 
and  died  at  St.  Ignatius  in  1891.  after  40  years  as  a  missionary  in  Montana. 
The  Father  had  come  to  meet  the  boats  which  were  to  bring  supplies  for 
the  mission. 

132  Howard  (Joseph).  -1894.  There  were  two  men  of  this  name  at  Fort 
Benton,  father  and  son,  for  a  Joseph  Howard  was  in  the  records  of  the 
American  Fur  Company  of  1830.  The  elder  Howard  was  said  by  some  to 
be  the  son  of  Thomas  P.  Howard  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition,  but 
there  was  a  man  of  the  same  name  with  the  Northwest  Company.  The 
infant  son  of  Joseph  Howard  and  Margaret,  an  Indian  woman,  was  bap- 
tized in  the  St.  Louis  Cathedral,  22.  1839,  less  than  a  month  after  his 
marriage  to  Emilie  Dulireuil  at  the  same  church.  Joseph  Howard,  Jr.,  was 
the  son  of  a  French  Creole  and  a  Piegan  Indian  woman,  born  at  Fort  Ben- 
ton, taken  to  St.  Louis  at  an  early  age  and  who  returned  to  Fort  Benton  in 
1851.  He  is  the  man  who  was  sent  with  Owen  in  October,  1856,  to  help  in 
getting  Ills  goods  to  Fort  Owen.  Major  Owen  described  him  as  "a  stout 
hard,  young  halfbrced,  inured  to  all  hardships  of  a  mountain  life."  Howard 
settled  on  a  ranch  near  Choteau  in  1873  and  died  there  Dec.  28.  1894. 


133  Mr.  Owen's  Man.  "Delaware  Jim,  whose  father  was  a  Delaware 
chief  and  his  mother,  a  white  woman,  and  who  had  spent  a  life-time,  for 
he  was  now  (1855)  past  middle  age,  in  hunting  and  traveling  over  all 
parts  of  the  country,  from  the  Mississippi  to  the  Pacific  .  .  .  He  had  a 
tall,  slender  form,  a  keen  eye,  an  intelligent  face  and  reserved  manners. 
He  was  reticent  in  speech  although  he  spoke  English  well  ..."  (Life  of 
Gen.  I.  I.  Stevens  by  Hazard  Stevens.) 

134  Simon,  John.  Monica  Hamell,  daughter  of  Augustin  Hamell,  mar- 
ried a  John  Simon  who  died  in  St.  Louis,  1863.  There  was  a  son,  Charles 
Simon,  who  was  living  on  the  Blackfoot  reservation  several  years  ago. 

135  Mills,  Henry.  1808-  Henry  Mills,  may  have  been  the  "negro 
Henry"  mentioned  in  the  St.  Louis  ledger  of  the  American  Fur  Company: 

Proportion  of  negro  Henry's  wages  for  services  to 

U.  M.  O.     1839-40. 
Paid  Kenneth  McKenzie  ^  of  $378.12  $189.06 

Yz  of  $243.74  1841-42        162.50 

He  was  probably  the  property  of  Kenneth  McKenzie  since  a  portion  of 
Mills'  wages  were  paid  to  him.  There  were  a  number  of  negroes  at  the 
trading  posts  with  Indian  families.  The  census  of  1870,  Choteau  county, 
Montana  territory,  included  a  Henry  Mills,  negro,  born  in  Kentucky,  age 
62  years,  Indian  wife  and  daughter.  He  was  also  included  in  the  list  of 
inhabitants,  Choteau  county,  1862-63.  His  son,  Dave,  lived  on  the  Blood 
reserve  in  Canada  where  he  was  employed  as  an  interpreter. 

136  Gentard,  A.  Andrew  Dawson  mentioned  a  Paul  Gentard  in  a  letter, 
September  25,  1860,  and  Paul  Guitard  was  on  the  Choteau  county  poll  list 
of  Oct.  24,  1864. 

137  Lorian.  Joseph.  1832-  A  carpenter,  born  in  Canada  1832  and  worked 
in  Benton,  where  he  died  about  1885. 

138  Mercure,  V.  (L.  Vincent)  1820-1877.  Mr.  Mercure,  who  was  drowned 
near  Eagle  creek  in  the  Missouri  river,  August,  1877,  was  about  57  years 
of  age,  a  native  of  Canada,  and  by  profession  a  carpenter.  He  came  to 
Montana  in  1856  and  until  1862  was  employed  by  the  American  Fur  Com- 
pany. He  then  went  to  Salmon  river,  on  a  prospecting  tour,  and  remained 
absent  from  Benton  about  one  year.  On  his  return  he  went  to  the  Sas- 
katchewan river,  where  he  remained  another  year.  On  returning  to  Benton 
he  went  into  partnership  with  Mr.  Lorion,  and  until  the  year  1869  worked 
as  a  contractor  and  builder,  and  by  industry  and  economy  saved  quite  a 
competence.  Advancing  years  and  failing  health,  however,  compelled  him 
to  cease  working  at  his  trade  and  to  seek  some  less  laborious  occupation. 
In  1869  he  purchased  the  Brewery  Saloon  which  he  conducted  until  1875, 
when  he  sold  out  and  went  to  Canada.  Shortly  after  his  return  from  the 
East  he  purchased  a  half  interest  in  the  Shonkin  coal  mine.  The  latter  was 
not  a  success  and  its  failure  is  said  to  have  been  the  cause  of  his  death. 
The  deceased  was  an  intelligent  and  skillful  mechanic,  of  a  quiet,  inoffen- 
sive disposition,  and  had  the  reputation  of  being  very  honorable  in  his 
business  transactions.  He  served  several  terms  as  Commissioner  of  his 
county,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Board  of  School  Trustees  at  the  time 
of  his  death.  Unfortunately,  he  lacked  the  energy  and  tact  necessary  to 
a  successful  business  career,  and  being  of  an  extremely  sensitive  nature 
he  was  unable  to  bear  the  humiliation  resulting  from  his  financial  reverses. 
He  leaves  a  son  and  daughter,  the  former,  now  residing  in  Benton,  was 
educated  in  an  Eastern  college,  at  his  father's  expense,  and  the  daughter 
is  with  a  family  in  Helena.  Mercurc's  death  is  regretted  bv  a  large  circle 
of  friends.    (Benton  Record,  .^ug.  3,  1877.) 


139  Simpson,  Nelson.  The  name  "Narcisse"  was  often  pronounced  and 
spelled  as  "Nelse"  and  there  was  a  Narcisse  Simpson,  packer,  aged  30 
years,  born  in  Canada,  in  the  census  of  1860,  Bitter  Root  Valley,  Wash- 
ington territory. 

140  Paris,  F.  The  report  of  A.  J.  Vaughan,  agent  for  the  Blackfoot  In- 
dians, 1860,  states  that  Daniel  F.  Paris  was  appointed  farmer  on  the 
Blackfoot  farm  on  Sun  River,  August,  1860. 

141  Gourdereau,  J.  -1886.  Joseph  Goudreau,  born  in  Montreal,  came  to 
St.  Louis  in  the  early  40's.  He  was  a  blacksmith  at  Fort  Pierre  for  a 
number  of  years  and  later  at  the  posts  on  the  upper  river.  He  died  at 
Vanderbilt,  S.  D.,  in  1886.    (N.  D.  Hist.  Coll.  v.  1,  p.  365.) 

i-i2  Muller,  Jacob.  Jacob  Miller's  or  Muller's,  half-breed  daughter,  Mar- 
garet, married  Jacob  Schmidt  at  Fort  Benton,  Dec.  24,  1856.  The  Schmidt 
family  made  their  home  near  Choteau,  Montana.  Muller,  a  Bavarian,  was 
better  known  in  later  years  as  "Jack  Miller."  His  son.  Jack,  had  a  ranch 
on  the  Blackfoot  reservation  about  1900. 

143  Menard,  A   Louis   Menard,  with  an   Indian  family, 

was  clerk  and  interpreter  at  Fort  Pierre  prior  to  1851  and  this  man  may 
have  been  one  of  his  sons. 

144  Keiser,  William  -1867.  William  Keiser  was  known  as  "Buffalo 
Bill"  and  died  on  the  Little  Prickley  Pear,  Sept.  27,  1867. 

FORT  SARPY.     1850-1860 

145  Fort  Sarpy  was  preceded  by  Fort  Alexander  which  was  built  by  Lar- 
penteur  in  the  fall  of  1842  on  the  north  side  of  the  Yellowstone  river  near 
the  mouth  of  the  present  Armell's  creek  above  the  Rosebud.  Culbertson 
told  Bradley  he  built  Fort  Sarpy  which  was  named  for  J.  B.  Sarpy,  a 
partner  in  the  Chouteau  company,  in  the  summer  of  1850.  It  was  located 
on  the  north  bank  of  the  Yellowstone  river  a  short  distance  below  the 
mouth  of  the  Rosebud,  and  Robert  Meldrum  who  completed  the  fort  was 
in  charge.  Larpenteur  said  that  he  was  offered  $1000.00  a  year  in  the 
summer  of  1849  to  take  charge  of  the  fort  which  was  considered  the  most 
dangerous  of  the  posts  of  the  company.  In  the  St.  Louis  ledger  there 
is  an  entry  to  the  effect  that  the  trade  and  equipment  goods  of  Ft.  Alex- 
ander were  returned  to  Fort  Union,  May  26,  1850,  which  would  have  been 
about  the  time  the  returns  for  the  winter  of  1849-50  would  have  been 
brought  down  to  Fort  Union.  This  may  indicate  the  end  of  Fort  Alexan- 
der and  the  beginning  of  Fort  Sarpy  although  the  fort  built  in  1850  was 
generally  known  as  Fort  Alexander.  It  was  mentioned  in  the  records  of 
the  company  by  that  name  and  De  Smet,  Kurz,  Hayden  and  others 
wrote  of  Fort  Alexander,  not  Fort  Sarpy.  As  late  as  1856  Warren  called 
it  Fort  Alexander  Sarpie. 

One  of  the  first  to  use  the  name,  Sarpy,  for  the  Crow  post  was  the 
Indian  agent,  A.  J.  Vaughan,  in  his  report  of  1854.  He  left  Fort  Union 
July  18th  in  a  keel-boat  loaded  with  government  goods  and  those  of  the 
fur  company  on  a  journey  of  300  miles  up  the  Yellowstone  river  to  Fort 
Sarpy  where  they  arrived  Aug.  15.  1854.  Vaughan  wrote:  "Scarcely  a 
day  passes  but  the  Crow  country  is  infested  with  more  or  less  parties  of 
Blackfeet,  who  murder  indiscriminately  anything  that  comes  within  their 
reach.  At  Fort  Sarpy  so  great  is  the  danger  that  no  one  ventures  over 
a  few  yards  from  his  own  door  without  company  and  being  well-armed." 

The  journal  gives  us  the  date  of  the  destruction  of  the  first  Fort  Sarpy, 
May  19,  1855,  and  from  the  reports  of  the  Indian  agents  for  1855,  1856, 
1857,  we  learn  no  goods  were  sent  up  the  Yellowstone  river  to  the  Crows 


from  the  government  for  those  years.  Vaughan's  report  for  1855  dated 
Sept.  12,  1855,  stated:  "On  the  23rd  of  August,  a  mackinaw  boat  was 
started  from  Fort  Union  with  the  usual  outfit  of  trade  for  the  ensuing 
season  at  the  Crow  post.  It  had  only  proceeded  a  short  distance  up  the 
Yellowstone  river  when  the  hunters  for  the  boat,  who  were  in  quest  of 
game  (in  company  with  seven  Crow  Indians,  who  had  to  accompany  me 
with  their  annuities)  were  driven  back  to  the  fort  by  a  war  party  of  Sioux 
Indians,  having  had  a  miraculous  escape  with  their  lives.  The  boat  im- 
mediately returned  to  the  fort,  and  the  trip  to  the  Crows  abandoned  for 
the  present  season." 

The  long  trip  overland  to  the  Little  Big  Horn  that  Vaughan  made  in 
1856  to  meet  the  Crows  in  council  and  to  urge  them  to  come  to  Fort  Union 
to  receive  their  presents  from  the  company  would  indicate  there  was  no 
post  on  the  Yellowstone  river  that  year.  In  1857,  A.  H.  Redfield  succeeded 
Vaughan  as  agent  for  the  Upper  Missouri  Indians  and  when  he  came  up 
the  river  by  steamboat  to  Fort  Union  that  summer,  the  goods  were  un- 
loaded and  stored  at  Fort  William  as  Meldrum  assured  him  the  Crows 
would  not  come  to  Fort  Union  because  of  their  fear  of  the  smallpox  which 
was  raging  among  the  tribes  below  Fort  Union.  The  Crows  also  main- 
tained that  by  the  terms  of  the  Fort  Laramie  treaty,  1851,  their  goods 
were  to  be  delivered  to  them  in  their  own  country  and  again  it  was  dan- 
gerous for  them  to  visit  near  Fort  Union  because  of  their  enemies,  the 
Blackfoot  and  the  Sioux  Indians. 

In  Redfield's  report  for  1858  he  told  of  his  trip  up  the  Yellowstone  river 
that  summer  in  a  fur  company  boat  with  annuities  for  the  two  years,  1857- 
1858,  to  distribute  to  the  Crows.  The  expedition  left  Fort  Union,  July  4, 
and  was  to  meet  the  Crows  at  the  mouth  of  the  Powder  river  but  when 
they  reached  that  point  the  Indians  were  not  there.  Redfield  was  ill  and 
decided  to  return  to  Fort  Union  and  placed  the  goods  in  charge  of  Henry 
W.  Beeson  to  be  taken  up  to  Fort  Sarpy.  This,  the  second  fort  of  that 
name,  was  built  on  the  south  side  of  the  Yellowstone  river  a  few  miles  be- 
low the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn  and  might  have  been  occupied  the  winter 
of  1857-1858.  It  was  there  in  August,  1859,  when  Raynolds  visited  the  fort 
but  when  Maynadier  went  down  the  Yellowstone,  July,  1860,  he  found  Fort 
Sarpy  abandoned  which  marked  the  end  of  the  last  trading  post  on  the 
Yellowstone  river. 

Maynadier  described  it  as  follows: 

"We  found  the  trading-house  situated  in  the  timber  on  what  during  the 
high  water  would  be  an  island,  a  channel,  now  dry,  passing  to  the  south 
of  it.  The  "fort"  is  an  enclosure  about  100  feet  square,  of  upright  cotton- 
wood  logs  15  feet  high,  the  outer  wall  also  forming  the  exterior  of  a  row 
of  log-cabins  which  were  occupied  as  dwelling  houses,  store-houses,  shops 
and  stables.  The  roofs  of  these  structures  are  nearly  flat,  and  formed  of 
timber  covered  to  the  depth  of  about  a  foot  with  dirt,  thus  making  an  ex- 
cellent parapet  for  purposes  of  defense.  The  preparations  for  resistance  to 
possible  attacks  being  further  perfected  by  loopholes  in  the  upper  part  of 
the  outrow  of  logs.  The  entrance  is  through  a  heavy  gate  which  is  al- 
ways carefully  closed  at  night.  No  flanking  arrangements  whatever  exist, 
and  the  'fort'is  thus  a  decidedly  primitive  affair.  It  is  amply  sufficient  to 
protect  its  inmates  against  the  Indian." 

(See  Volume  three  of  the  Contributions  of  the  Historical  Society  of 
Montana  for  a  description  of  the  first  Fort  Sarpy  as  given  by  Culbcrtson.) 

146  Six.    See  Big  Six.    Note  148. 

147  Moakes.  Evidently  another  name  by  Chambers  for  the  man  known 
as   "Big   Six." 


148  Big  Six.    Also  Moakes,  Nokes,  Six.    From  the  journal  we  learn  that 

he  was  a  white  man,  born  in  Virginia,   Feb.  20,  ran  away  from 

Fort  Sarpy,  May  2,  1855,  to  the  Crow  camp  where  he  told  lies  about  the 
fort  and  Chambers.  When  he  left  the  fort  he  stole  ammunition  which 
showed  he  didn't  intend  to  return.  It  may  be  that  Chambers  was  using 
some  special  name  for  this  man  as  he  used  Murrell  for  Meldrum. 

149  Parr  Flesh  (parfleche).  A  rectangular  case  made  of  buflFalo  hide 
which  was  used  at  first  to  pack  pemmican  and  other  dried  food.  It  was 
folded  over  and  laced  with  rawhide  thongs  to  make  a  flat  case. 

150  Murrell  (Meldrum).  This  seems  to  be  a  name  that  Chambers  ap- 
plied to  Meldrum  for  some  obscure  reason  of  his  own. 

151  C.  &  D.  These  initials  may  be  intended  for  Culbertson  and  Denig, 
who  were  in  charge  of  Fort  Benton  and  Fort  Union,  respectively. 

152  Mose.  -1858.  Mose,  a  negro,  born  in  Virginia  according  to  the 
journal.  He  was  drowned  in  the  Yellowstone  river,  July,  1858.  while 
working  on  the  cordelle  of  the  boats  going  up  to  Fort  Sarpy  (2nd)  with 
company  goods  and  Indian  annuities  for  the  Crows.  Culbertson  gave  the 
year  as  1846  when  he  described  the  trip  to  Bradley  but  since  it  was  Col. 
A.  H.  Redfield  who  was  in  charge  of  the  distribution  of  the  annuities  it 
must  have  been   1858,  which  was  the  year  Redfield  made  the  journey. 

ROBERT  MELDRUM.     1806-1865 

153  Robert  Meldrum  born  Shelby  County,  Kentucky,  1806,  the  son  of 
Rev.  William,  and  Mary  Meldrum,  Scotch-Irish  emigrants  who  arrived  in 
Kentucky  in  1804,  learned  the  blacksmith  trade  and  left  home  for  the  west 
at  the  age  of  16.  One  account  states  that  he  was  with  Bonneville's  expedi- 
tion to  the  Rocky  Mountains  but  the  first  record  we  have  of  him  is  from 
the  original  manuscript  of  the  Larpenteur  journals  in  the  Minnesota  His- 
torical  Society  library. 

On  Aug.  3,  1835,  Larpenteur  wrote;  "Meldrum  sent  to  the  Crows;"  Sept. 
2,  1835,  "returned  to  Fort  Union,  had  killed  a  Blackfoot;"  Oct.  14,  1835, 
"Returns  from  Mandans;"  Oct.  23,  1835,  "Left  for  Camp."  This  was  the 
year  Fort  Van  Buren  was  built  near  the  mouth  of  the  Rosebud  by  Tullock. 

Culbertson  said  that  Meldrum  lived  with  the  Crows  before  he  entered 
the  service  of  the  American  Fur  Company  and  knew  the  tribe  and  their 
language  better  than  any  other  white  man.  Edwin  T.  Denig  described  him 
to  Kurz  as  follows: 

"Unless  a  white  man  were  rich  he  became  the  sport  of  the  savages  when 
he  went  about  naked  and  wore  long  hair  reaching  to  his  shoulders,  as  was 
the  practice  with  some  white  men  at  Fort  Alexander  on  the  Yellowstone. 
It  was  a  mistake  for  a  white  man  to  adopt  the  life  and  customs  of  Indians, 
he  loses  their  respect.  Meldrum,  bourgeois  at  the  trading  post  among  the 
Crows,  was  an  example.  Though  Meldrum  is  a  soldier  of  note,  his  scalps 
and  his  trophies  from  the  hunt  have  not  won  him  influence  among  the 
Absaroka;  he  is  esteemed  for  his  prodigal  liberality,  on  account  of  which 
he  has  fallen  into  debt  instead  of  accumulating  money.  He  is  said  to  be 
an  efficient  gunsmith  but  not  an  especially  shrewd  business  man.  If, 
through  ambition  or  vanity,  he  aspires  to  take  the  lead  in  establishing  a 
widely  extended  family  connection,  certain  Crows  of  consequence  become 
immediately  jealous  and  go  to  the  opposition  or  come  here  (Union)  to 
barter  their  robes."  This  description  of  Denig's  is  supported  by  Chambers' 
comments  in  his  journal. 

James  Murray  was  in  charge  of  Fort  Alexander  from  1843-1847. 
Augustus  Barlow  (N.  D.  Hist.  Coll.  vol.  7)  who  was  with  the  "opposition" 
said   Meldrum   was   in   charge  of  Alexander   the   winter  of    1848-49.    Lar- 


penteur  refused  to  take  charge  in  1849  for  $1000.00  a  year  since  it  was  the 
most  dangerous  post  in  the  country. 

Culbcrtson  began  the  construction  of  Fort  Sarpy  ni  1850  and  left  Mel- 
drum  to  complete  the  work  and  take  charge  of  the  post.  From  that  year 
until  1859  Meldrum  was  chief  trader  at  the  Crow  post  wherever  it  was 
located.  Raynolds  found  him  there  in  1859  and  described  him  as  the  "best 
living  authority  in  regard  to  the  Crows,  outside  of  the  tribe,  having  spent 
30  years  in  their  country  during  that  time  visiting  the  regions  of  civiliza- 
tion but  once,  and  on  that  occasion  spending  only  19  days  in  St.  Louis. 
He  had  lived  long  among  these  Indians,  assuming  their  dress  and  habits, 
and  by  his  skill  and  success  in  leading  their  war  parties  has  acquired  dis- 
tinction, rising  to  the  second  post  of  authority  in  the  tribe.  He  of  course 
speaks  their  language  perfectly  and  says  it  has  become  more  natural  to 
him  than  his  mother  tongue.  I  noted  the  alacrity  with  which  he  ceased 
speaking  English  whenever  an  opportunity  offered." 

Meldrum  was  known  to  the  Indians  as  Round  Iron.  Max  Big  Man 
was  told  by  White  Dog  it  was  because  Meldrum,  a  blacksmith,  made  round 
iron  emblems  with  a  hole  in  the  center  which  were  distributed  to  the  In- 
dians as  favors. 

After  the  discontinuance  of  the  Crow  Post  Meldrum  went  to  Fort  Union 
where  he  was  married  to  Mary,  a  Blackfoot  squaw,  by  Father  De  Smet, 
on  board  the  steamboat  Yellowstone  July  11,  1864.  The  witnesses  to  the 
marriage  were  Mr.  Culbertson  and  Mr.  Rolette.  He  died  at  Fort  Union, 
July  10,  1865,  and  was  buried  in  the  fort  cemetery  next  day. 

Culbertson  described  Meldrum  to  Lieut.  Bradley  as  a  "man  of  gentle 
but  courageous  character  who  used  excellent  language  and  held  the  at- 
tention of  his  listeners  by  his  lively  and  intelligent  description  of  his  ad- 
vertures.  When  he  went  to  live  at  Fort  Union  he  resumed  the  dress  and 
customs  of  the  white  man." 

The  following  entries  from  the  St.  Louis  ledgers  of  the  P.  Chouteau,  Jr., 
and  Company  show  the  earnings  of  Meldrum  for  the  years  1856-57. 

May  20  1856— Paid  Meldrum $1056.25 

Expenses  of  men  with  express  with  Meldrum 36.25 

May  22  1856— Paid  Meldrum 942.50 

May  31  1857— Paid  to  his  sister,  Mrs.  Wilson 200.00 

July  18  1857— Balance  due  him  at  Union 858.25 

154  Tetreau.  Tetereau.  Tetreaux,  an  employe  at  Fort  Union,  1851-2. 
(Kurz  Journal,  p.  305).    The  name  was  also  spelled  Tetreault. 

155  Mosier,  Maj.  (Sidney).  Mosier  was,  according  to  the  journalist,  a 
Virginian  and  chief  of  the  culinary  department  at  Fort  Sarpy.  See  Note 
178,  Missouri  Republican,  June  30,   1855. 

156  Faillant.  This  may  have  been  the  man  named  Vaillant  who  was  on 
the  Upper  Missouri  in  1842.  Chambers  may  have  misunderstood  the  pro- 
nounciation  of  the  name. 

157  Pumpkins,  Mr.  Evidently  the  name  of  the  Indian  known  as  Pump- 
kin and  High  Pumpkin. 

158  Depouille.  "It  is  a  fat  substance  that  lies  along  the  backbone  (of 
the  bufifalo),  next  to  the  hide,  running  from  the  shoulder  blade  to  the  last 
rib,  and  is  about  as  thick  as  one's  hand  or  finger.  It  is  from  seven  to 
eleven  inches  broad;  tapering  to  a  feather  edge  on  the  lower  side.  It  will 
weigh  from  five  to  eleven  pounds,  according  to  the  size  and  condition  of 
the  animal.  This  substance  is  taken  off  and  dipped  in  hot  grease  for  half 
a  minute,  then  is  hung  up  inside  of  a  lodge  to  dry  and  smoke  for  twelve 


hours.  It  will  keep  indefinitely,  and  is  used  as  a  substitute  for  bread,  but 
it  is  superior  to  any  bread  that  ever  was  made.  It  is  eaten  with  the  lean 
and  dried  meat,  and  is  tender  and  sweet  and  very  nourishing,  for  it  seems 
to  satisfy  the  appetite.  When  going  on  the  warpath  the  Indians  would 
take  some  dried  meat  and  some  depouille  to  live  on,  and  nothing  else, 
not  even  if  they  were  to  be  gone  for  months."    (W.  T.  Hamilton) 

159  Bear's  Head.  Kurz  gives  Bear's  Head's  name  as  "Machetetsi  Antu" 
and  said  he  was  the  "Chief,  in  command  of  the  soldiers,  a  warrior 
of  great  ability  and  power."  According  to  Hayden  the  territory  of  Bear's 
Head's  band  of  Crows  was  the  valley  of  the  Yellowstone  river  from  mouth 
to  source  and  they  occasionally  passed  the  winter  with  the  Assiniboines 
near  Fort  Union.  The  two  Lutheran  missionaries,  Braueninger  and 
Schmidt,  who  came  out  to  the  Crow  country  in  1858,  met  the  Bear's  Head 
at  Fort  Sarpy  and  stayed  with  him  at  his  camp  in  preference  to  living  with 
the  rowdy  white  men  at  the  trading  post. 

A  chief  of  the  River  Crows,  Bear's  Head,  visited  the  trading  post  in  the 
Judith  Basin,  1874. 

160  p.  C.  Jr.  &  Co.  P.  Chouteau,  Jr.,  and  Company.  John  Jacob  Astor 
retired  from  the  American  Fur  Company  in  1834  and  Pratte,  Chouteau 
and  Company  purchased  the  Western  Department  of  that  company.  When 
the  American  Fur  Company  suspended  in  1842,  the  firm  of  P.  Chouteau,  Jr., 
and  Company  bought  the  inventory  and  carried  on  the  business.  The  in- 
dividual members  of  the  company  at  this  time  were  Bernard  Pratte,  Bar- 
tholomew Berthold,  Pierre  Chouteau,  Jr.,  and  Jean  Pierre  Cabanne. 

Pierre  Chouteau,  Jr.,  head  of  the  company,  was  a  grandson  of  Auguste 
Chouteau,  one  of  the  founders  of  St.  Louis,  where  Pierre,  Jr.,  was  born 
Jan.  19,  1789,  the  m.ost  illustrious  member  of  that  famous  family.  He 
entered  the  fur  trade  before  he  was  sixteen  and  learned  the  business  in  all 
its  branches  and  as  the  trade  expanded  was  drawn  into  new  fields,  bank- 
ing, mining  and  transportation.  He  was  an  industrious  man  and  knew  the 
fur  business  to  its  smallest  detail.  His  later  years  were  spent  in  New  York 
City,  where  he  died  Oct.  6,  1865.  His  son,  Charles  P.  Chouteau,  had  taken 
over  the  supervision  of  the  interests  of  P.  Chouteau,  Jr.,  and  Company  and 
was  in  charge  until  the  holdings  on  the  Upper  Missouri  were  sold  about 

161  Emmell's  Creek.  This  creek  and  Emmell's  Prairie  were  named  for 
Michael  E.  Immell,  a  native  of  Chambersburg,  Penn.,  who  went  up  the 
Missouri  river  in  1809  with  the  Missouri  Fur  Company,  was  active  in  the 
fur  trade  of  the  Missouri  and  Yellowstone  country  until  his  death,  May 
31,  1823,  when  he  was  killed  by  Blackfoot  Indians  on  the  Upper  Yellow- 
stone. The  creek  mentioned  by  Chambers  is  the  same  as  that  shown  on 
the  De  Smet  map  which  came  into  the  Yellowstone  from  the  north  a  short 
distance  below  Tongue  River.  The  later  Emmell's  creek  as  shown  on  the 
Raynolds-Maynadier  map  of  1867  entered  the  Yellowstone  from  the  south 
above  the  Rosebud  and  is  known  today  as  Armell's  creek,  a  corruption 
of  Emmell's. 

162  Denig  (Dening),  Edwin  T.  1812-1862-3.  Edwin  T.  Denig,  born  at 
McConnellstown,  Penn.,  March  10,  1812,  said  to  have  been  a  friend  of 
Alexander  Culbertson's  came  up  the  river  on  the  Assiniboine  in  1833 
with  Culbertson.  Denig  was  employed  in  the  office  at  F"ort  Union  and  by 
1851  was  chief  trader  at  that  post.  He  had  at  least  two  Indian  wives  and 
was  married  by  Father  Daemen  in  St.  Louis  the  summer  of  1855  to  an 
Assiniboine  squaw.  Deer  Little  Woman.  His  children  were  baptized  at 
the  same  time.  He  moved  with  his  family  from  Fort  Union  to  the  Red 
River  Settlement  in  Canada  in  the  summer  of  1856  and  remained  there 
until  his  death  in  1862-1863,  was  buried  in  the  old  Headingly  graveyard 
about  IS  miles  from  Winnipeg. 


Denig  was  well  educated  and  wrote  several  sketches  of  the  Indians  and 
fur  trade  of  the  Upper  Missouri  at  the  request  of  Father  De  Smet,  Audu- 
bon and  others,  who  used  the  information  obtained  in  their  own  writings. 
His  "Indian  Tribes  of  the  Upper  Missouri"  written  about  1854  and  pub- 
lished in  the  46th  annual  report  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology, 
1930,  is  a  fine  account  of  the  history,  manners  and  customs  of  the  Assini- 
boine  Indians. 

163  High  Pumpkins.    See  Note  157,  Pumpkin,  Mr. 

164  Long  Elk.  Granville  Stuart  met  Long  Elk  at  Gallatin,  Montana, 
June  2,  1880. 

165  Horse  Guard.  T.  A.  Culbertson  met  the  Horse  Guard  on  June  17, 
1850,  at  Fort  Union  and  described  him  as  "a  great  warrior,  altho  still  a 
young  man;  his  name  is  Horse  Guard,  and  altho  not  30  years  old  he  has 
been  engaged  in  about  30  expeditions,  always  returning  with  scalps  or 
horses  and  getting  his  party  back  in  safety.  He  is  a  half-breed  and  has 
the  features  of  a  white  man  *  *  *  he  is  very  brave.  His  son,  a  fine  look- 
ing boy.  is  with  him."  A.  H.  Redfield,  agent  for  the  Upper  Missouri 
Indians  in  1857,  reported  Horse  Guard  a  chief  of  some  70  lodges.  He 
signed  the  River  Crow  treaty  at  Fort  Hawley  on  the  Missouri  July  15. 
1868,  and  was  in  the  Judith  Basin,  the  winter  of  1873-74,  when  he  visited 
the  trading  post  of  Story  on  Casino  creek. 

166  Rotten  Tail  (Crow).  Kurz  described  Rotten  Tail  as  a  middle-aged 
man  when  he  visited  Fort  Union  in  1851.  He  spelled  the  Indian  name  Tsite 
You  but  Vaughan  in  his  report  spelled  it  Chee  See  Poosh.  Rotten  Tail 
did  not  attend  the  Laramie  council  of  1851  but  was  recognized  as  the  Crow 
chief  by  Vaughan  in  1854  when  he  distributed  the  annuities  to  the  tribe. 
W.  T.  Hamilton  met  him  in  the  fall  of  1858  on  the  Teton  river  and  spoke 
of  him  as  head  chief  of  the  Crows.  In  a  manuscript  article  of  John  Neu- 
bert's  (Historical  Society  of  Montana)  he  wrote  that  Rotten  Tail's  band 
of  Crows  robbed  the  wagon  train  of  Dorris  in  1864  at  Milk  river.  Neubert 
found  Rotten  Tail  and  persuaded  him  to  have  most  of  the  goods  returned. 

16"  Jabots  Houses.  This  name  as  written  by  Chambers  is  not  found  in 
any  record  or  map.  A.  D.  Jabotte,  an  employe  of  Fort  Union  in  1835  is 
the  only  name  that  resembles  "Jabots."  On  the  De  Smet  map  of  the  Yel- 
lowstone river  there  is  a  Tarbois  or  Tarbot  creek  and  it  might  be  Jarbot 
for  the  first  letter  could  be  either  J  or  T.  This  creek  is  opposite  and  be- 
low Glendive  creek  which  would  be  about  the  location  of  Jabot's  Houses. 
The  name  may  have  been  given  to  a  winter  trading  house  of  A.  D. 
Jabotte,  but  this  is  only  a  guess. 

168  C  &  Spy.  Evidently  an  abbreviation  of  Chouteau  and  Sarpy,  partners 
in  the  fur  company. 

i6'-'  Carter,  Chas.  A  Charles  Carter  lived  in  Benton  in  the  70's  and  80's, 
a  freighter  and  laborer.  Schultz  in  "Friends  of  My  Life  as  an  Indian" 
wrote  of  a  Charles  Carter,  a  white  hunter  in  the  Judith  Basin,  1879-80,  but 
since  it  is  a  common  name  was  probably  not  the  Charles  Carter  of  1855. 

I'i'O  Osborn.  James  Osborne.  See  Note  178.  June  30,  1855,  Missouri 

171  Fort  Belknap.  An  army  post  in  Texas  on  Red  Fork  of  the  Brazos 

1"-  Grey  Chief.  Grey  Chief,  Grey  Head  and  Le  Gras  (Gris)  were  prob- 
ably names  for  the  same  person  who  was  a  Crow  chief.  He  was  at  Fort 
Union  the  winter  of  1851-52  when  Kurz  said  his  grey  hair  was  not  due 
to  old  age  and  was  a  perfect  yellow  in  spots.  Little  Grey  Head  was  a 
Piegan  Indian. 


i'3  Four  Rivers.  Four  Rivers  is  described  in  Kurz  journal  as  a  Crow 
chief,  a  very  powerful  man,  both  in  regard  to  physique  and  influence  in 
tribal  matters. 

174  Two  Face.  Two  Face  was  chief  of  the  largest  band  of  Crows,  about 
200  lodges,  which  ranged  through  the  Wind  River  mountain  region  and 
dealt  with  the  traders  of  the  American  Fur  Company  on  the  Yellowstone 

i"5  Mountain  Tail.  A  Crow  chief  mentioned  by  Dr.  Hayden  who  gave 
his  name  as  Au-ma-ha-be-ci-se,  but  his  name  was  spelled  Ah-be-che-se 
on  the  Crow  treaty  of  May  7,  1868,  which  he  signed  at  Fort  Laramie. 

i"*"'  Col.  Vaughn  (keel  boat).  It  was  customary  to  name  the  keel 
and  mackinaw  boats  which  were  built  to  take  the  goods  either  up  or  down 
the  river. 

1'"  Nokes  (Big  Six).    See  Note  148. 
Missouri  Republican,  June  30,  1855. 

178  "The  voyageurs  who  came  down  from  the  mts.  on  the  mackinaw 
boats  report  having  had  a  great  deal  of  trouble  in  descending  the  river  on 
account  of  low  water.  The  mountain  rise  overtook  them  only  a  short  dis- 
tance above  Council  Bluffs.  This  party  left  the  Yellowstone  river  about 
the  first  of  May.  Met  the  A.  F.  Co.  boat,  the  St.  Mary,  about  80  miles 
above  Sargeant's  Bluff  on  the  19th.  Sixty  miles  below  Sargeant's  Bluff 
met  government  steamboat  Grey  Cloud  on  the  20th.  Met  the  Arabia  and 
the  William  Brand  on  the  21st.  Met  the  Clara  and  Kate  Kearney  on  the 
23rd,  80  miles  above  Council  Bluffs. 

"Last  evening  met  Sidney  Mosier,  George  Shaw  and  James  Osborne 
who  arrived  in  the  city  yesterday  from  the  mountains,  came  down  from 
Fort  Benton  with  three  mackinaw  boats  as  far  as  Council  Bluffs  and  from 
there  to  this  city  on  the  steamer  Admiral.  Left  Benton  on  3rd  of  May 
and  arrived  at  Council  Bluffs  on  the  19th  inst.  Two  mackinaw  boats 
which  left  Fort  Sarpy  on  Yellowstone  river  on  the  19th  of  May  also  ar- 
rived at  Council  Bluffs  on  23rd  inst.  The  boats  and  cargoes  are  property 
of  the  A.  F.  Company.  These  gentlemen  reported  that  the  Blackfeet  In- 
dians have  been  annoying  the  Crow  Indians  during  the  winter  by  stealing 
their  horses.  The  latter  avenged  themselves  by  taking  17  scalps  of  their 
enemies  during  the  winter.  Late  in  the  spring  a  Blackfoot  Indian  came 
close  to  Ft.  Sarpy  and  scalped  a  squaw  of  his  own  tribe  who  had  been  a 
prisoner  of  the  Crows  for  several  years.  On  the  1st  of  Alay  7  men  started 
from  Union  to  Sarpy  over  200  miles  to  assist  in  bringing  boats  down  the 
river.  On  the  3rd  day  out  they  were  met  by  a  part}'  of  over  300  Sioux 
armed  to  the  teeth  who  acted  in  a  hostile  manner.  One  of  the  party  who 
could  speak  Sioux  interfered.  The  Sioux  demanded  their  surrender  but 
some  of  the  party  were  unwilling  and  they  were  attacked  and  a  German, 
George  Sikes  (Shike)  (Quincy,  Illinois)  was  wounded.  They  came  to  a 
parley  and  the  Indians  stripped  them  of  guns  and  ammunition  and  clothes, 
left  them  naked  in  the  mountains.  They  finally  reached  Sarpy  after  sev- 
eral days  suffering  from  cold  and  hunger.  A  young  buffalo  calf  which 
they  killed  with  a  stone  was  all  they  had  to  cat.  Three  days  after  they 
arrived  at  Sarpy  300  Sioux  surrounded  the  fort  but  after  distributing  pres- 
ents and  having  a  talk  the  Indians  left  without  attacking.  Mr.  Mosier 
and  his  party  report  that  on  the  way  down  they  were  not  molested  until 
they  got  to  the  Sargcant  Hills  where  they  were  hailed  from  an  Indian 
village  and  on  refusing  to  land  the  steersman  was  fired  upon  but  missed. 
The  Upper  Missouri  is  low  but  little  snow  in  the  mountains  during  the 


179  Perault,  Jas.  P.  Charles,  Daniel  and  James  P.  Perreau  were  in  the 
poll  list  of  Oct.  24,  1864,  Choteaii  county,  Montana  territory.  The  census 
of  1870  for  this  county  included  a  David  Perrow   (Pcrrcault). 

180  Partizan.  The  Partisan  or  "leader  of  a  war  party"  was  described  by 
Denig  as  one  who  was  in  command  during  the  entire  expedition,  directed 
their  movements  and  possessed  the  power  of  a  military  captain  among 
the  whites.  He  received  the  honor  or  bore  the  disgrace  of  success  or 
failure  and  upon  the  return  of  the  expedition  his  authority  ceased. 

181  Carafel,  Carrafel,  David?  -1866.  Carafell  was  probably  the  David 
Carafell  who  was  killed  by  Blackfoot  Indians  on  Pablo's  island  near  Fort 
Benton  in  1866.  He  was  described  in  the  Bradley  manuscript  as  an  old 
trapper  and  hunter  who  had  passed  nearly  forty  years  in  the  west.  Kurz 
mentioned  a  Vice  de  Carafel  at  Fort  Union  in  1851  who  was  a  skilled 
beaver  trapper  and  in  charge  of  a  winter  camp  a  short  distance  above 
Fort  Union  on  the  Missouri  river.  Palliser  met  Vace  de  Carafel  whom  he 
described  as  a  very  likable  and  capable  mountaineer,  which  agreed  with 
Kurz'  account. 

David  Carafell  was  one  of  the  party  that  went  north  from  Fort  Benton 
in  1862  to  prospect  for  gold  near  Fort  Edmonton,  Canada.  The  list  of 
inhabitants  of  Chouteau  county,  1862-63,  included  Daniel  Carafel,  freeman, 

182  Fort  Berthold.  1845-  Fort  Berthold  was  built  in  the  fall  of  1845 
by  F.  A.  Chardon  after  he  came  down  from  Fort  F.  A.  C  at  the  Judith. 
It  was  located  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Missouri  river  above  the  Knife, 
and  intended  for  the  trade  of  the  Gros  Ventre  or  Hidatsa  Indians.  It  was 
named  in  honor  of  Bartholomew  Berthold  of  the  firm  of  P.  Chouteau,  Jr., 
and  Company. 

183  Bobires.  This  is  Chambers'  attempt  at  the  spelling  of  the  French 
name,  Bourbeuse,  of  the  Muddy  river  which  comes  into  the  Missouri 
river  from  the  north  near  the  town  of  Williston,  N.  D.  There  was  also  the 
Big  and  Little  Muddy  above  Fort  Union  that  enter  the  Missouri  from 
the  north.  The  name  Bourbeuse  was  used  by  Maximilian,  Audubon, 
Larpenteur  and  De  Smet,  and  means  "muddy  or  miry." 

184  Water  Raises.  This  is  the  L'eau  qui  Monte  of  Maynadier's  report 
which  comes  into  the  Missouri  river  from  the  east  below  the  Little  Knife 
river.    About  where  the  Shell  river  is  today. 

185  Riter,  F.  G.  We  have  very  little  information  concerning  Frederick 
G.  Riter.  In  his  report  for  1857,  A.  H.  Redfield,  agent  for  the  Indians  of 
the  Upper  Missouri,  mentioned  him  as  the  "agent  of  the  American  Fur 
Company  in  charge  of  this  post"  (Union)  and  when  Maynadier  went  down 
the  river  in  the  summer  of  1860  he  found  Riter  in  charge  at  Fort  Berthold. 

A  Fred  Ritter,  laborer,  aged  40  years,  born  in  Prussia,  was  included  in 
the  1870  census  for  Dawson  county,  Montana  territory. 

186  Old  Spaniard.    Probably  Joe  Ramsey.    See  Joe  Ramsey.    Note  225. 

187  Denig's  Son.  Robert  Denig,  son  of  Edwin  T.  Denig  and  an  Indian 
mother,  baptized  by  Father  Hoecken  at  Fort  Union,  June  28,  1840. 

188  St.  Mary  (Steamboat).  This  was  the  steamboat  on  which  U.  S.  Com- 
missioner Gumming  and  party  came  up  the  river  to  attend  the  Judith 
Council.  The  boat  left  St.  Louis,  July  11,  1855,  and  was  35  days  making 
the  trip  as  the  water  was  the  lowest  ever  known.  The  goods  for  distribu- 
tion to  the  Indians  were  on  the  boat  and  had  to  be  unloaded  and  placed 
on  mackinaw  or  keel  boats   for  the   Upper  river  trip.    The   Saint   Mary, 


a  side-wheel  mountain  boat,  sank  in  the  Missouri  river  below   Nebraska 
City,  Sept.  4,  1858,  on  a  trip  to  Fort  Union. 

189  Hayden,  Dr.  F.  V.  1820-1887.  Ferdinand  V.  Hayden  born  in  West- 
field,  Mass.,  Sept.  7,  1829,  graduated  from  Oberlin  college  (Ohio)  in 
1850  and  from  Albany  Medical  college,  1853.  In  that  year  he  made  an 
exploration  of  the  Bad  Lands  of  the  Dakotas  and  from  that  time  until 
his  retirement,  due  to  ill  health,  in  1886,  he  was  employed  in  conducting 
geological  and  scientific  explorations  of  the  western  United  States.  He 
made  a  journey  up  the  Yellowstone  river  in  1854  with  Major  Vaughan  and 
was  present  when  the  latter  met  the  Crow  Indians  near  Fort  Sarpy,  Sept. 
18,  1854.  He  made  trips  up  the  Missouri  river  in  1855-56  and  was  with 
the  Raynolds-Maynadier  expedition  of  1859-60.  He  was  in  charge  of  the 
Geological  and  Geographical  Survey  of  the  Territories  from  1869  to  1879 
when  this  survey  and  others  were  consolidated  in  the  United  States  Geo- 
logical Survey  and  in  that  year,  1879,  he  was  made  chief  of  the  Montana 
division,  which  office  he  held  until  his  retirement  in  1886.  His  death  oc- 
curred in  Philadelphia,  Dec.  22,  1887. 

190  Girard,  F.  1829-  Frederic  F.  Gerard,  born  in  St.  Louis,  Nov.  14,  1829, 
of  French  parents,  entered  the  service  of  the  Pierre  Chouteau,  Jr.,  and 
Company,  the  fall  of  1848  at  Fort  Pierre.  He  was  employed  as  a  clerk  and 
trader  at  various  posts.  When  the  company  was  discontinued  he  became 
an  independent  trader  with  stores  at  Fort  Berthold  and  Fort  Stephenson. 
Later  he  was  in  business  at  Mandan,  N.  D.,  and  moved  to  Minneapolis 
about  1890  where  he  was  living  in  1906. 

191  Aug.  26.  1855.  Note.  "On  the  23d  of  August,  a  Mackinaw  boat  was 
started  from  Fort  Union  with  the  usual  outfit  of  trade  for  the  ensuing 
season  at  the  Crow  post.  It  had  only  proceeded  a  short  distance  up  the 
Yellowstone  river  when  the  hunters  for  the  boat,  who  were  out  in  quest 
of  game  (in  company  with  seven  Crow  Indians,  who  had  to  accompany 
me  with  their  annuities),  were  driven  back  to  the  fort  by  a  war  party  of 
Sioux  Indians,  having  had  a  miraculous  escape  with  their  lives.  The  boat 
immediately  returned  to  the  fort,  and  the  trip  to  the  Crows  abandoned 
for  the  present  season. 

"A  few  days  previous  to  this,  some  Indians  (no  doubt  of  the  same 
party)  stole  from  Fort  Union,  eight  horses,  and  from  Fort  William  five; 
at  the  same  time,  near  the  latter  fort,  they  fell  in  with  two  men  who  were 
butchering  some  bufTalo  they  had  killed;  they  took  from  them  their  meat, 
horses,  guns  and  clothing,  and  they  told  me  personally  they  considered 
themselves  fortunate  in  getting  off  alive.  Shortlj'  after  the  boat  returned, 
fifteen  Indians  appeared  on  the  hills  in  sight  of  the  fort;  ascertaining 
them  to  be  Sioux  I  sent  my  interpreter  to  them  (Zephyr  Rencontre)  .  .  . 
After  giving  them  a  good  lecture  about  their  conduct  in  violating  their 
treaty  stipulations  in  being  at  war,  they  left  me  promising  to  return  to 
their   people   without   committing   any  more   depredations. 

"Thus  you  see  that  these  war  parties  of  Sioux  have  not  only  prevented 
the  government  from  being  able  to  deliver  the  Crows  their  annuities,  but 
have  also  prevented  them  from  the  usual  facilities  derived  from  their 
licensed  traders."  (Kept,  of  A.  J.  Vaughan  to  Supt.  Gumming,  St.  Louis. 
Sept.   12,  1855.) 

192  Zophyr  (Rencontre)  1800-  Zephyr  Recontre  was  employed  as  clerk 
and  trader  at  Fort  Tecumseh  (Pierre)  in  1830.  He  was  born  in  Missouri 
about  1800  and  married  in  1837  to  a  Yankton  Indian  who  with  her  daugh- 
ters was  killed  by  Sioux  Indians  near  Fort  Lookout,  July,  1851.  He  acted 
as  an  interpreter  at  various  trading  posts  and  Indian  agencies  and  was 
said  to  have  been  an  intelligent  and  faithful  worker. 


193  Dobey  Town.  The  opposition  post  of  Fort  William,  so-called  be- 
cause some  of  the  buildings  were  built  of  adobe. 

194  Campbell,  Thomas.  1830-1882.  Thomas  Campbell  was  no  connection 
of  Robert  Campbell  of  the  Harvey,  Primeau  opposition  company.  The 
River  Press  (Fort  Benton),  May  24,  1882,  contained  the  following  obitu- 
ary of  Thomas  Campbell: 

"Tom  Campbell  died  at  the  Overland  Hotel  Sunday  and  was  buried 
Monday.  The  deceased  came  to  Benton  some  forty  years  ago,  and  for  a 
long  time  was  in  the  employ  of  the  American  Fur  Company  at  this  point. 
All  these  years  he  spent  in  the  Northwestern  country,  chiefly  along  the 
Missouri  and  Yellowstone  rivers,  at  trading  posts,  and  sometimes  among 
the  Indians.  He  was  a  fluent  Sioux  talker  and  numbered  his  squaws  by  the 
score.  Tom  claimed  to  be  a  nephew  of  Alexander  Campbell,  the  founder 
of  the  Campbellite  church,  and  doubtless  could  make  good  his  claim.  Of 
late  years  he  has  been  a  hard  drinker,  which  hastened  his  death  to  a  great 
extent.  He  was  trustworthy,  honest  and  generous  to  a  fault,  and  has  hun- 
dreds of  friends  along  the  frontier  who  will  regret  to  hear  of  his  demise." 

The  census  of  1870,  Dawson  county,  Montana  territory,  listed  a  Thomas 
Campbell,  40  years  of  age,  born  in  Pennsylvania,  Indian  trader.  The  trad- 
ing post  known  as  Campbell's  Houses  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Milk 
river  below  the  mouth  of  Little  Rocky  creek,  was  built  about  1870  by 
Thomas  Campbell  for  Durfee  and  Peck,  Indian  traders. 

195  Le  Gras.  This  was  probably  the  Assiniboine  Indian  of  that  name 
who  was  at  Fort  Union  in  1851. 

196  Fool  Bear.  Mato  Winko,  chief  of  the  Canoe  band  of  the  Assiniboine 
Indians,  was  known  as  Crazy  Bear,  Fool  Bear,  L'ours  Fou  and  Ours  Fou, 
all  translations  of  his  Indian  name.  He  was  appointed  chief  of  the  Assmi- 
boine  tribe  at  Fort  Laramie  council,  Sept.  17,  1851.  James  L.  Long,  an 
authority  on  this  tribe,  said  Crazy  Bear  was  chosen  to  represent  the 
Assiniboines  at  Fort  Laramie  because  his  band  was  at  Fort  Union  most 
of  the  time  but  he  was  not  recognized  as  chief  by  the  other  bands  of  that 
tribe.  The  government  recognized  him  as  chief  and  when  the  annuities 
were  distributed  at  Fort  Union  he  was  given  a  large  share  that  he  divided 
among  his  head  men.  Long  says  that  Crazy  Bear  died  northwest  of  Fort 
Union  during  a  smallpox  epidemic  and  was  70  years  old  at  the  time  of 
his  death. 

197  Napper  (Scalp?)  "Knapper,  one  who  has  been  scalped  but  not 
killed."  (Kurz  Journal,  p.  243.)  Chambers  appears  to  use  the  word  as 
meaning  scalp. 

198  Tremble  River.  This  is  the  Poplar  river  of  today,  known  then  as 
Riviere  au  Tremble,  French  for  Aspen  River. 

199  Champagne  Houses.    See  Champaigne,  Michel,  Note  26. 

200  Brick's.  This  is  a  reference  to  Chambers'  Gros  Ventre  squaw.  In 
his  entry  of  Dec.  14,  1855,  he  wrote,  "Bricks,  Stones,  Missy,"  all  of  which 
refer  to  the  same  person  and  Bricks  and  Stones  were  probably  translations 
of  her  Indian  name. 

201  Crow-Ca-Ja-Na  (Cracon  du  Nez).  The  Cracon  du  Nez  "A  very  nar- 
row bit  of  land,  a  high  bluff,  on  one  side  of  which  flows  the  Teton  river 
and  on  the  other  the  Missouri.  The  force  of  the  current  of  each  river 
in  high  water  had  for  years  borne  against  this  blufif  until  it  was  almost 
worn  through.  So  narrow  was  this  bit  of  land  even  in  early  days  that 
the  Indians  said  it  was  like  the  'gristle  of  the  nose'  which  divides  the  two 
nostrils.     The    early    but    illiterate    French    employes    had    translated    the 


Indian  name  into  French,  but  they  never  gave  the  correct  orthography  of 
the  first  word  or  its  exact  meaning.  This  word  is  'croquant,'  meaning  'poor 
wretch,  country-man,  peasant,  gristle.'  The  correct  phrase  would  be  'Cro- 
quant-du-nez'  or  'gristle  of  the  nose.'  The  name  has  been  spelled  in  many 
ways  as  Kroko-de-nay,  the  Crow-con-de-nay  and  Croaking  Jenny."  (River 
Press,  Fort  Benton,  Jan.  1,  1890,  p.  5.) 

202  Three  Islands.    In  the  Missouri  river,  thirty  miles  below  Benton. 

203  Hawkins  (rifle).  The  Hawken  rifle  used  by  plainsmen  and  moun- 
taineers was  manufactured  by  Samuel  Hawken  of  St.  Louis.  He  had  a 
shop  on  Cherry  street  in  that  city  where  he  made  these  rifles  between 
1822-54..    (Wm.  A.  Almquist,  Harlowton,  Mont.) 

204  Hole  in  the  Wall.  Landmark  on  the  Missouri  river  about  65  miles 
below  Benton. 

205  Judith  Fort.  By  the  "old  Judith  fort"  Chambers  meant  the  trading 
post  built  by  F.  A.  Chardon  in  the  spring  of  1844  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Judith  river  which  was  named  for  Chardon.  It  was  not  a  desirable  loca- 
tion for  trade  and  the  Blackfoot  Indians  would  not  come  there  because 
it  was  too  close  to  enemy  territory  so  Culbertson  went  up  in  the  fall  of 
1845,  destroyed  the  Judith  fort  and  built  Fort  Lewis.  This  was  a  few 
miles  above  the  site  of  Fort  McKenzie  and  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
Missouri  river.    See  Fort  Benton,  Note  1. 

200  Adams  &  Rondins  Rapids.  There  were  several  Adams  with  the  fur 
company  as  early  as  1833  and  the  rapids  were  probably  named  for  one 
of  these  men.  Rondin  Rapids  were  named  for  Charles  (Rondin)  Mercier, 
who  came  up  the  Missouri  in  1832.  Between  the  Judith  river  and  Snake 

207  Snake  Point.  On  the  Missouri  river  about  five  miles  above  Cow 

208  Cow  Island.  In  the  Missouri  river  above  Armell's  creek  at  the 
mouth  of  Cow  Creek. 

209  Grand  Island.  Chambers  also  referred  to  the  Island  as  Big  Island, 
in  the  Missouri  river  between  Cow  and  Armell's  creek. 

210  Forchette's  Point.  This  point  in  the  Missouri  river  about  25  miles 
below  the  Musselshell  river  probably  named  for  one  of  the  men  of 
the  fur  company  about  1832-33. 

211  Round  Butte.  A  butte  south  of  the  Missouri  river,  half  way  between 
Fort  Union  and  Fort  Benton. 

212  Dophin  (Dauphin,  L.)  -1864-5.  Very  likely  this  was  the  Louis 
Dauphin  mentioned  by  Larpenteur  and  La  Barge  who  was  the  "famous 
hunter"  connected  with  the  various  posts  of  the  Upper  Missouri  river.  He 
was  killed  by  the  Sioux  Indians  in  either  1864  or  1865  near  the  mouth  of 
Milk  river. 

Kurz  wrote  of  a  man  named  Dauphen  "another  of  the  same  sort  (as 
Cadotte)  lives  an  isolated  life  on  the  prairies  with  his  two  wives.  He  left 
the  Opposition  in  debt,  and  now  hunts  on  his  own  account.  .  .  Although 
he  was  formerly  a  trapper  and  followed  the  related  business  of  trader,  he 
can  no  longer  find  employment  with  cither  of  the  companies  ...  he  has 
defrauded  both  of  them  ..."  (1851-52).  A  Dauphin  had  a  trading  post 
at  the  mouth  of  Milk  River,  spring  of  1862.  Harkness  mentioned  Dauphin's 
cabin  as  being  eight  miles  below  the  mouth  of  Milk  river.  The  Dauphin 
rapids  were  named  for  Antoine  Dauphin,  who  died  of  smallpox  in  1837. 


213  Dry  Fork.  A  branch  of  the  Missouri  river  from  the  south,  Garfield 
county,  Montana. 

214  Carafell's  Houses.  This  may  have  been  the  location  of  Vice  de 
Carafel's  winter  trading  camp  of  1851-2  mentioned  in  the  Kurz  journal  as 
being  a  short  distance  above  Fort  Union  on  the  Missouri  river. 

2ir.  Fort  Clark.  1831-  Fort  Clark  was  built  in  1831  by  James  Kipp  for 
the  American  Fur  Company  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Missouri  river,  55 
miles  above  the  present  site  of  Bismarck,  North  Dakota.  It  was  named 
for  William  Clark  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition,  who  was  for  many 
years  Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs  at  St.  Louis.  In  its  day  it  was  one 
of  the  three  principal  posts  of  the  Missouri  river,  Forts  Pierre  and  Union 
being  the  others. 

216  Gardepe  (With  the  Opposition?).  This  was  a  well  known  name  on 
the  Upper  Missouri  river  for  many  years  of  French-Canadian  origin. 
An  Alex  Guardipee  signed  the  Blackfoot  treaty,  Benton,  Sept.  1,  1868,  as 

217  Bobieres.    The  Big  Muddy  above  Fort  Union.    See  Note   183. 

218  Cardinal,  Mrs.  J.  B.  The  Indian  wife  of  Jean  Baptiste  Cardinal  who 
was  listed  in  the  Pembina  census  of  1850.  A  Cardinal,  half-breed,  was  in 
charge  of  the  men  who  built  a  post  for  the  Harvey,  Primeau  Company  in 
1848  on  the  Yellowstone  river  near  Fort  Alexander.  (N.  D.  Hist.  Coll. 
vol.  7,  pp.  81-82.) 

219  McKenzie  (Owen),  1826-1863.  Owen  McKenzie,  son  of  Kenneth 
McKenzie  and  an  Indian  mother,  was  born  1826  near  Fort  Pierre.  About 
1838  Kenneth  McKenzie's  Indian  children  were  sent  to  the  Red  River 
Settlement  in  Canada  to  be  educated  at  the  school  maintained  by  Rev.  D. 
Jones.  Owen  McKenzie  seemed  to  be  the  only  one  of  the  children  on  the 
Upper  Missouri  and  it  is  possible  that  the  others  remained  in  Canada. 

When  Audubon  spent  the  summer  of  1843  at  Fort  Union  "young  Owen" 
was  a  hunter  for  the  post  and  Audubon  often  commented  on  his  skill  as 
a  horseman  and  hunter.  Palliser,  who  hunted  with  him  in  1847,  said  he 
was  about  21  years  old  then  and  described  him  as  "a  splendid  rider,  first- 
rate  shot,  and  taken  on  the  whole,  on  foot  and  horseback,  the  best  hunter 
I  ever  saw."  At  this  period  Owen  was  in  charge  of  the  winter  trading 
post  at  White  river  where  Palliser  spent  some  time  with  him. 

In  the  hunting  annals  of  the  Upper  Missouri  Owen  McKenzie's  record 
of  loading  and  shooting  14  times  in  one  mile  during  a  buffalo  hunt  was 
one  of  the  best  known.  This  called  for  superb  riding  as  well  as  expert 
marksmanship.  He  was  employed  at  Fort  Union  and  winter  trading  posts 
near  that  point  for  a  number  of  years.  In  the  winter  of  1862-63  he  was 
in  charge  of  a  small  post  for  the  firm  of  Harkness  and  La  Barge  on  the 
Missouri  above  Fort  Union  and  in  the  summer  of  1863  he  was  sent  to 
take  charge  of  Fort  Galpin  at  the  mouth  of  the  Milk  river  for  the  same 
firm.  That  year  the  steamboats  due  to  low  water  could  only  reach  the 
Milk  river  and  freight  was  unloaded  at  that  point.  Malcolm  Clarke  and 
his  son,  Horace,  who  was  returning  from  school,  were  passengers  on  one 
of  the  boats  and  when  McKenzie  appeared  a  quarrel  broke  out  between 
the  two  men  over  money  matters.  Clarke  shot  and  killed  McKenzie  in 
what  he  claimed  was  self-defense.  Since  the  latter  had  many  friends 
among  the  white  men  and  Indians  who  were  present  there  was  a  great  deal 
of  feeling  against  Clark,  and  he  left  during  the  night  for  Fort  Benton 
to  escape  the  wrath  of  McKenzie's  friends. 

220  Clemow  (Claymore,  Clement),  Basil.  1824-1910.  Basil  Clement  was 
born  in  St.  Louis,  Jan.  7,  1824.    His  father,  Charles  Clement,  was  a  native 


of  Paris  and  his  mother  a  half-breed.  Basil  was  in  the  service  of  the 
American  Fur  Company  for  over  twenty  years  as  trader,  hunter,  guide, 
interpreter  and  boatman.  He  served  as  guide  and  interpreter  for  several 
exploring  expeditions  of  the  government  in  the  60's  and  70's.  Among 
these  were  the  Sully  expedition  of  1864,  the  treaty  with  the  Indians  at 
Fort  Rice,  1868,  and  the  Stanley  surveying  expeditions  of  1874  and  1875. 
He  located  a  ranch  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cheyenne  river  in  South  Dakota 
in  1877  and  died  there  Nov.  23,  1910.  His  name  was  spelled  in  various 
ways,  Clemo,  Clemow  and  Claymore,  The  last  form  was  the  one  used 
in  the  government  records. 

221  Sand  Hills.  Medicine  Lake,  northeastern  Montana,  was  known  in 
early  days  as  Sand  Butte  Lake  and  this  may  have  been  the  location  of  the 
Sand  HUls. 

222  Four  Bears.  A  Gros  Ventre  Indian  whose  name  Kurz  wrote  as 
"Matchbitse  Topa."  He  attended  the  Fort  Laramie  council  of  1851.  Lieut. 
Maynadier,  who  saw  him  Aug.  20,  1860,  at  Fort  Berthold,  described  him 
as  a  tall,  fine-looking  Indian  and  spelled  his  name  "Mali-Topa." 

223  Two  White  Weasles.  Two  White  Weasles  was  a  River  Crow  Indian 
chief  who  signed  the  treaty  at  Fort  Hawley,  Missouri  river,  July  15,  1868. 
Doane  and  Koch  met  him  at  the  Story  trading  post  in  the  Judith  Basin 
in  1874. 

224  Snake  Butte.  This  butte  was  midway  between  the  Big  and  Little 
Muddy  on  the  Missouri  river. 

225  Ramsey,  Jos.  Joseph  Ramsey  was  a  Mexican  or  Spaniard  who  had 
been  a  hunter  for  Fort  Union  since  1840.  Ramsey  was  a  corruption  of  his 
Spanish  name  which  was  Jose  Ramuso  or  Ramisie.  After  the  loss  of  one 
of  his  hands  through  the  bursting  of  his  gun  he  looked  after  the  horse 
herd  at  the  fort.  Dr.  Matthews  saw  him  in  the  spring  of  1871  and  de- 
scribed him  as  a  "tall  good-looking  old  man  of  Spanish  type.  He  spoke 
English  very  imperfectly.  He  was  dressed  like  an  Indian,  wrapped  in  a 
blanket.  At  the  time  I  saw  him  he  was  living  on  the  charity  of  the  Assini- 
boines,  although  they  themselves  were  in  a  half-starving  condition." 

226  Bouchie,  This  is  probably  the  J.   Bouche  of  the  St. 

Louis  ledger,  "June  1,  1857,  salary  to  June,  1857,  $300.00."  Bouche  accom- 
panied E.  A.  C.  Hatch,  Indian  agent,  from  Fort  Union  to  Fort  Benton, 
June,  1856.  A  latter  day  landmark  on  the  Missouri  river,  491  miles  below 
Fort  Benton,  was  known  as  "James  Busha's  grave."  It  was  listed  in  the 
table  of  distances  on  the  Missouri  river  in  the  Hosmer  Journal  of  1865. 

227  Constantine.  Probably  the  John  Constantine  of  Fort  Benton  whose 
name  appeared  in  the  St.  Louis  ledger,  April  23,  1856. 

228  Alvary  (Alvarez),  P.  1829-1904.  This  must  have  been  Philip  Alvarez, 
list  of  men  of  the  U.  M.  O.  in  1855.  De  Smet  baptized.  May  25,  1866. 
Nicholas,  son  of  Philip  Alvarez  and  his  Assiniboine  wife,  at  Fort  Union. 
The  census  of  1870  for  Dawson  county,  Montana  territory,  listed  Philip 
Alvarez,  41  years  old,  born  in  Missouri,  interpreter.  He  died  in  Valley 
county,  Montana,  1904. 

229  Rollette,  John  C.  There  were  several  Rolettes  in  the  fur  trade  and 
this  is  probably  the  J.  C.  Rolette  who  came  to  Fort  Pierre  from  Canada 
and  later  returned  to  that  country. 

230  Harney  (Gen.  Wm.  S.)  1800-1889.  This  is  a  reference  to  the  defeat 
of  the  Brule  Sioux  Indians,  Sept.  3,  1855,  on  the  North  Fork  of  the  Platte 
river  by  troops  under  command  of  General  Harney. 


231  Morgan,  There  were  several  men  of  this  name  on  the 

Upper  Missouri  about  this  time.    Charles  Morgan,  a  Scotchman,  hunter  at 
Fort  Union  in  1851-52,  planned  to  return  to  his  home  in  1852. 

Robert  Morgan,  a  friend  and  countryman  of  Andrew  Dawson,  settled 
in  the  Red  River  country  of  Canada,  where  Andrew  Dawson,  Junior,  was 
sent  to  school  and  lived  with  Morgan. 

John  B.  Morgan,  an  old  mountaineer,  lived  on  Sun  River  in  1862  and 
was  the  first  settler  on  the  Little  Prickley  Pear,  where  he  was  living  when 
the  Fisk  expedition  of  1863  came  through.  He  had  built  a  log  house,  barns 
and  corralls,  all  surrounded  by  a  stockade  ten  feet  high. 

232  La  Bomparde,  Louis.  1818-1872.  This  may  be  the  L.  Bompard  in 
the  list  of  men  for  the  U.  M.  O.  in  1855.  Larpenteur  mentioned  Louis 
Bompard's  arrival  at  Buford  from  Benton  in  1867.  The  1870  census  for 
the  Upper  Missouri  district  lists  Leavie  (Louie)  Bompart,  aged  52  years, 
born  in  Missouri,  half-breed  family  of  four  children.  He  died  at  Fort 
Clagget,  M.  T.,  Jan.  1,  1872. 

Alexis  La  Bompard  was  a  well-known  man  in  the  fur  trade,  hunter  at 
Fort  Union  when  Audubon  was  there  in  1843  who  described  him  as  a 
"first-rate  hunter  and  powerfully  built."  He  was  hired  by  Governor 
Stevens  as  a  guide  to  the  Yellowstone  river  in  1853  and  represented  as 
"knowing  the  country  well."  He  was  a  hunter  for  Fort  Union  in  1851-52 
when  Kurz  was  there. 

233  Degnue.  See  Dagneau.  Probably  meant  for  J.  Dagneau,  whose  name 
appears  in  the  St.  Louis  Ledger  of  the  U.  M.  O. 

234  Chambers,  Col.  A.  B.  1808-1854.  Col.  A.  B.  Chambers,  born  in 
Mercer,  Pennsylvania,  Jan.  9,  1808,  died  in  St.  Louis,  May  22,  1854.  He 
was  editor  and  owner  of  the  Missouri  Republican  published  in  St.  Louis 
from  1837  to  1854,  and  acted  as  secretary  for  the  Fort  Laramie  council 
with  the  Sioux  and  other  tribes,  September,  1851. 

236  Cote  Trambeleau  (not  Poplar  River).  A  location  on  the  Missouri 
river  near  Pierre,  S.  D.,  was  known  as  "Cotes  qui  tremp  a  L'eau"  or  "the 
hill  that  slides  into  the  river."  This  may  have  been  the  name  of  a  similar 
location  on  the  Missouri  river  just  below  the  Little  Muddy. 

236  McKenzie's  Old  Houses.  This  must  have  been  the  location  of  Owen 
McKenzie's  winter  trading  post,  1851-52,  mentioned  by  Kurz,  on  the  Lower 
Bourbeuse  (Little  Muddy). 

237  Harvey's  Point  or  Hervey's  Point.  On  the  Missouri  river  about  18 
miles  below  the  Big  Muddy,  may  have  been  named  for  Alexander  Harvey. 

238  Poudirie.  A  French-Canadian  word  for  the  snow  storm  that  we  call 
blizzard  today.  This  meaning  is  given  by  Boiler  and  Hayden.  Coues  said 
it  might  have  been  from  the  French  word  for  "powder-mill"  "poudrerie." 
but  the  root  of  the  word  was  "poudre." 

239  Long  Horse  -1874.  Long  Horse  was  a  Crow  chief  but  had  only 
a  small  following,  his  leadership  and  fame  arising  from  his  giant  size.  He 
was  slain  in  the  spring  of  1874  in  a  duel  with  Weasel  Calf,  a  Blackfoot 
Indian.  In  this  duel  each  Indian  was  armed  with  a  shield  and  lance. 
Weasel  Calf's  lance  passed  entirely  through  the  shield  and  also  the  body 
of  Long   Horse.  .      .    ,  ^  ,  . 

In  accordance  with  the  Indian  custom  he  was  buried  on  a  tree  scattold 
near  where  he  fell,  but  the  skeleton  of  his  giant  frame.  6  foot,  10  inches, 
was  removed  some  time  later. 

240  White  Thigh.  White  Side,  a  River  Crow,  signed  the  River  Crow 
treaty  at  Fort  Hawley  on  the  Missouri  river,  July  15,  1868. 


241  Band  des  Canots.  This  was  the  Canoe  band  of  the  Assiniboine 
Indians.    This  tribe  was  divided  into  six  bands  which  were  as  follows: 

100  lodges     Gens  du  Gauche   (named  by  the  whites  for  the  chief  of 

the  band). 
60       "  Gens  du  Nord 

220       "  Gens  des  Canots 

60       "  Gens  des  Filles 

50       "  Gens  des  Roches 

30       "  Gens:    Le  bas  Rouge 

The  head  chief  of  all  these  bands  was  at  this  time  (1854)  L'ours  Fou  or 
Crazy  Bear.  (Denig's  Indian  tribes  of  the  Upper  Missouri;  46th  annual 
report  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology.) 

242  Tiger  Buttes.  These  are  marked  as  the  Panther  Hills  on  the  Ray- 
nolds-Maynadier  map,  edition  1876.    South  and  east  of  Glasgow,  Montana. 

243  Beaver  Creek.  Beaver  Creek  branch  of  the  Milk  river  from  the  south 
in  Phillips  county. 

244  Searces  or  Sarcees.  Proper  spelling  as  given  in  the  Handbook  of 
American  Indians  is  Sarsi.  The  tribe  hunted  on  the  Upper  Saskatchewan 
river  in  Canada  which  was  near  the  Blackfoot  territory.  Their  customs 
resembled  the  Blackfoot  Indians  but  they  retained  their  own  language. 

245  Little  Beaver  Creek.  Present  Beaver  creek  which  enters  the  Milk 
river  from  the  south  at  Havre. 

246  Note  May  7,  1856.  On  this  trip  from  Fort  Benton  to  Fort  Union 
Chambers  followed  a  route  about  midway  between  the  Milk  and  the  Mis- 
souri rivers,  through  the  gap  of  the  Bear's  Paw  and  the  Little  Rockies 
and  reached  the  Missouri  river  just  above  Round  Butte. 

247  Eagle  Creek.  A  fork  of  the  Missouri  river  from  the  east  below  Fort 

248  Dog  River.    Comes  into  Eagle  Creek  from  the  northeast. 

249  Grand  Tour.    The  Big  Bend  of  the  Milk  river. 

250  Porcupine.  On  the  present  day  maps  the  Little  Porcupine  creek  is 
a  branch  of  the  Missouri  river  from  the  north  below  Milk  river  and  Big 
Porcupine  is  a  tributary  of  the  Milk  river  from  the  north. 

251  Wolf  Point.    On  the  Missouri  river  about  125  miles  above  Fort  Union. 

252  Gore,  Sir  St.  George.  1811-1878.  Sir  St.  George  Gore  was  returning 
from  a  hunting  expedition  of  two  years'  duration.  He  left  St.  Louis  early 
in  1854  and  traveled  with  a  large  party  of  men  and  equipment  to  Fort 
Laramie  and  from  that  point  north  to  the  Yellowstone  region.  The  ex- 
pedition had  slaughtered  buffalo  and  other  game  in  great  numbers,  which 
caused  the  Indians  to  protest  to  the  Indian  agents  against  the  wasteful 
destruction  of  the  game. 

Sir  St.  George  Gore  was  the  eighth  baronet  of  that  title,  born  in  Ireland, 
1811,  and  died  unmarried,  Dec.  3,  1878. 

253  Martin,  Pete.  Peter  Martin  was  a  Mexican  or  Spaniard  who  was 
hired  as  a  hunter  by  Governor  Stevens'  party  at  Fort  Benton  in  Septem- 
ber, 1853.  In  1859  he  moved  with  his  family  from  Fort  Union  to  the 
settlement  on  the  Little  Blackfoot  river  and  was  included  in  the  poll  list 
for  Deer  Lodge  county,  Montana  territory,  Oct.  24,  1864.  J.  Larpenteur 
Long  said  his  real  name  was  Martinez.  His  son,  Dan  Martin,  80  years 
old  in  1940,  was  interpreter  at  Fort  Buford  for  many  years. 


254  Warren,  Lieut.  G.  K.  1830-1882.  Lieut.  Gouverneur  K.  Warren, 
born  in  Newport,  R.  L,  1830,  graduated  from  the  United  States  military 
academy  in  1850,  served  as  topographical  engineer  with  General  Harney 
on  the  Sioux  expedition  of  1856.  At  this  time  he  was  making  an  explora- 
tion of  the  Missouri  and  Yellowstone  rivers  for  suitable  locations  for 
military  posts  and  other  information  regarding  the  country.  Warren  and 
his  party  came  up  the  river  to  Fort  Union  on  the  Saint  Mary  and  there 
bought  wagons  from  Sir  St.  George  Gore  to  proceed  up  the  Yellowstone 
river  The'^  expedition  traveled  up  the  left  bank  of  the  Yellowstone  by  land 
about  100  miles  and  from  there  to  the  mouth  of  the  Powder  river  with 
pack  horses.  From  that  point  they  returned  to  where  the  wagons  were 
left  and  a  number  of  the  party  navigated  the  Yellowstone  river  to  the 
mouth  in  a  boat  made  of  buffalo  hides.  The  remainder  of  the  party  re- 
turned in  the  wagons.  Lieut.  Warren  served  in  the  Union  Army  during 
the  Civil  War  and  died  in  1882. 

255  Brazos.  This  was  the  location  of  Brasseaus'  or  Brazeau's  Houses, 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Yellowstone  river,  50  miles  from  the  mouth.  The 
name  of  Brazeau  appeared  at  an  early  date  in  the  records  of  the  American 
Fur  Company.  When  Catlin  visited  Fort  Union  in  1834  he  met  a  J.  E 
Brazeau  who  was  the  Brazeau  at  Fort  Edmonton  in  1859  when  the  Earl 
of  Southesk  visited  there.  Larpenteur  mentioned  a  Joseph  Brazeau,  a 
traveling  clerk,  July  8,  1835,  who  was  probably  J.  E.  Brazeau. 

There  was  also  a  John  Brazeau,  a  negro,  who  was  employed  at  Fort 
Berthold  and  Fort  Union,  died  at  Fort  Stephenson  about  1868. 

256  Emmill's  Prairie.  North  bank  of  Yellowstone  river  between  the 
Rosebud  and  Powder  river.    See  also  Emmell's  Creek,  Note  161. 

257  Nine  Blackfoot  Creek.  From  Chambers'  description  of  this  journey 
up  the  Yellowstone  river  Nine  Blackfoot  creek  would  be  a  branch  of  the 
Yellowstone  coming  in  from  the  south  above  the  Rosebud  river,  some- 
where near  Armell's  creek  of  today. 

258  O'Fallon's  Creek.  The  OTallon  creek  mentioned  here  is  the  Armell's 
or  Emmell's  creek  of  today  which  enters  the  Yellowstone  river  from  the 
south  above  the  Rosebud  river.  The  present  O'Fallon  creek  is  a  branch 
of  the  Yellowstone  river  from  the  south  below  Powder  river.  Both  were 
named  for  Maior  Benjamin  O'Fallon,  U.  S.  Indian  agent  for  the  Upper 
Missouri,  1823-27. 

259  Grass  Lodge  Creek.  Now  known  as  Lodge  Grass  creek,  fork  of  the 
Big  Horn  river  from  the  west. 

260  Blackfoot  boy.  A.  J.  Vaughan,  Fort  Union.  Sept.  10,  1856,  report  to 
Supt.  A.  Gumming,  Supt.  Indian  AflFairs. 

"I  found  one  captive  in  their  possession.  He  was  an  interesting  Black- 
foot boy,  some  fourteen  years  old,  who,  on  our  arrival  at  the  camp,  came 
running  to  us  with  tears  in  his  eyes,  exulting  that  a  deliverer  had  come  to 
his  rescue.  I  took  charge  of  him,  which  the  chiefs  consented  I  should  do 
without  a  murmur.  So  soon  as  an  opportunity  oflFers  itself  I  shall  return 
him  to  his  distressed  parents." 

261  Largie.  This  would  seem  to  be  a  French-Canadian  term  from  the 
French  word  "larguer"  or  "large,"  meaning  to  "stand  off  at  sea"  or  "sheer 
off"  and  is  used  here  to  mean  "to  take  off  across  country"  instead  of  fol- 
lowing the  course  of  the  streams.  Rev.  J.  A.  Collette,  St.  Mary's  parish. 
Helena,  Alontana,  said  the  word  "large"  has  been  used  with  this  meaning 
among  the  French  peasantry. 

262  Aug.  14,  1856.  A.  J.  Vaughan  said  350  men  with  450  horses  made 
the  trip  to  Fort  Union  with  him. 


263  Spanish  Island.  An  island  in  the  Missouri  river  about  28  miles  be- 
low Fort  Benton.     Maximilian  in  1833  called  it  Spaniard  Island. 

264  Dauphin's  Rapids.  These  rapids,  13  miles  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Judith  river,  were  considered  the  most  dangerous  in  the  Upper  river.  Cul- 
bertson  said  the  rapids  were  named  for  an  Antoine  Dauphin,  who  died  of 
smallpox  in  1837. 

265  Emmell's  Island.  This  is  Armell's  island  in  the  Missouri  river  op- 
posite Armell's  creek,  named  for  Augustin  Hamell. 

266  Featherlands  House.  This  location  was  probably  that  of  Feather- 
lands  Island  in  the  Missouri  river  about  16  miles  below  Round  Butte. 
There  was  also  a  creek  of  the  same  name  which  came  into  the  Missouri 
river  from  the  south  at  that  point. 

In  Vaughan's  Then  and  Now  mention  was  made  by  E.  .A..  Lewis  of  a 
Bill  Fatherland  at  Fort  Union  in  1858. 

267  Rolette's  Houses.  E.  W.  McNeal  who  came  up  the  river  on  the 
steamboat  Alone  in  1863  said  Fort  Rolette  was  on  the  north  bank  of  the 
Missouri  river  about  40  miles  above  the  Yellowstone. 

268  Fort  William.  1833-1858.  Fort  William  was  built  in  the  fall  of  1833 
by  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company  and  named  for  William  Sublette,  a 
partner  of  the  firm.  Robert  Campbell  was  in  charge  until  the  company 
sold  out  to  the  American  Fur  Company,  June,  1834.  It  was  situated  on 
the  north  bank  of  the  Missouri  river  about  three  miles  below  Fort  Union 
and  was  the  first  opposition  post  on  the  upper  river.  It  was  occupied  by 
the  Union  Fur  Company  in  1842  and  the  name  changed  to  Fort  Mortimer. 
This  company  sold  out  in  1845  and  the  next  year  the  fort  was  occupied  by 
the  new  opposition  company  of  Harvey,  Primeau  and  Company  and  the 
old  name  of  Fort  William  restored.  Since  some  of  the  buildings  were  built 
of  adobe  it  was  known  to  the  occupants  of  Fort  Union  as  the  "doby  fort." 
It  was  abandoned  in  1858  and  the  property  moved  up  to  Fort  Stewart. 

269  Fox  River.  A  branch  of  the  Yellowstone  river  from  the  west  about 
15  miles  above  the  junction  of  the  Missouri  and  Yellowstone  rivers. 

270  Big  Hills.  The  High  Buttes  of  Lieut.  Warren's  map  below  the 
Powder  river. 

271  Lone  Tree  Cut.  A  map  drawn  by  Father  De  Smet,  undated,  shows 
a  Lone  Tree  creek  which  entered  the  Yellowstone  a  short  di.stance  below 
and  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Rosebud  river. 

272  Scott,  John.  In  his  report  for  1856,  A.  J.  Vaughan,  wrote:  "They 
informed  me  that  a  man  by  the  name  of  Scott,  in  company  with  another 
man,  from  the  Platte,  whose  name  they  could  not  give,  had  left  their  vil- 
lage two  days  before  my  arrival,  and  that  he  told  them  'that  he  had  come 
to  ask  them  to  return  with  him  to  the  Platte  to  trade;  that  there  they 
would  find  no  sickness;  that  they  would  meet  plenty  of  buffalo;  that  they 
must  not  proceed  to  Fort  Union  to  obtain  their  goods,  or  disease  and 
death  would  be  the  result;  and  moreover  that  a  large  body  of  soldiers  were 
stationed  there  for  the  purpose  of  casting  their  principal  men  into  irons, 
and  conveying  them  to  the  states'." 

273  Mamalls.  Since  "mamelle"  and  "teton"  have  the  same  meaning  in 
French,  "woman's  breast,"  these  must  have  been  the  "Tetons  of  the  Yel- 
lowstone" described  by  De  Smet  in  August,  1851.  as  being  30  miles  from 
Fort  Union. 


274  Yanctonias.  The  Yanktonai  are  one  of  the  seven  primary  divisions 
of  the  Dakota  or  Sioux  tribe.  Their  habitat  in  1855  the  country  between 
the  James  river  and  the  Missouri. 

275  Red  River  Half  Breeds.  Half-breed  Indians  from  the  Red  River 
settlements  in  Canada  near  Winnipeg. 

276  English  Gentleman  (Sir  St.  George  Gore).     See  note  252. 

277  Upper  Missouri  Outfit.  (U.  M.  O.)  The  name  Upper  Missouri  Out- 
fit dated  back  to  1827  when  the  American  Fur  Company  bought  out  the 
Columbia  Fur  Company  and  organized  another  division  of  their  Western 
Department.  The  term  "outfit"  in  the  Canadian  fur  trade  meant  trade 
goods  for  any  particular  year  including  goods  for  use  at  the  post  as  well 
as  for  trade  but  here  it  was  used  to  designate  what  were  known  in  Can- 
ada as  "districts,"  a  certain  area  or  territory  including  several  posts. 

During  the  period  covered  by  the  Journal,  1854-56.  the  Upper  Missouri 
Outfit  was  a  subsidiary  of  the  Pierre  Chouteau,  Jr.  and  Company  and  en- 
tered in  the  St.  Louis  ledgers  as  the  U.  M.  O.  There  were  other  depart- 
ments such  as  the  Minnesota  Outfit,  the  Sioux  Outfit,  the  Platte 
Outfit,  etc. 

Of  the  twelve  shares  of  the  U.  M  .O.  eight  were  owned  by  the  parent 
company,  the  P.  Chouteau,  Jr.  and  Company,  and  the  other  four  shares 
were  divided  among  the  chief  traders  of  the  various  posts.  In  1854  the 
principal  posts  were  Forts  Pierre,  Clark,  Berthold,  Union  and  Benton  on 
the   Missouri  river  and   Fort  Sarpy  on  the   Yellowstone  river. 

278  Boismann,  Joseph.  "Joseph  Boismener,  a  man  assigned  to  me  by 
Mr.  Dawson  was  as  good  an  ox  driver  as  ever  handled  a  whip."  (Owen 
Journals,  v.  1.  p.  147.  Trip  from  Ft.  Benton  to  Ft.  Owen,  Nov.  1856.) 

CHARLES  MERCIER  (Rondin).     1803-1891 
By  Wm.  F.  Wheeler 

279  Charles  Mercier,  or  Moultier  as  Col.  J.  J.  Donnelly,  his  Attorney 
insists  is  his  correct  name  (or  Rondin  a  nick  name  for  his  being  round- 
shouldered,  by  which  he  is  known  by  the  people  at  Fort  Benton),  was  born 
at  a  place  called  "the  Portage,"  which  is  about  forty  miles  above  St.  Louis, 
Mo.,  in  the  year  1803.  He  was  of  Canadian  French  descent,  and  had  a 
very  limited  education,  as  there  were  no  public  schools  in  those  days.  He 
learned  boat  building  at  Carondelette  below  St.  Louis  when  a  boy  and 
during  the  many  years  he  was  in  the  employment  of  the  American  Fur 
Company,  he  was  engaged  as  carpenter  &  boat  builder  at  their  various 
forts  on  the  upper  Missouri,  and  generally  built  the  Mackinaws  in  which 
they  transported  their  robes  and  furs  to  St.  Louis. 

Mr.  Mercier  (as  I  shall  call  him)  was  employed  by  the  American  Fur  Co. 
in  1827  (?)  at  St.  Louis,  to  go  to  their  trading  posts  on  the  upper  Mis- 
souri in  the  capacity  of  carpenter.  The  company  at  that  time  consisted 
of  P.  Chouteau,  Jr.,  and  Harrison  and  Valle,  all  of  St.  Louis.  The  expe- 
dition left  St.  Louis  in  April  and  consisted  of  two  keel  boats  loaded  with 
goods  for  the  Indian  trade.  Mr.  Mercier  helped  to  work  these  boats  up 
the  Missouri  from  April  until  in  September,  when  they  arrived  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Heart  River,  where  they  landed  and  went  into  winter  quar- 
ters. They  built  no  fort  as  the  Indians  were  friendly,  but  erected  com- 
fortable log  cabins.  They  made  a  good  trade  and  sold  out  one  boat  load 
of  goods.  ,  .  ,        ,         „    . 

The  next  Spring.  1828,  they  filled  the  empty  boat  with  robes  &  furs 
and  sent  it  back  to  St.  Louis.  At  old  Ft.  Pierre,  it  was  met  by  a  steamer, 
on  its  way  with  supplies  for  Ft.  Union  which  overtook  them  on  its  return 
down  the  river  and  took  the  cargo  to  St.  Louis. 

Note:  (The  steamboat  Yellowstone  was  the  first  steamboat  to  come  up 
the  Missouri  river  as  far  as  Fort  Pierre  which  was  in  the  summer  of  1831. 


The  next  year,  1832,  the  Yellowstone  went  on  to  Fort  Union,  and  on  the 
return  trip  from  Fort  Union  reached  Fort  Pierre,  June  25,  1832.) 

Mr.  Mercier  accompanied  the  remaining  boat  up  the  Missouri.  When 
the  party  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  the  Marias  River,  Mr.  James  Kip  (Kipp) 
who  had  charge  of  the  boat  and  goods  landed  and  built  winter  quarters, 
but  no  stockade,  as  the  Indians  were  friendly.  Here  they  traded  during  the 
winter  of  1828-9  (1831-32).  In  the  spring  of  1829  (1832)  they  were  at- 
tacked by  the  Assinaboine  Indians  and  one  of  their  men  was  killed.  In 
consequence  they  burned  their  houses  there  and  moved  to  a  better  loca- 
tion eight  miles  above  on  the  Missouri  and  built  a  new  and  strong  post, 
which  they  named  Fort  McKenzie.  Here  they  lived  and  traded  for  four- 
teen years  and  were  very  successful.  Their  trade  was  almost  entirely  with 
the  Blackfeet,  Bloods  and  Piegan  Indians.  During  all  this  time  but  four 
of  their  men  were  killed  by  the  Indians,  and  Mr.  M.  thinks  probably  be- 
cause of  their  own  misconduct. 

In  the  fall  of  1843,  a  war  party  of  Blackfeet  enroute  to  the  lower  coun- 
try visited  the  fort,  and  as  was  the  rule  were  given  a  feast,  and  supplied 
with  five  rounds  of  ammunition.  With  this  they  were  not  satisfied  but  de- 
manded that  the  amount  should  be  doubled.  Mr.  Chardon,  the  Bourgeois, 
or  man  in  charge  of  the  post,  refused  to  grant  this  demand.  In  the  morn- 
ing when  the  Indians  were  about  to  cross  the  river,  either  by  accident 
or  design,  they  shot  a  cow  belonging  to  the  post,  which  they  refused  to 
pay  for.  They  also  killed  a  negro  employee  who  went  in  pursuit  of  them, 
and  they  escaped.  Mr.  Chardon  swore  that  the  negro's  death  should  be 
avenged,  and  Mr.  Harvey,  the  head  clerk,  said  the  Indians  should  pay 
dearly  for  the  cow  they  had  killed,  when  they  came  to  trade  in  the  spring. 
A  terrible  revenge  was  taken  as  will  appear  by  the  narrative  of  Mr.  George 
Weippert,  given  in  this  series.  Mr.  Mercier  was  not  a  witness  to  the 
tragedy,  and  declined  to  give  an  account  of  it  for  that  reason,  but  he 
said  it  was  worthy  of  savages,  instead  of  white  men. 

This  event  was  so  terrible  that  the  employees  threatened  to  return  to 
St.  Louis  and  leave  the  service  of  the  Company.  In  consequence,  Mr. 
Chardon,  the  head  trader,  and  Mr.  Harvey  determined  to  burn  and  aban- 
don the  fort  for  fear  of  the  vengeance  of  the  Indians,  which  their  employees 
dreaded.  So  in  the  Spring,  1843  (1844),  they  burnt  and  abandoned  the 
post,  and  ever  since  then  they  have  called  it  Fort  Brule,  which  in  their 
French  signified  the  "burnt  fort."  It  is  also  called  by  the  survivors  (dur- 
ing the  time  it  was  occupied,  from  1829  to  1843  (1832-1844,)  Old  Fort  Mc- 

After  the  burning  of  the  Fort,  Mr.  Chardon  floated  all  of  the  property, 
of  the  Company  down  to  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  River,  and  just  above' 
built  a  post  which  was  named  Ft.  Chardon,  in  honor  of  the  head  trader, 
who  was  a  member  of  the  Company,  and  is  still  remembered  for  his 
drunken  habit.  At  this  place  they  lived  and  traded  until  the  next  Spring, 
1844  (1845). 

In  consequence  of  the  rivalry  of  the  Company  of  Independent  Traders 
and  Trappers,  headed  by  such  men  as  Sublette,  Cotton,  Bridger,  Campbell, 
and  others,  who  had  established  a  post  named  Ft.  Cotton,  rightly  Ft.  Hen- 
ry (Honore),  on  the  east  side  of  the  Missouri,  three  or  four  miles  above 
the  present  city  of  Ft.  Benton,  the  American  Fur  Company  bought  out  their 
posts  in  the  Northern  part  of  Montana,  and  therefore  in  the  spring  of  1844 
(1845),  Air.  Chardon  abandoned  Ft.  Chardon  and  moved  up  to  and  took 
possession  of  Fort  Cotton  (Fort  Henry).  (It  was  Culbertson  who  burned 
Ft.  Chardon  and  moved  up  to  Ft.  Cotton).  Here  the  .\merican  Fur  Com- 
pany carried  on  their  trade  for  two  years,  or  until  the  spring  of  1846 
(1847)  when  they  abandoned  the  post  and  moved  all  the  timbers  of  the 
fort,  including  houses,  stockades,  etc.  to  the  site  of  the  present  Fort  Ben- 
ton. With  these  timbers,  and  new  ones  hauled  from  the  Highwood  Moun- 
tains, a  new  trading  post  was  built,  and  occupied.     But  gradually,  by  the 


work  of  their  employees  and  stragglers,  the  company  built  the  adobe  post, 
a  part  of  which  is  still  standing  (in  1884),  and  which  gave  name  to  the 
present  thriving  and  pretty  City  of  Fort   Benton. 

Mr.  Mercicr  remained  in  the  employment  of  the  Am.  Fur  Co.  until 
they  sold  out  to  the  North  West  Fur  Co.  in  1866.  This  company  con- 
sisted of  James  B.  Hubbell,  Tcnn.  llawley,  and  C.  Frank  Bates.  The 
last  Agent  in  charge  of  the  Am.  Fur  Co.  he  says  was  I.  G.  Baker.  Frank 
H.  Eastman  was  the  manager  of  the  N.  W.  Fur  Company,  until  the  time 
of  his  death  which  occurred  in  1874  (1877)  at  Bismarck,  D.  T.,  when  the 
new  company  closed  up  their  business  for  good. 

Mr.  1.  G.  Baker  and  Brother  immediately  after  the  sale  of  Ft.  Benton 
Trading  Post,  commenced  trading  on  their  own  account,  and  today  are 
among  the  wealthiest  merchants  at  Ft.  Benton  or  in  Montana. 

Mr.  Mercier  continued  in  the  service  of  the  Am.  F"ur  Company  at  old 
Ft.  Union,  while  under  the  charge  of  Maj.  Culbertson,  for  five  or  six 
years,  and  until  it  was  abandoned. 

Mr.  Mercier  was  employed  by  Maj.  Vaughn,  U.  S.  Indian  Agent,  at 
Sun  River  for  a  year  or  two  as  carpenter.  He  was  also  employed  by 
Labarge  Harkness  &  Co.  for  some  time  at  their  trading  post,  which  was 
situated  in  the  upper  part  of  the  present  City  of  Ft.  Benton. 

After  his  retirement  from  these  employments,  Mr.  Mercier  built  a  small 
log  house,  in  which  he  has  lived  for  nearly  twenty  years.  For  ten  years 
or  more  it  was  the  only  dwelling  house  occupied  by  a  white  man  outside 
of  the  trading  posts.  When  the  town  site  was  patented  by  the  Probate 
Judge  in  trust  for  the  occupants,  the  County  Commissioners  of  Chouteau 
County  ordered  that  the  fee  to  the  three  lots  on  Main  street,  so  long  oc- 
cupied by  Mr.  Mercier,  be  conveyed  to  him  without  charge,  which  action 
was  heartily  approved  by  the  whole  people,  and  showed  their  kindly  feel- 
ing to  the  "Old  Timer,"  of  1828. 

Mr.  Mercier  was  always  employed  in  and  around  the  trading  posts  of 
the  Fur  Companies,  as  a  mechanic,  and  never  went  out  as  hunter  or  trap- 
per. Therefore  he  has  no  account  of  battles  with  the  savage  Indians  or 
encounters  with  wild  beasts  to  relate. 

Mr.  Mercier  was  married  to  an  Indian  girl,  aged  13  years,  about  1831. 
They  lived  happily  together,  respected  by  all  who  knew  them  for  50  years 
until  she  died  in  1878.  He  said  that  he  was  no  "squaw  man,"  for  she  had 
been  his  only  wife  in  all  that  time.  By  her  he  had  eleven  children.  Four 
are  living — 3  at  Benton — one  is  married  and  lives  in  St.  Louis.  Mrs.  Bost- 
wick,  one  daughter  is  living  at  Benton.  Her  husband,  Henry  Bostwick, 
was  killed  at  the  Battle  of  the  Big  Hole.  Mr.  M's.  other  descendants  are 
ten  grandchildren  and  two  great  grandchildren,  and  all  live  near  him, 
and  are  much  respected  by  the  community.  Mr.  M.  has  led  a  quiet,  in- 
dustrious and  blameless  life.  At  eighty-one  his  health  is  fair  and  he  may 
live  manv  years  to  come. 

From  the  River   Press   (Fort   Benton),  Feb.   19,   1890. 

"Since  then  (1864).  he  (Rondin)  has  lived  in  this  city  at  the  corner  of 
Main  and  Rondin  streets.  Until  a  few  years  ago  he  supported  himself  by 
sawing  wood  and  doing  odd  jobs,  when  by  reason  of  his  increasing  age 
and  infirmity  Choteau  county  made  a  provision  for  his  declining  years. 
The  citizens  of  Benton,  too,  have  not  been  neglectful  of  the  old  man's 
earthly  wants.  He  is  a  devout  Catholic  and  attends  church  every  Sunday. 
He  is  one  of  the  last  of  whom  Abbe  Domenech  wrote:  'Their  .glory  is 
extinct;  they  are  no  more.  The  masters  and  the  great  navigators  of  the 
inner  seas  of  the  new  world  are  gone,  and  in  a  short  time  hence  the  very 
name  of  the  voyageurs  will  be  no  more  than  a  pleasing  legend  of  the 
American   solitudes'." 

Charles  Mercier  (Rondin)  died  in  Fort  Benton,  December,  1891. 

280  Apishamo.  Kurz.  "A  hide  (antelope  or  piece  of  buffalo  skin)  used 
as  a  saddle  blanket." 


ALEXANDER  HARVEY.     1807-1854 

281  Harvey,  according  to  Larpenteur,  was  a  native  of  St.  Louis,  born 
about  1807.  He  entered  the  employ  of  the  American  Fur  Company  in  1831. 
In  the  Fort  Tecumseh  Journal,  Nov.  1,  1832,  the  following  reference  shows 
that  Harvey  was  on  the  upper  river  in  1832:  "A.  Harvey  and  Beckwourth 
arrived  from  Ft.  Lookout  on  their  way  to  the  Mandans  (both  freemen)." 
(S.  D.  Hist.  Coll.  Vol.  9,  p.  162.) 

Harvey  was  with  Maximilian's  party  on  their  journey  up  the  Missouri 
river  in  June,  1833,  and  when  the  party  reached  Fort  Union,  Harvey  and 
Berger  went  on  ahead  of  the  boats  overland  by  horseback  to  Fort  McKen- 
zie.  Mitchell  sent  him  in  September  of  that  year  in  charge  of  a  crew  of 
30  men  to  build  the  new  post.  He  was  an  energetic  and  active  man  with- 
out fear  and  of  great  physical  strength.  Larpenteur  said  he  was  "the  bold- 
est man  that  was  ever  on  the  Missouri  ...  a  man  six  feet  tall,  weighing 
160  or  170  pounds  and  inclined  to  do  right  when  sober." 

The  feats  of  endurance,  strength  and  courage  of  Harvey  were  legendary 
on  the  river  and  although  hated  and  despised  for  his  cruelty  and  callous- 
ness he  was  granted  a  reluctant  admiration  for  other  qualities.  On 
complaints  of  other  employees  in  the  winter  of  1839-40,  he  was  summoned 
by  the  head  of  the  company  to  report  at  St.  Louis  and  he  made  the  trip 
alone  and  afoot  along  the  river  to  the  city.  Chouteau  was  so  impressed 
by  this  performance  that  instead  of  the  dismissal  that  was  intended  he 
was  ordered  to  return  to  Fort  McKenzie.  When  Harvey  arrived  at  Fort 
Union  he  summoned  every  man  who  had  testified  against  him  and  gave 
each  one  a  beating  and  was  perfectly  sober  at  the  time.  Revenge  was  an 
important  item  in  his  makeup  and  this  quality  was  responsible  for  the 
killing  of  Isadore  Sandoval  at  Fort  Union  in  1841  and  also,  perhaps,  for 
the  massacre  of  the  Blackfoot  Indians  at  Fort  McKenzie  in  February,  1844. 

When  Chardon  moved  to  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  river  in  the  spring  of 
1844  Harvey  went  with  him  and  the  next  spring  when  Chardon  went 
down  the  Missouri  to  establish  Fort  Berthold  he  remained  in  charge  at 
Fort  F.  A.  C.  until  Culbertson  came  up  to  move  that  fort  up  the  river 
above  the  location  of  old  Fort  McKenzie. 

Among  the  men  with  Culbertson  were  James  Lee,  Malcolm  Clark 
and  Jacob  Berger  who  planned  before  they  left  Fort  Union  to 
attack  Harvey  and  run  him  out  of  the  country.  This  plan  must 
have  been  the  result  of  bad  blood  between  Chardon  and  Harvey 
prior  to  Chardon's  departure  for  Fort  Berthold.  As  had  been  proven  Har- 
vey bore  bitter  grudges  against  any  one  who  had  wronged  him  and  he 
may  iiave  intimidated  Chardon  before  the  latter  left  Fort  F.  A.  C.  with 
threats  to  expose  him  for  selling  liquor  to  the  Indians.  Others  beside 
Chardon  were  guilty  of  this  offense  and  these  three  men  who  went  up  to 
Fort  F.  A.  C.  with  an  avowed  intent  "to  get  Harvey"  might  also  have 
been  among  the  offenders.  The  attempt  on  Harvey's  life  failed  and  Cul- 
bertson persuaded  him  to  give  up  the  Fort  by  paying  his  wages  in  full  and 
giving  him  a  strong  recommendation.  Harvey  went  down  the  river  in  a 
canoe  and  when  he  reached  Fort  Union  told  Larpenteur  he  was  going 
down  to  St.  Louis  to  bring  charges  against  Chardon  and  the  other  men 
of  an  attempt  at  murder  and  violation  of  the  government  regulations  re- 
garding the  Indian  country.  When  he  got  to  Fort  Pierre  llonore  Picotte 
tried  to  hold  him  there  and  was  willing  to  give  him  charge  of  the  Black- 
foot  post  if  he  would  remain  in  the  country  for  Picotte  knew  if  Harvey 
told  the  new  Commissioner  of  Indian  Affairs  at  St.  Louis  of  the  com- 
pany's practice  of  selling  and  trading  liquor  to  the  Indians  it  would  mean 
serious  trouble  for  them.  Harvey  was  not  to  be  dissuaded  and  continued 
on  his  journey  down  the  river  to  St.  Louis,  and  on  March  13,  1846,  the 
Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs,  T.  IT.  Harvey,  directed  Major  Drips. 
Indian  Agent,  to  order  Chardon.   Berger,  Clark  and  Lee  out  of  the  Indian 


country  to  appear  in  St.  Louis  to  answer  charges  which  had  been  pre- 
ferred against  them.  Chardon  was  accused  of  seUing  liquor  to  the  Indians 
and  the  other  three  with  attempted  murder.  Nothing  came  of  these 
charges  as  the  case  was  postponed  from  time  to  time  and  finally  dropped, 
but  Harvey  with  three  others  and  the  financial  backing  of  Robert  Camp- 
bell organized  the  St.  Louis  Fur  Company,  another  opposition  to  the 
Chouteau  company. 

While  he  was  at  Fort  Pierre  he  met  Charles  Primeau,  Joseph  Picotte 
and  A.  R.  Bonis.  Since  all  three  were  ready  to  leave  the  company  and 
enter  business  for  themselves  his  suggestion  came  at  the  right  time. 

Until  his  death  in  1854  Harvey  was  the  chief  worker  and  organizer  in 
this  company  and  made  his  headquarters  at  their  Blackfoot  post,  Fort 
Campbell,  where  he  labored  hard  at  the  business  he  knew,  the  fur  trade. 
No  one  ever  accused  him  of  dishonesty,  laziness  or  cowardice.  His  chief 
fault  was  his  arrogant  bullying  of  the  men  who  offended  or  crossed  him 
in  any  way,  and  the  desire  to  impress  upon  all  that  it  was  dangerous  to 
harm  Harvey  in  any  manner,  by  word  or  deed.  Perhaps  he  succeeded  in 
this  endeavor. 

Harvey  must  have  had  an  Indian  family  for  in  his  letter  to  Campbell 
written  just  before  he  died,  July  17,  1854,  he  asked  that  Campbell  care  for 
his  two  daughters  who  were  in  a  convent  school  near  St.  Louis.  The 
obituary  comments  published  in  the  St.  Louis  newspapers  gave  him  high 
praise  for  his  admirable  qualities  and  the  publishing  of  these  comments 
in  this  journal  may  help  to  vindicate  his  character  in  the  history  of  the 
fur  trade. 

Kiel  Boat   15  Miles  Below  the  Upper 
BuUbers  July  17th  1854 
Mr.  Campbell  Esq 

1  regret  to  inform  you  that  I  am  laying  here  at  the  point  of  death  and 
do  not  know  the  moment  it  may  occur,  if  it  should  occur  I  am  under  the 
nessesity  of  leaving  order  for  her  to  go  back  to  Fort  William  for  the  want 
of  a  Steersman  to  take  her  up  I  shall  advice  Mr.  Peacott  to  let  you  hear 
of  it  as  soon  as  possible  so  you  can  arrange  accordingly  I  appoint  you 
the  Executor  of  my  Estate  Settle  up  all  the  business  I  have  remaining  in 
the  world  after  the  close  of  our  business  if  there  is  any  thing  comeing  to 
me  it  will  be  equally  divided  between  my  two  children  Edeline  &  Susan 
and  those  two  I  beg  of  you  as  a  Friend  not  to  see  them  suffer  give  my 
last  respects  to  Mrs  Campbell  and  her  children.  I  give  my  last  farewell 
to  yourself  and  all  the  gentlemen  in  the  Store  and  enquiring  Friends 

1   die  in  peace  and  Friendship  with  the  world 
Alexander  Alexander  M.  Harvey 

State  of  Missouri  i  g_. 

County  of  Saint  Louis      \ 

Be  it  remembered  that  on  this  Eleventh  day  of  May  in  the  year  of  our 
Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  fifty  eight  before  me  Peter  Fergu- 
son Judge  of  Probate  of  the  County  of  Saint  Louis  personally  appeared 
William  H.  Alexander  who  being  by  me  duly  sworn  on  his  oath  saith, 
I  was  present  at  the  time  of  the  date  of  the  foregoing  instrument  as  wit- 
ness and  saw  Alexander  M.  Harvey  subscribe  his  name  to  said  instrument 
and  heard  him  declare  the  same  to  be  his  last  will — I  subscribed  my  name 
as  a  witness  thereto  in  the  presence  of  said  Harvey  and  at  the  time  of  so 
doing  he  said  Harvey  was  of  sound  and  disposing  mind  to  the  best  of  my 
knowledge  and  belief — the  residence  of  said  Harvey  was  at  Fort  Campbell 
near  the  falls  of  the  Missouri  about  sixty  miles  above  the  mouth  of  the 
Yellowstone  and  the  place  of  executing  said  instrument  and  the  place  of 
the  residence  of  said  Harvey  are  both  in  the  Territory  of  Nebraska  the 
body  of  said  instrument  was  written  by  me  at  the  request  of  said  Harvey. 

Wm.  H.  Alexander. 


Sworn  to  and  Subscribed  before  me  at  St.  Louis  thisi 
11  day  of  May  1858 

I'eter  Ferguson  | 

Judge  of  Probate         J 

I  William  F.  Ferguson  Judge  of  Probate  of  the  County  of  Saint  Louis 
having  examined  the  foregoing  instrument  in  writing  and  the  testimony 
of  William  H.  Alexander  the  subscribing  witness  thereto,  consider  that 
said  instrument  is  not  duly  proved  to  be  the  last  will  of  Alexander  M. 
Harvey  deceased  and  do  reject  the  same. 

Given  under  my  Hand  at  the  County  aforesaid  this  Eighteenth  day  of 
May  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  Thousand  Eight  hundred  and  fifty  nine. 

William  F.  Ferguson 

Judge  of  Probate 
(Rejected  Will  of  Alexander   M.   Harvey, 
as  Certified  by  the  Probate  Court  of 
the  City  of  St.  Louis,  Missouri.) 

(For  the  newspaper  notices  on  Harvey's  death  we  are  indebted  to  Miss 
Stella  M.  Drum,  of  the  Missouri  Historical  Society,  St.  Louis.) 


DIED  at  Fort  William,  on  the  Yellow  Stone,  on  the  20th  July  last, 
ALEXANDER  M.  HARVEY,  in  the  47th  (the  second  figure  is  blurred, 
but  the  impression  looks  like  7)  year  of  his  age. 

The  deceased  has  been  for  many  years  a  prominent  and  successful  In- 
dian trader.  He  was  the  leading  partner  of  Harvey,  Primeau  &  Co.,  and 
Harvey  &  Co.  He  was  a  man  of  firmness,  honesty  and  courage,  and  he 
possessed  besides,  a  kindness  and  humanity  which  rendered  him  extremely 
popular  with  the  Indians,  with  whom  his  traffic  brought  him  in  contact. 
It  is  no  small  evidence  of  his  worth  that  the  red  children  of  the  mountain 
and  prairie  always  regarded  him  with  respect  and  esteem.  He  had  never 
yielded  to  the  temptations  of  his  gainful  barter  to  deceive  the  savage,  and 
they  loved  and  reverenced  him  for  his  uprightness  and  his  kindly  be- 
havior towards  them.  The  deceased  was  known  to  many  of  our  citizens 
as  a  man  of  stainless  honesty,  inflexible  courage,  and  invincible  energy. 
He  met  death  with  the  same  unshaken  fortitude  that  he  had  often  evinced 
when  encountering  other  perils;  and  upon  his  gravestone  may  be  fitly 
inscribed  the  epitaph.  "Here  lies  a  brave,  an  honest,  and  kind-hearted 
(Missouri  Republican,  September  19,  1854). 


Our  obituary  column  yesterday,  contained  a  notice  of  the  death  of  Alex- 
ander M.  Harvey,  for  many  years  a  prominent  and  successful  trader  with 
the  Indians  on  the  Upper  Missouri.  Mr.  Harvey  was,  we  think,  a  native 
of  St.  Louis  and  has  been  for  a  long  time  a  leading  partner  in  the  exten- 
sive trading  concerns  in  that  region.  He  was  a  man  of  great  energy  of 
character,  and  of  unquestioned  courage,  and  these  characteristics,  with 
his  proverbial  honesty  and  kindness  to  the  Indians,  secured  for  him  a  de- 
gree of  confidence  which  has  rarely  been  accorded  to  any  man.  The  In- 
dians loved  him  and  his  influence  over  them  was  unbounded.  At  the  time 
of  his  death  he  was  engaged  in  profitable  trade  and  a  few  years  more 
would  have  enabled  him  to  retire  with  wealth  honestly  and  laboriously 
(Missouri  Republican,  September  20,  1854). 


281A  Primeau,  Charles.  1811-1897.  Charles  Primeau,  born  in  St.  Louis, 
1811,  came  up  the  river  in  1831  as  clerk  for  the  American  Fur  Company 
at  Fort  Union.  In  1846  he  became  a  member  of  the  Harvey,  Primeau 
Company  and  after  that  company  sold  out  in  1860  he  acted  as  interpreter 
at  Standing  Rock  Indian  Agency.  He  was  married  to  his  Indian  wife  and 
his  children  baptized  bv  Father  De  Smet  in  1857.  Primeau  died  at  Fort 
Yates,  N.  D..  in  1897. 

252  Galpin,  Charles  E.  -1870.  "Major"  Charles  E.  Galpin  came  to  the 
Dakota  country  in  1839,  married  a  mixed  blood  Sioux  woman,  and  was 
engaged  in  the  fur  trade  of  the  Upper  Missouri  for  many  years.  In  later 
years  he  had  sutler  stores  at  several  of  the  army  posts  on  the  river  and 
trading  posts  near  the  Indian  agencies.  He  died  about  1870  on  the  Indian 
reservation  at  Grand  river. 

253  Hodgkiss,  W.  D.  -1864.  W.  D.  Hodgkiss,  a  native  of  New  York, 
entered  the  fur  trade  in  1832  with  Bonneville.  He  was  employed  as  clerk 
at  Fort  Pierre  and  other  posts,  was  in  charge  of  Fort  Union  in  1863  where 
he  died  the  following  year.  He  had  an  Indian  family  and  some  of  his 
descendants  still  live  in  South  Dakota. 

284  u.  M.  O.  Inventories.  The  ledgers  of  the  P.  Chouteau,  Jr.,  and 
Company  do  not  contain  detailed  inventories  of  the  U.  M.  O.  later  than 
1851.  Those  for  1852,  1853,  1856  were  the  total  sums  of  the  inventories, 
at  least  that  is  all  that  was  found  in  the  ledgers  for  those  years.  The 
notations  of  dividends  and  earnings  while  not  clearly  explained  are  in- 
cluded, with  the  date  of  entry  in  the  ledgers,  as  these  give  some  idea  of 
the  earnings  of  the  men  employed  as  chief  traders  at  the  various  posts. 

285  All  measurements  for  distances  on  the  Missouri  River  are  taken 
from  the  Missouri  River  Commission  maps  published  1892-1895. 






Ashby,  S.  C. 



Dawson,  Andrew 


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Chittenden,  H.  M. 
Chittenden,  H.  M. 

Chittenden,  H.  M.  and 
Richardson,  A.  T. 

Crawford,  L.  F. 

Thaddeus  A. 

Denig,  Edwin  T. 
Dunn,  John 
Garraghan,  G.  J. 

Grinnell,  G.  B. 

Hafen,  L.  R.,  and 
Ghent,  W.  J. 

HamUton,  W.  T. 
Hayden,  F.  V. 

Heitman,  F.  B. 

Henry,  Alexander,  and 
Thompson,  David 

Hodge,  F.  W. 

Hosmer,  J.  A. 

Kane,  Paul 
Kurz,  R.  F. 

Larpenteur,  Charles 
Luttig,  J.  C. 


American  Fur  Trade  of  the  Far  West.    3  vols. 
Harper.    1902. 

History  of  Early  Steamboat  Navigation  on  the 
Missouri  River.    2  vols.    Harper.    1903. 

Life,  Letters  and  Travels  of  Father  Pierre-Jean 
De   Smet,   S.  J.    1801-1873.    4  vols.    Harper.    1905. 

Rekindlinu:  Camp  Fires.  The  Exploits  of  Ben 
Arnold  (Connor).  Capital  Book  Co.,  Bismarck, 
N.  D.,  1926. 

Journal  of  the  Expedition  to  the  Mauvaises  Terres 
and  the  Upper  Missouri  in  1850.  Annual  Report 
of  the   Smithsonian   Institution.    1850. 

Indian  Tribes  of  the  Upper  Missouri.  46th  annual 
report.     1928-29.    Bureau  of  American    Ethnology. 

History  of  the  Oregon  Territory  and  British 
North-American  Fur  Trade.    London.    1844. 

The  Jesuits  of  the  Middle  West.  3  vols.  America 
Press.    1938. 

Blackfoot  Lodge  Tales.    Scribners.    1892. 

Broken  Hand,  Story  of  Thomas  Fitzpatrick. 
Denver,  1931. 

My  Sixty  Years  on  the  Plains.  Forest  and  Stream. 

Contributions   to  the    Ethnography   and    Philology 
of  the  Indian  Tribes  of  the  Missouri  Valley. 
Philadelphia.    1862. 

Historical  Register  and  Dictionary  of  the  United 
States  Army.    Washington,  D.  C.    1903. 

New  Light  on  the  Early  History  of  the  Great 
Northwest.    3  vols.    Harpers.    1897. 

Handbook  of  American  Indians.  2  vols.  Bureau 
of  American  Ethnology.    Bulletin  30.    1907. 

A  Trip  to  the  States  in  1865.  Virginia  City,  M.  T. 

Wanderings  of  an  Artist.    Toronto.    1925. 

journal  of  Rudolph  F.  Kurz.  An  Account  of  His 
Experiences  Among  P'ur  Traders  and  Indians, 
1846-1852.  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology.  Bul- 
letin 115.    1937. 

I'orty  Years  a  Fur  Trader.    2  vols.    Harpers.    1898. 

Journal  of  a  Fur-trading  Expedition  on  the  Upper 
Missouri.  1812-1813.  Missouri  Historical  Society. 



Prince  of  Wied 

Montcina  Historical 

North  Dakota  State 
Historical  Society 

Owen,  John 
Palliser,  John 
Point.  Rev.  Nicholas 

Raynolds,  W.  F. 

Robertson,  Colin 

Robinson,  Doane 
Schultz,  J.  W. 

Schultz,  J.  W. 

South  Dakota  State 
Historical  Society 

South  Dakota  State 
Historical  Society 

Southesk,  Earl  of 
Stevens,  Hazard 
Stevens,  Isaac  I. 

Stuart,  Granville 
Townsend,  John  K. 

Travels  in  the  Interior  of  North  America.  1832- 
1834.  3  vols.  Thvi'aites'  Early  Western  Travels. 
A.  H.  Clark.    1906. 

Contributions,    vols.  1-9.    1876-1923. 

Collections,    vols.    1-7.    1906-1924. 

Journal  and  Letters  of  Major  John  Owen.  1850- 
1871.   2  vols.    Montana  Historical  Society.    1927. 

Solitary  Rambles  of  a  Hunter  in  the  Prairie. 
London.    1853. 

A  Journey  in  a  Barge  on  the  Missouri  River  from 
the  Fort  of  the  Blackfeet  (Lewis)  to  that  of  the 
Assiniboine  (Union)  1847.  Mid-America.  January, 
1931.   vol.  13.    Chicago. 

Report  on  the  Exploration  of  the  Yellowstone 
River.  40th  Cong.,  1st  Sess.,  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  77. 
Wash.  1868 

Colin  Robertson's  correspondence  book.  1817-1822. 
Champlain  Society.    1939. 

Encyclopedia  of  South  Dakota.    Pierre,  S.  D.  1925. 

Friends  of  My  Life  as  an  Indian.  Houghton, 
Mifflin  and  Company,  1923. 

Sign  Posts  of  Adventure.  Houghton,  Mifflin  and 
Company.    1926. 

Collections,    vols.  1-17.    1902-1934.    Pierre,  S.  D. 

South  Dakota  Historical  Review,  vol.  1.  1935. 
Pierre,  S.  D. 

Saskatchewan  and  the  Rocky  Mountains,  Toronto. 

The  Life  of  Isaac  Ingalls  Stevens.    2  vols. 
Houghton,  Mifflin  and  Company.    1900. 

Report  of  Exploration  of  a  Route  for  the  Pacific 
Railroad  Near  the  47th  and  49th  Parallels,  from 
St.  Paul  to  Puget  Sound.  12  vols.  33d  Cong., 
1st  Sess.,  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  129.    Washington. 

Forty  Years  on  the  Frontier.  2  vols.  A.  H.  Clark. 

Narrative  of  a  Journey  Across  the  Rocky  Moun- 
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Thwaites'  Early  Western  Travels.  A.  H.  Clark. 



U.  S.  Commissioner 
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Annual  Reports.    1851-1868.    Washington,  D.  C. 

Vaughn,  Robert 
Warren,  G.  K. 

Wyeth,  N.  J. 


De  Smet,  Rev.  P.  J. 

Missouri  River  Com- 

U.  S.  War  Dept. 
Warren,  G.  K. 

Then  and  Now,  or  Thirty-six  Years  in  the  Rockies. 
MinneapoHs.    1900. 

Preliminary  Report  to  Capt.  A.  A.  Humphreys, 
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Nov.  24,  1858.    35th  Cong.,  2d  Sess.,  Sen.Ex.Doc.l. 

Correspondence    and     Journals. 
Ore.    1899. 

1831-6.      Eugene, 

De  Smet  Collection.    St.  Louis  University. 
Map  of  the  Missouri  River.    Pub.  1892-1895. 

Map  of  the  Yellowstone  and  Missouri  Rivers  and 
their  Tributaries.  Raynolds-Maynadier.  1859-1860. 
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Maps  of  surveys  in  Dakota  and  Nebraska  territori- 
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Abel,  Mrs.  Annie  E.,  239 

Adams,  John,  25 

Adams    &    Rondins'    Rapids,    note 

206,  142,  292 
Admiral,  steamboat,  288 
Adobe  bricks,  note  6,  1,  97,  246 
A.  F.  Co.,  see  American  Fur  Com- 
Alexander,    Pend    d'Oreille    Indian, 

Alexander,  William  H.,  303-304 
Almquist,  William  A.,  292 
Alone,  steamboat,  298 
Alvarez,  Nicholas,  294 
Alvarez,  Philip,  note  228,   148,   193- 

194,  294 
Alvary,  see  Alvarez 
Amen,  M.,  99 
American   Fur   Company,  note   160, 

166,     170,    239,    243-245,    247-249, 

251,    256-257,    261,    267-268,    271, 

278-281.    284,    286,    288-289,    291, 

293-294,  297-302,  305 
Annuities,  Indian,  121,  149,  176,  186, 

Apishamo,  note  280,  219,  301 
Arabia,  steamboat,  288 
Arapaho  Indians,  see  Crows 
Arikaras,  129 
Armell,  see  also  Hamell 
Armell's    Creek,    Missouri    R.,    253, 

262,  277,  292 
Armell's  Creek,  Yellowstone  R.,  282, 

286,  297 
Armstrong,  Sarah  E.,  279 
Arnell,    Mary,    see    also    Augustin 

Hamell,  253,  254 
Arnell's   Creek,  see  Armell's   Creek 
Arnoux,  Susan  Hamell,  262 
Arrow  Creek,  266 
Ash  Island,  161 
Ashby,  S.  C,  275 
Assiniboine,  steamboat,  275 
Assiniboines,    127,    130-1,    137,    148, 

151,  155.  157-9.  161.  174.  181.  192, 

Astor.  John  Jacob,  286 
Audubon,  John  T.,  240,  243,  246,  287, 

289,  293 
Au     Trembe     River,     see    Tremble 

Bad   Head,  note   104,  59,  61-62,  69, 

Bad  Lands,  Dakota,  290 
Bad  Lands,  Yellowstone,  174,  184 
Badger  Creek  Agency,  255 
Bad  Shape.  113 

Baker,  I.  G.  &  Co.,  249,  253,  301 
Ball,  1.  58 

Band  de  Canots.  note  241,  160,  296 
Banff,  Canada,  259 
Bank,  The,  see  White  Cow  Against 

the  Bank 
Baptiste,  see  Baptiste  Champaigne 
Barcier,  Bercrier,  see  Bercier 
Barlow,  Augustus,  265,  284 
Barnes,  note  65,  39,  268 
Barnes,  Phil.  268 
Barra,  Joniche.  193,  194 
Bates,  C.  Frank.  301 
Battle  of  New  Orleans,  105 
Beardy,  60 
Bear's     Head     (Crow),     note     159, 

106-107,  109-110,  113,  115.  158-159, 

176,  183,  186,  286 
Bears  Paw,  28,  33-34,  36-37,  39,  164, 

Bear's  Paw  Gap.  167,  296 
Bear's  son,  157 
Beaver  Creek,  140 
Beaver  Creek,  note  243,  163,  296 
Beckwourth,  James  P.,  302 
Beeson,  Henry  W.,  283 
Beliveau.  L.,  89.  193 
Belleveau,  Leandre,  see  Beliveau,  L. 
Bellies   (Belly)   River,  note  106,  60, 

Belt  Mountain.  78 
Belt    Mountain    Creek,   note  95,   55, 

Benton,  see  Fort  Benton 
Benton.  Thomas  H.,  240,  242 

Bercier,  ,  note  7,  1,  5,  7,  39 

Bercier.  Antoine,  246 

Bercier's  Springs,  note  7,  246 

Berger.  Jacob.  302 

Berry,  George  C.  275 

Berry,  The.  82 

Berthold,  Bartholomew,  286,  289 

Bethlehem,  Penn..  242.  244-245 

Big  Bend,  note  109,  62,  138,  163-164, 




Big  Bend,  Milk  R.,  253.  296 

Wig  Calf,  72 

Big  Feather,  note  40,  22,  61,  66,  265 

Big  Head,  Yanktonai,  191 

Big  Hills,  note  270,  126,  184,  298 

Big  Hole,  Battle  of  the,  301 

Big    Horn    River,    175-176,    185-186, 

264,  283,  297 
Big  Insides,  115 
Big  Island,  note  209.  180.  292 
Big   Lakes   band,   note  48,   27,   262, 

Big  Muddy,   Mo.   R.,   136,   157,   162, 

170-173.  270,  289,  293-295,  303 
Big  Plume,  see  Big  Feather 
Big  Porcupine,  Milk  R.,  296 
Big  Porcupine,  Yellowstone  R..  175, 

Big  Six,  note  148,  284 
Big  Snake,  note  70,  40-41,  43,  55.  58. 

64,  69,  268 
Big  Sun,  note  115,  63,  276 
Bill,  John,  165 
Birch  Creek,  261-262 
Bird,  James,  note  24,  7,  9,  11,  19,  21, 

36,  45,  60,  71.  166,  169-170,  256 
Bird,  James  Curtis,  257 
Bird,  James,  Sr..  note  24,  256-257 
Bird,  Joseph,  256-257 
Bird,  Nicholas  George,  256 
Bird,  Thomas,  267 
Bird's  son,  note  60,  35,  170,  267 
Bird  Tail  Rock,  246 
Bismarck,  N.  D.,  293,  301 
Bitter  Root  River,  267 
Bitter  Root  Valley,  93,  261,  269,  277, 

Black  Chief  (Blackfoot  Ind.),  257 
Blackfoot   boy,   note   260.    176.   286. 

Blackfoot  Farm.  282 
Blackfoot  Indian  Reservation,  260 
Blackfoot  Indians,  15,  27,  55-57,  63- 

98,    118,    123,    130.    154,    165.    257, 

263,  274 
Blackfoot  Mission.  279 
Blackfoot  River.  254 
l'>lackfoot  Treaties 

Oct.  17.  1855.  265.  271-2.  274-7 

Nov.    16,    1865,    261.    266-7,    274. 

July  15,  1868.  274-7,  287,  293,  295 

Sept.  1,  1868,  255.  261.  266-7,  272, 
275,  277,  293-294 
Blackfoot  Treaty,  Canada,  Sept.  22, 

1877.  262,  274-276 
F'.lack  Snake  Man,  see  Big  Snake 
Blevins.   Daniel  O..  249 

Blivens,  Daniel,  see  Blevins, 

Daniel  O. 
Blind  Pagan,  84 
Blood  Reserve,  242,  245,  267,  281 
Blood    Indians,    notes    21,    32,    7-45, 

59,  64-98,  127-128,  139,  164-165 

Affair  at    Ft.    McKenzie,   247-248, 
255,  268-269,  300 

Fight  with  Crows,  115 
Bloody   Indians,  see   Blood   Indians 
Boats  (fur  company),  note  93,  50-51 
Boats  (government),  note  74,  42-45, 

270,  274 
Bobires,  see  Bourbeuse 
Bobieres,  see  Bourbeuse 
Boise.  Ida..  245 
Boismenn,     Joseph,    note    27i^,     193, 

Boiler.    Henry    A..   295 
Bompard,  see  Labompard 
Bonneville,  Capt.,  284 
Bonneville's  Travels,  251 
Bostwick,  Henry,  301 
Bostwick,  Mrs.  Henry,  301 
Bouche,  J.,  note  226,  148.  173,  294 
Bouchie,  see  Bouche,  J. 
Boudin,  168 
Bouis,  A.  R..  265,  303 
Bourbeuse    River,    notes    183,    217, 

128-9,  145.  149.  293 
Box  Elder  Creek,  note  34,   16,   165, 

Box   Elder   Creek,    Yellowstone    R., 

Bow  River,  Canada,  262,  275 
Boy  Chief,  119-121 
Bradley,  Lieut.  James  H.,  241,  246. 

263.  265.  269,  275,  284-285 
Brasseau's  Houses,  297 
Braueninger,  Moritz,  286 
Brazeau.  J.  E.,  297 
Brazeau.  Joseph,  297 
Brazos,  note  255,  174,  184,  297 
Bricks,   note  200,    140-142,    152,   171, 
271.  291 

Bricks'  family,  165-167 
Bridger,  James,  278,  300 

Brown,  ,  117 

Brown.  Joseph,  99.  250 

Brownina:.    Montana,    xi,    250.    254, 

262.  276-278 
Brulus.  149 

Buchanan.  Pres.,  271-272 
Buffalo.  47.  267 

Buffalo  Bill,  see  Keiser.  William 
Buffalo  Island,  Missouri  R.,  262 
Buffalo  tongues,  note  39.  18,  73.  265 
Bull  Sitting  Down,  63,  276 
Bull's  Head,  note   121.  67-68 



Burd,  see  Bird,  James 

Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  287 

Burnt  Houses,  155,  157 

Busha,  James,  294 

Bussette,  Anton,  278 

Butte  and  Rondin  streets,  Ft.  Ben- 
ton, 263 

Cabanne,  Jean  Pierre,  286 

Cabree,  note  58,  34,  267 

Cadot,  Cadott,  see  Cadotte 

Cadotte,    Pierre,   note    18,    4,    8,    13, 
15-19,  21-22,  28-30,  33,  35,  40,  42, 
45,  67,  147-151,  193,  246,  254,  292 
Jean  Baptiste,  254 
Louis,  255 
Peter,  255 

Cadotte's  Pass,  254,  267,  277 

Calf's  Robe  (Blood),  note  108,  60, 
97,  275 

Calf  Robe's  woman  died,  93 

Calf's  Shirt,  275 

California,  245 

Camp  Pecan,  137 

Campbell,  Alexander,  291 

Campbell,  Robert,  231,  252,  265,  291, 
298,  300,  303 

Campbell,  Mrs.  Robert,  303 

Campbell,  Robert,  steamboat,  245 

Campbell,  Thomas,  note  194,  136, 
174,  194,  291 

Campbell's  Houses,  291 

C.  &  D.,  note  151,  102,  284 

C  &  Spy,  note  168,  116,  287 

Canoe  band,  see  Band  des  Canots 

Carafel,  David,  note  181.  127,  174, 
184,  289 

Carafel,  Daniel,  289 

Carafel,  Vace  de,  289 

Carafel,  Vice  de,  289,  293 

Carrafell,  Carrifell,  see  Carafel 

Carafell's  Houses,  note  214,  144,  293 

Cardinal,  Mrs.  J.  B.,  note  218.  145, 

Cardinal.  Jean  Baptiste.  293 

Carondelet,  Mo..  299 

Carriage,  7 

Carroll,  Matthew,  271 

Carter,  Charles,  note  169,  117-118. 
121.  124,  287 

Cascade,  Mont..  278 

Casino  Creek,  287 

Catholic  Mission,  267 

Catlin,  George,  246.  264,  297 

Chaine,  Pierre,  see  Chine,  Pierre 

Chambers,  Col.  A.  B.,  note  234,  153, 
270,  295 

Chambers,  James  H.,  note  77,  ar- 
rives Ft.  Benton,  44.  73;  166,  193, 
249.  260,  270,  284,  286,  289,  291- 
292.  297. 

Chambersburg,  Penn.,  286 
Champagne   Houses,  note   199,    140, 

Chanipaigne,    Baptiste,    note    25,    8, 

10,  12-13,  19,  21-22,  24,  41,  69.  73, 

97,  139,  166-170,  260 
Champaigne,  Josctte,  261 
Champaigne,  Lizette,  261 
Champaigne,  Louis,  261 
Champaigne,  Mary,  261 
Champaigne,     Jean      Baptiste,     see 

Champaigne,  Baptiste 
Champaigne,     Michel,     8-13,     15-17, 

19-20,  24-28,  41-42,  44,  53-54,  141, 

143,  194,  260 
Champaigne.  Peter,  261 
Champaigne,  Simon.  261 
Chantier,  note  103,  59.  264,  275 
ChantiUy,  Battle  of.  268 
Chardon,    F.    A.,    240,    247-249,    269, 

289,  292.  300,  302 
Charloi.  253 

Chene,  Chiene,  see  Chine 
Cheyenne  River.  251,  294 
Chicken  coop,  8 
Chine.  Caroline,  note  105.  275 
Chine,  La  Croix,  note  105.  275 
Chine,  Pierre,  note  105,  60,  73.   152, 

159,  162,  193-194,  275 
Chippewas.  130 
Chittenden.  H.  M.,  246 
Choteau,  Montana,  278,  280,  282 
Choteau  Acantha,  279 
Choteau  Montanian,  260 

see  also  Chouteau 
Chouquette.  Anton,  278 
Chouquette,    Charles,    note    126,   86, 

90,  92,  97,  171-173,  270,  277,  279 
Chouquette,  George,  278 
Chouquette,  Henry,  278 
Chouquette,  Josephine,  278 
Chouquette,  Louise,  278 
Chouquette,  Melinda,  278 
Chouquette,  Rosa  Lee,  278 
Chouquette,  Rosalie  Piquette,  277 
Chouteau,  Auguste,  286 
Chouteau.  Charles  P.,  286 
Chouteau,  Pierre,  Jr.,  240,  247,  263. 

277.  286,  302 
Chouteau  and  Sarpy,  287 
Chouteau     County,     Montana,     253. 

255.  261.  281,  301 
Chouteau    Countv    Poll    List,    262, 

271.  273,  281,  289 
Cincinnati,  Ohio,  251 
Citadel,  note  91,  50,  141.  274 
Clagett,  Montana,  276 
Clara,  steamboat.  288 
Clark  William,  293 
Clarke,  Helen  P..  263 



Clarke,  Horace,  263 

Clarke,  Malcolm,  note  30,  13,  52-53, 

55,  58,  65,   117.   145-146,   161,  234- 

235,  263,  265,  269,  293,  302 
Clarke,  Primeau  and  Company,  265 
Clarks  houses,  note  47,  26-27,  266 
Claymore,    see   Clemow 
Clement,  see  Clemow 
Clement,  Charles,  293 
Clemow.   Basil,   note   220,   146.   293- 

Coal  makers,  note  9,  1 
Coal  pit,  note  43,  23,  266 
Collette,  Rev.  J.  A.,  297 
Col.  Vaughan   (keel  boat)  note  176. 

122,  124-125,  288 
Columbia  Fur  Co.,  270,  299 
Columbia  River,  271 
Constantine,  John,  note  227.  148,  294 
Cordelle,  45 
Cote  Trambeleau,  note  235,  154,  161, 

Cote  Daurion  Post,  see  Fort  Coteau 

Cotton,  Mr.,  240,  300 
Cotton  Bottom,  see  Fort  Cotton 
Cotton  Woods,  165,  168 
Cottonwood  Creek.  Yellowstone  R.. 

174,  184,  187 
Coues,  Elliott,  295 
Council  Bluffs,  288 
Council  Grounds,  51 
Couquette.  Charles,  see  Chouquette, 

Covered  with  Fat   (Crow).   121,  176 
Cow  Creek,  292 
Cow  Island,  note  209,  89,   142,   179. 

Cracon  du   Nez,  note  201.   140,   165, 

263,  291 
Crazy  Bear,  see  Fool  Bear 
Cree  friend,  48 
Cree  Indians.  130.  152 
Crees,  North,  130 
Crosby,  Col.  H.  R..  note  69,  40-41, 

43,  268 
Crow  boat,  135-136 
Crow  Council.  Aug.  10,  1856.  183 
Crows,   note   38A.    18,    100-124,    135, 

138.  142,  144-152,  154-159.  174-179. 

183-187.  192,  250,  264.  282-283 
Crows  Flag,  10 
Crows  Treaty,  275,  288 

see  also  Blackfoot  Treaty 
Culbertson,  Alexander,  x,  notes  2-3, 

arrived   at    Ft.    Renton,    1;   4-6,  9, 

11-12,    14-15,    17;    arrived    at    Ft. 

Union,  23;  arrived  at  Ft.  Renton. 

40-42;  44-45,  48-49,  86,  88-90.  111. 

117,    arrived    on     Steamboat    St. 

Mary   and   left   for    Fort    Benton, 

132-134;   137,   139-141,  left  for  the 

Judith,  147;  234-235.  240-241,  246- 

247,    249,    260,    262-263,    265-266, 

269-271,    275,    279,    282-286.    292, 

Culbertson,  Mrs.  Alexander,  note  3, 

1,  7-8,  133.  241-242.  255.  276,  279 
Culbertson.  Anna,  241.  245 
Culbertson,  Fannie,  242,  244-245 
Culbertson,  Jack,  242,  244-245 
Culbertson,  Jane,  242.  244 
Culbertson,  John  C.  240 
Culbertson.  Joseph.  240,  242,  244-245 
Culbertson,  Julia.  242.  244-245 
Culbertson,  Maria.  244 
Culbertson.  Alary  Finley,  240 
Culbertson,  Nancy.  244-245 
Culbertson,  R.  A.,  xi 
Culbertson,  Samuel  D..  241 
Culbertson,  Thaddeus  A.,  241.  287 
Culbertson's  Mill.  240 
Culbertson's  Postoffice.  240 
Culbertson's  Row,  240 
Culbertson's  Mr.  B  in  Law,  6,  8,  13, 

26,  61.  66,  75.  98,  137 
Cullen,  William  J..  273 
Cumberland  House,  256 
Cumming.   Col.   .\lfred.  note  78,  41, 

44.  46.  132.  140.  147-149.  245.  260. 

271-273.  289-290.  297 
Cut  Bank.  267.  IIZ 
Cut  Bank  River.  278 
Cut  Hill.   175,  184 
Cypress  Mountains,  note  61,  36,  40, 

91,  253.  267,  274 
Daemen,  Rev.,  286 
Dagneau.  J.,  152-153.  193-194.  295 
Dauphin.  Antoine,  292,  298 
Dauphin,  Louis,  note  212,   143,   157. 

182,  193,  292 
Dauphin   Post.  270 
Dauphin's  Rapids,  note  264.  179,  298 
Dawson.  Andrew,  note  42.  x.  23,  26. 

49.  53,  55,  75.  86.  88,  93,  132,  142. 

145,  165-166.  171.  234-235.  242.  249. 

261.    263.    266.    270,    277-278,    281, 

295,  299 
Dawson,  Andrew.  Jr..  266,  295 
Dawson.  James.  266 
Dawson's  Mr.,  boats.  168-170 
Dawson's    Mr.,    comrade,    note    111, 

62,  98,  275 
Dawson's   Mr.,   family,  see  Andrew 

Dawson's  Mr.,  wife,  note  44,  24-25, 




Dawson    County,    Montana,    census, 

1870,  289,  291,  294 
Dearborn  River,  246,  254,  271 
Deep  River,  note  89,  48,  263,  111 
Deer   Little  Woman,  286 
Deer  Lodge,  246,  278 
Deer  Lodge  County  Poll  list  (1864), 

Deer  Lodge  River,  252 
Degnue,  see  Dagneau,  J. 
Delavifare  Jim,  note  133,  92 
Demos,  47 
Denig,  Edwin  T.,  note  162,  109-110, 

124,   127,    132,    149,    151,   234,   240, 

246,  265,  276,  284,  286-287,  289,  296 
Denig,    Robert,   note    187.    132,    151, 

173,  289 
Denig's,  Mr.,  son,  see  Denig,  Robert 
Depouille,  note  158,  105,  285-286 
De    Roche,    Benjamin,    note    86.   46, 

De  Roche,  Benjamin,  Jr.,  273 
De   Rochi,   B.,  see  De   Roche, 

Deschamps,  Philip,  254,  262 
De  Smet,  Rev.  P.  J.,  242,  244,  246, 

259,    263-264,    266-267,    272,    275, 

282,  285,  287,  289.  294,  305 
De  Smet  map,  286,  298 
Dick,  122 

Dobbies,  see  Adobe  bricks 
Dobey  town,  note  193,  136,  291 
Dobies,  see  Adobe  bricks 
Doct  Fool,  113-114 
Doctor  Long  Elk,  see  Long  Elk 
Dog's  Head   (Crow  chief),   158-159, 

176,  185 
Dog's  Lodge,  155 
Dog  River,  note  248,  166,  296 
Domenech,  Abbe',  301 
Donelson,  Lieut.,  277 
Donnelly,  J.  J.,  299 
Dophin,  see  Dauphin 
Dorris,  287 
Doty,  James,  note  67,  40,  43.  50.  249. 

254,  260,  268-269 
Doty,  James  Duane,  268 
Doughboy,  see  Adobe  bricks 
Dove's  Head.  100 
Drips,  Andrew,  265,  280,  302 
Drumm,  Stella  M.,  xi,  304 
Dry  Bones    (Assiniboine   Ind.),   160 
Dry   Fork,   note   213.    129,    143,    168, 

181.  261,  293 
Dry  Fork,  Yellowstone  R..  187 
Dubreuil.  Emilie,  280 
Dull,  Thomas,   193 
Dunn,  John.  258 
Dupuyer.  Montana.  261 

Durfee  and  Peck,  291 
Durocher,   August,  273 
Durocher,  Marie  Louise  Hortiz,  273 
Eagle  Chief  (Gros  Ventre),  note  81, 

44,  54.  272.  276 
Eagle  Creek,  note  247,  140,  166,  281, 

Eagle  Ribs,  243 

Earth  Woman  (Mrs.  Jas.  Kipp),270 
East,  Ernest  E.,  xi 
Eastman,  Frank  H.,  301 
Ebey  &  Brothers,   105 
Eclipse  of  moon,  29 
Edgerton  County.  263 
Edmonton  House,  see  Fort  Edmon- 
Elk  Fork,  Saskatchewan  R.  270 
Elk  Lake,  Canada,  253 
Emmells     Creek,     Yellowstone     R., 

note  161.  109,  178,  187,  286,  297 
Emmells  Island,  Mo.  R.,  180,  298 
Emmills   Prairie,  note  256,   175,   184, 

286,  297 
English  gentleman,  note  276,  192 
E  See  Tah,  106 
Etlinger,  Germany,  278 
Faillant,  note  156,  104,  107,  110.  285 
Falls    of    the    Missouri,    see    Great 

Falls,  Mo.  R. 
Father  of  All   People,  note  112,  63, 

243,  275 
Fatherland,  Bill,  298 
Feather,  The,  see  Big  Plume 
Featherland's  houses,  note  266.  181, 

Featherland's  Island,  298 
Femmisee,  see  Sitting  Woman 
Fergus  County,  Montana,  262 
Ferguson,  Peter,  303 
Ferguson,  William  F.,  304 
Fine  Horse  Island,  141 
Fisk  Expedition   (1863),  295 
Flathead  country.  1,  79 
Flathead  trader,  3 
Flatheads,  34-35,  43.  47,  68,   75,   78, 

98,  258.  271,  274 
Florida  Indian  Campaign,  240 
Fontenelle,  Mr.,  251-252 
Fool   Bear,  note   196,   136.   155,  291. 

Forchette's  Point,  note  210,  142,  292 
Fort  Alexander,  265,  282.  284.  293 
Fort  Alexander  Inventories,  195-198, 

Fort  Alexander  Sarpie.  282 
Fort  Belknap,  Montana,  242,  253 
Fort  Belknap,  Texas,  note  171,   117, 




Fort    Belknap    Indian    Agencv,    260, 

Fort  Benton,  note   1,  xi,   1,  58,   114, 

118.  132-133,  139-141,  145.  147,  150, 

152,    157,    159,    162,    166,    169,   171, 

179,  194,  239-242,  244-247,  249-250, 

253-256,  261-283,  287-289.  291-292, 

294-296,  298-301 
Fort    Benton    Inventories,     199-208, 

Fort  Benton  Journal,  ix.  1.  239,  266 
Fort    Berthold,    note    182,    128-129, 

132,    236.    289-290,    294,    297,    299, 

Fort  Boise,  260 
Fort  Bouis.  267 
Fort  Browning,  253 
Fort  Brule,  249.  300 
Fort  Buford,  246,  296 
Fort  Cambell,  see  Fort  Campbell 
Fort  Campbell,  note  31,  46,  153,  165, 

263,  265,  280,  303 
Fort    Chardon,    240,    249,    269,    289, 

300,  302 
Fort   Clark,  note  215,   145,   157,   191, 

236,  262,  265-266,  293.  299 
Fort  Clark  Journal,  239 
Fort  Coteau  Daurion,  236 
Fort  Cotton,  240,  247,  249,  300 
Fort    Edmonton,   255,   257,    259-260, 

289,  297 
Fort  F.  A.  C,  see  Fort  Chardon 
Fort  Galpin,  293 
Fort  Garry,  253,  260 
Fort  Hall,  258 
Fort  Hawlev.  253.  274-275.  277.  287, 

Fort  Henry,  247,  300 
Fort  Honore,  see  Fort  Henry 
Fort  John,  240 

Fort  Laramie,  240-241,  270,  295-296 
Fort  Laramie  Treaty,  283,  287,  291, 

Fort  Lewis,  240-241,  263,  269,  292 
Fort  Lookout,  244,  290,  302 
Fort  McLeod,  273 
Fort  McKenzie.  note  71.  42.  239-240, 

247,  251,  253-254.  262.  268-269.  272, 

274,  292,  300,  302 

Blood  Indian  affair  at,  1843,  1844, 
247-248,  276 
Fort  Madison,   Iowa,  280 
Fort  Mortimer,  298 
Fort  Owen,  267.  269.  211.  280,  299 
Fort  Peck,  242 
Fort  Piegan,  169 
Fort  Pierre.  236,  241,  272.  282,  290, 

293-294.  299-300.  302-303,  305 
Fort  Pierre  Journal,  257 

Fort  Primeau,  265 

Fort  Randall,  280 

Fort  Rice,  293 

Fort   Rolette,   see   Rolette's    ileuses 

Fort   Sarpy,  note   145,    100-101,    105, 
111-112,    118.    124.   271,    282-285, 
288-289,  299 
burned,  126 

Fort  Sarpy  Journal,  ix,  100,  239 

Fort  Stephenson.  290,  297 

Fort  Stewart.  298 

Fort  Tecumseh,  290,  302 

Fort  Tecumseh  Journal,  257 

Fort  Union,  note  4,  1,  8,  13,  23-24, 
32,  42,  44,  51-53,  58,  60,  63,  65.  67, 
70,  11,  80,  89,  105,  110,  113,  117- 
118,  123-124.  127-130,  139-145,  149, 
151,  154-158,  164,  166-167,  171, 
177-179,  182,  184,  186-187.  192, 
194,  240-244,  246-248,  251.  255, 
257,  261-263,  265-266,  270-271.  275, 
277,  279-280,  282-291,  293-302.  305 

Fort  Union  Inventories.  209-230, 

Fort  Van  Buren,  284 

Fort  Vancouver.  258 

Fort  Walla  Walla.  258 

Fort  William,  note  268,  179.  184. 
265,  278,  283,  290-291,  298,  303-304 

Fort  William  on  the  Laramie  River, 

Fort  Yates,  N.  D.,  305 

Fouchette's  Point,  see  Forchette 

Four  Bears,  note  222,  147,  270,  294 

Four  Dances  (Crow  Chief),  105. 
111-112,  114,  158-159 

Four  Nations,  31 

Four  Persons,  274 

Four  Rivers,  note  173,  120.  287 

Fourth  of  July,  Zl ,  82 

Fox,  Livingstone  &  Co.,  240,  249 

Fox  River,  note  269,  184,  298 

Frenchman's  Point,  note  125,  85. 
162,  180,  182,  277 

Frost,  Todd  &  Company,  265 

Frush,  C.  W..  261 

Gaipard.  Jean,  99 

Galena,  111.,  251 

Gallatin  Citv,  252.  287 

Galpin.  Charles  E..  note  282.  234- 
235.  305 

Gap,  The,  Big  Horn  R.,  175,  185 

Gardape.  note  216,  145.  293 
see  also  Guardipee 

Garden.  Z2>,   130 

Gardipee.  Eli,  xi 

Garreau.  Josette.  266 

Garreau.   Pierre,  266 



Garspard,  99 

Gens  des  Canots,  296 

Gens  des  Filles,  296 

Gens  des  Roches.  296 

Gens   du   Gauche.   296 

Gens  du  Nord,  296 

Gens  Le  has  Rouge.  29() 

Gentard,  A.,  note  136,  99.  281 

Gentard,  Paul,  281 

George,  47 

Gillette,  W.  C,  272 

Girard,    Frederic    P.,   note    190.    133, 

136,  139,  146-148,  290 
Glacier  Park,  263,  266 
Glasgow,  Montana,  296 
Glendive  Creek,  287 
Godin,  Antoine,  258 
Goodreau,  see  Gourdereau,  J. 
Gordon  (Crow  Indian),  106-107,  109, 

114,  176,  186 
Gore,    Sir    Geo.,    see    Gore,    Sir    St. 

Gore,  Sir  St.  George,  note  252.  174, 

184,  192,  265,  296-297,  299 
Government  camp,  Missouri  R..  170, 

Government   goods,   note   56,   2,   31. 

Government  men,  note  59,  34,  267 
Government    wagons,    note    56.    34, 

Gourdereau,    Joseph,    note    141.    99, 

193,  282 
Grand  Island,  note  209,  292 
Grand  River,  305 
Grand  Tour,  note  249.  168,  296 
Grant,  Mrs.  John,  278 
Grass   Lodge   Creek,  note  259,    176, 

185,  297 

Great  Falls,  Mo.  R.,  245,  279,  303 
Great  Falls,  Montana  City.  278 
Green  River,  252 
Grey    Chief     (Crow     Indian),     note 

172,  119,  287 
Grey  Cloud,  steamboat.  288 
Grey  Eyes  (Blood  Indian),  243 
Grey  Head  (Crow),  158-159,  287 
Grinnell,  G.  B.,  267 
Gros  Ventres,  note  14,  4-30,  40,  48, 

52,   61-98,    118,    128-129,    145,    147, 

150,  167,  250,  263 
Gros  Ventres  Treaty,  see  Blackfoot 

Gros-vents,      Grovonts,     see      Gros 

Guardipee,  Alex,  293 
Guardipee,  Eli,  260 
Guitard,  Paul,  281 

Half  breeds,  88-89,  136,  191 
Hamell,  Augustin,  note  27A,  9,  254. 

281,  298 
Hamell,  Ellen,  262 
Hamell,  Margaret,  262 
Hamell,  Monica,  281 
Hamills    Houses,    note    21,    261-262 

see  also  Augustin  Hamell 
Hamilton.  James  A.,  280 
Hamilton,    Major    Joseph    V.,    note 

129,  90,  280 
Hamilton,  Major  Thomas,  280 
Hamilton.    Wm.    T.,    255,    272,    275, 

285,  287 
Harkness,  James,  246,  270-271 
Harkness  and  La  Barge,  293 
Harnev.    Gen.,    note    230,    149.    294. 

Harriott,  Mr.  J.  E.,  259 
Harvey,    Alexander    M.,    note    281, 

231,    240,    248-249,    263,    265,    269, 

295,  300,  302-304 
Harvey,  Edeline,  303 
Harvey,  Susan,  303 
Harvey,  T.  H.,  302 
Harvey,    Primeau    &    Co.,    231-232, 
263.  265,  267,  293,  298,  304-305 

See  also  Harvey,  Alexander  M. 

See  also  St.  Louis  Fur  Company 
Harvey's    Point,    note   237,    155-156. 

Hatch,  Major  E.  A.  C,  note  76.  43. 

50,  53,  55,  57,  65,  88-90,  132.  161. 

250,    255-256.    268,    270,   273.    275- 

276,  279-280.  294 
Havre,  Montana.  264,  296 
Hawk  Woman.  260 
Hawken,  Samuel,  292 
Hawkins,  note  203.  141.  292 
Hayden,   Dr.    F.   V.,   note    189.    132. 

250.    265,    276,    282,    286-287.    289. 

Haystack  Butte,  278 
Heart  Butte,  Montana,  250 
Heart  River,  270,  299 
Heavy  Runner,  276 
Helena.  Montana,  xi 
Helena   Herald,  246 
Henry,  see  Mills,  Henry 
Henry,  Alexander,  256,  262 
Henry's  boy  born,  note  52,  28,  267 
Henry's  cache,  Yellowstone  R.,  184 
Henry's  cut.  154,  157.   182 
Hermaphrodite  cow,  150 
Hermaphrodite    keel    boat,    note   46. 

25.  266 
Hervey's  Point,  see  Harvey's  Point 
Hidatsa   Indians,   see   Crow   Indians 
High  Buttes.  298 



High  Pumpkins,  note  163,   111,  158. 
186.  287. 

See  also  Pumpkin 
"High  Wood"  Creek,  55,  249 
Highwood  Mountains,  note   13,  247, 

250,  300 
Hilger,  David,  264 
Historical    Society   of    Montana,   ix, 

263,  266,  271 
Historical  Society  of  Montana  Con- 
tributions. 263.  266,  269 
Hodgkins,  W.  D.,  note  283.  234-235, 

246.  305 
Hoecken,  Rev..  261.  289 
Hole  in  the  Wall,  note  204,  142,  292 
Holy  Family  Mission,  256,  260,  278 
Horse  Guard,  note  16,  3,  254 
Horse  Guard  (Crow),  note  165,  113, 

176,  186,  287 
Hosmer  Journal,  250,  294 
Howard,  Joseph,  note   132.  92,   193, 

Howard,  Thomas,  280 
Howburg,  Mrs.  Louise,  278 
Hubbell  and  Hawley,  253,  301 
Hudson's    Bay   Company,   253,   255- 

259,  262 
Hunter,  note  5.  1,  246 

Idaho,  245 

Immell,  Michael  E.,  286 

Imoda,  Rev.,  275 

Independence   Anniversary,   see 
Fourth  of  July 

Indian  agency  site,  55 

Indian  Outbreak,  note  92,  50.  274 

Inventories,  see  Fort  Alexander  In- 
ventories, Fort  Benton  Inven- 
tories, Fort  Union  Inventories 

Iowa,  steamboat,  243 

lowas.  Sacs  and  Foxes,  272 

Iron  Boy   (Crow  Chief),  158-159 

Iron  Head  (Crow).  176 

Trvin,  Louis  S..  245 

Tabots  houses,  note  167.  115,  127, 

Jabotte,  A.  D.,  287 

Jackson,  Thomas,  note  53.  28,  31-32, 
35,  40,  43.  45,  267.  269 

Jackson,  William,  267 

Jacksonville,  111..  251 

James  River,  299 

Jemmy  Jock,  Jim  Jack,  see  Bird. 
James,  Jr. 

Jesuit  Missionaries,  263,  277 

Jesuit  priests.  280 

Jones,  Rev.  D.,  293 

lournalist,  45,  274 

Judith  Basin,  286-287 

Judith   Council,    183,   255,   260,   271- 

274,  289 
Judith  Fort,  note  205,   142,   147,  179, 

Judith  River,  39-40,  43,  49,  90-91,  99, 

179,   240,   247,   249,   256,   268,   270, 

273-274,  280,  300,  302 
Judith    Treaty,    note    205,    142,    147, 

179.  292 
Kaiser,  William,  see  Keiser,  William 
Kalispell,  Montana,  xi 
Kane,  Paul,  259,  268 
Kate  Kearney,  steamboat,  288 
Keel  boat,  note  37,  17,  70-71,  264 
Keiser,  Wm.,  note  144,  99.  193,  292 
Keitse  Pern  Sa,  277 
Kelchiponesta's    son.    note    124,    76, 

267,  277 
Kennerly,  Alziere  Menard,  273 
Kennerly,  George  Hancock,  273 
Kennerly,    Henry    A.,    note    84.    45, 

48.   140,  272-273 
Kerr,  Mrs.,  279 
Kinerly,  see  Kennerly,   H.  A. 
King  of  the  Missouri,  266 
Kipp,  James,  note  75,  43,   132,   142, 

146,     149,     158.    161-162,    234-235. 

240,  245,  251.  257.  270.  293,  300 
Kipp,  Joseph,  270,  275 
Kips  Point,  91 

see  Kelchiponesta 
Knees,  note  36,  17,  264 
Knife  River,  262.  289 
Knot  on  the  Hand  (Crow),  110,  183 
Kootenai  Indians.  255-256,  274 
Kootenai  River,  247 
Kurz,  R.  E.,  Journal,  239,  243,  246. 

254,    265,   271,    282,    284-289,    292- 

295,  301 
La  Barge,  Joseph,  292 
La  Barge,  Harkness  &  Co.,  267.  301 
La  bombarde,  Alexis,  295 
La  bombarde,  Louis,  note  232,   151- 

153,  157,  174,  193-194,  295 
LaBreche,  Louis.  278 
Lamarche.  104,  108.  112,  119,  121 
Lame   Bull,  note  80.  44.  48,   53,  60. 

98,  271-272 
Lame  Hand.  62-63 
La  Motte.  Maria  Louisa, 

see  Hamell.  Augustin 
Landreau,  Lein,  99 
Lansdale.  R.   II.,  note  79,  44,  83-84. 

Lantesco.  99 
Laparche.  Joe,  99 
Laramie   River.  251-252 



Laramie  Treaty,   see   Fort  Laramie 

Largie,  note  261,  177-178.  187.  297 
Larock,  Joseph,  255 
Larpenteur,    Charles,   240,   246.   264, 

271-272,  282-284,  289,  292,  302 
Larpenteur  Journals,  284 
Larue,  Sophie,  255 
Laugevine,  Michael,  253 
Law's  Point.  127 
L'eau  qui  Monte  River,  289 
Lee,  James,  302 

Le  Gras,  note  195.  136,  287,  289.  291 
Lemontry,  99 
Lewis.  E.  A.,  298 
Lewis  and  Clark  County.  263 
Lewis  and  Clark  County  census.  263 
Lewis    and    Clark    Expedition,    280, 

Little  Antelope,  57 
Little   Beaver  Creek,  note  245,   165. 

Little  Blackfoot  River.  252,  296 
Little   Dog,   note   20,   6.   14.   45,   55. 

64,   72.   84,   89.   127-129,   255,   266, 

Little  Dog's  brother  died,  93 
Little  Dog's  son,  125 
Little  Gray  Head,  note  23,  7,  56.  69, 

95.  256.  287 
Little  Horn  River.  176.  183,  185-187, 

Little  Knife  River.  289 
Little  Missouri  River.  265 
Little  Muddy.  134,  136.  153-154.  156- 

157.  161-162,  171,  289,  294-295 
Little  Pagan.  32 

Little  Porcupine,  note  250,  169.  296 
Little  Powder  River.  117.  271 
Little  Prickly  Pear  Canyon.  263 
Little  Pricklv  Pear  Creek,  282,  295 
Little  Robe,  note  35,  16,  18,  56,  58- 

59,  61,  264 
Little  Rocky  Creek,  291 
Little    Rockv    Mountains.    31.    164. 

Little    Rockv    Mountain    Gap.    167, 

Locust  Grove,  241 
Lodge  Grass  Creek 

see  Grass  Lodge  Creek- 
Lone  Chief,  see  Lame  Bull 
Lone  Tree  Cut,  note  271.  185.  298 
Long  Elk.  note  164,  112-114,  287 
Long  Horse  (Crow  chief),  note  239. 

158-159,  295 
Long,  James  L.,  xi,  291 
Long  Lake,  191 
Lophyr,  see  Rencontre,  Zephyr 

Lorian.  Jos.,  note  137,  99,   193,  253, 

Lott,  Howard  B.,  xi 
Loud  Voice,  see  Big  Snake 
Low  Horn,  note  98.  56.  65.  69,  274 
Lowman,  Mrs.  Mary,  257 
Lutheran   Missionaries,  286 
McAdow,  P.  W..  271 
McClintock,  Walter,  274 
McCulloch.  Thomas  G..  242 
McDonnell,  Mrs.  Anne.  x.  xi,  239 
Alachetetsi  Antu,  see  Bear's  Head 
M'Kay.  Mr..  258 
McKenzie.  Kenneth,  x,  240,  246,  257, 

281,  293 
McKenzie,  Owen,  note  219,  145,  271, 

293,  295 
McKenzie's    old    houses,    note    236, 

154,  182.  295 
Mackey,    Rev.    Elkanah,    note    128, 

88-89,   174.  279-280 
Mackinaw  boat,  note  38,  17,  61.  264 
Mackinaw  District,  Mich..  261 
McLemore.  Clyde,  xi 
McLeod,  John,  258 
McNeal.  E.  W..  298 
Mamells,  note  273,  187.  298 
Mandans.  129 
Maria,  see  Marias  River 
Marias  River.   14.   16-18,  20,  26,  35- 
36,   46-48.    50.   52,    140-141.    165-166, 

251.    256,    261-262.    268,    275-276, 

Margaret  (Indian  woman),  280 
Marie  Nitchetoaki  (Indian  woman), 

Marsh.  Dr.  E.  J.,  245 
Martin.  Dan.  296 
Martin.  Pete,  note  253.  194,  296 
Matthews.  Dr.  Washington,  294 
Max  Big  Man.  285 
Maximilian,    Prince    of    Wied,    240, 

246.  257.  272.  274,  289,  298,  302 
Mavnadier.    Lieut.   H.    E.,   264,   283, 

289,  294 
Medal,  122 
Medicine  Creek.  267 
Medicine  Lake.  294 
Medicine    Snake    Woman. 

See    Culbertson,    Mrs.    Alexander 
Meldrom.  Mr., 

See  Meldrum,  Robert 
Meldrum,  Marv.  284 
Meldrum,  Robert,  note  153,  103-107, 

109-111,     113-117.     119-124,     126- 

127.     134-135,     139,     146-147.    151. 

246,    282-285 
Meldrum.  William,  284 
Meldrum,    Mr.,    brother-in-law.    123 



Menard,  note  143,  99,  282 
Menard,  Louis,  282 
Menard,  Pierre,  273 

See  Father  of  All  People 
Mena-es-to-ka,  see   Mountain   Chief 
Menetrev,  Rev.  Joseph,  note  131,  91, 

Mercier.  Charles,  note  279.  193,  239, 

247,  292,  299-301 
Mercure,    L.   V.,   note   138,  99,    193- 

194.  247.  281 
Michel,  see  Champaigne.  Michel 
Milk  River,  4-5,   13,   15,   19,  25.  32, 

34,    40-41,    45.    49-50,    62-63,    137- 

139.    143,    152,     162-164,     168-169. 

250.    253-254,    261-262.    264,    271- 

212,  275,  287,  291-293,  296 
Miller,  see  Muller 
Mills,  Dave,  note  135,  99,  267 
Mills,  Henry,  note  135,  47,  99,  193- 

194,  267,  273,  281 
Minister  and  wife,  see  Rev.  Mackey 
Minnesota     Historical    Society,    xi, 

Minnesota  Outfit,  299 
Minnesota  Territory,  299 
Missouri  Falls,  note  96,  55,  274 
Missouri  Fur  Company.  275,  286 
Missouri  Historical  Society,  xi,  304 
Missouri    Republican    (newspaper), 

287-288.  295.  304 
Missouri    River.    31.    129,    160.    166, 
168-170,    174.    242-247,    250-251, 
253.  261-264,  267.  271.  286.  290- 
291.  294-300.  302 

See.    also.   Upper   Missouri   River 
Mitchell.    David    D..    240,    257.    268, 

Moakes,  note  147,  100.  283 
Momberg,  Mrs.,  279 
Moncrevie,  260 
Monroe,  see  Hugh  Munro 
Montana,  245,  247 
Montana  Legislature,  256.  2T^ 
Montreal.  Canada.  255.  282 
Moravian  Seminary.  242,  244-245 
Morcau,  Morreau.  30,  41 
Morgan,  note  231.  151.  181.  295 
Morgan,  Charles,  295 
Morgan,  John  B.,  295 
Morgan,  Robert,  242,  266,  295 
Mose,  note  152,  103-104.  284 
Mosier.    Major,    note    155,    104-105, 

285.  288 
Motsena.  139 
Moultier.    Charles 

See  Mercier,  Charles 
Mountain,  note  13,  2. 

Mountain    Chief    (Blackfoot),    note 

119,  xi,  66,  276 
Mountain    Tail    (Crow),    note    175, 

122-124,  186,  288 
Mr.  C's  b    in  law 

See  Culbertson,  Mr.  B  in  Law 
Muddy  River,  see  Bourbeuse  River 
Mules,  7,  9 

MuUan,   Lieut.,  John,  249 
Muller,  Jacob,  note  142,  99,  194,  282 
Muller,  Jack,  282 
Muller,  Margaret,  279,  282 
MuUor,  see  Muller,  Jacob 
Munro,  Amelia,  267 
Munro,   Hugh,  note  22,  7-8,   19,  22, 

24,  28,  31,  35,  42,  45-49,   140,   194- 

195,  255,  259-260,  267 
Munro,  Hugh,  Sr.,  255 
Munro,  Mr.,  brother-in-law,  80-82 

youngest  boy  died,  96-97 
Munroe,  see  Munro,  Hugh 
Murray,  James,  284 
Murrell,  note  150,  102 

See  Meldrum,  Robert 
Muscleshell  River 

See  Musselshell  River 
Musselshell  River.  47,  142,  180.  249, 

265,  274,  277 
Napper,  note  197.  136.  139.  155,  157, 

Narbesse,  253 

See  Culbertson,  Mrs.  Alexander 
Neay.  W.  L.,  251 
Nebraska.  245,  303 
Nebraska  City,  290 
Nee  Ti  Nee,  see  Lame  Bull 
Negroes,  see  Alills.  Dave 

See   Mills,   Henry 

See  Mose 

See  Reese.  Tom 
Nenonesta,  11 
Neubert.  John,  287 
New  Mexico,  251 
New  Orleans,  240.  251 
New  Year's  party.  58.  153 
New  York  Citv.  240,  278,  286 
Nez  Perce.  121-122.  258.  273 
Ni-na-sta'-ko-i,  see   Mountain   Chief 
Nine  Blackfoot  Creek.  Yellowstone 

R.,  note  257,  175,  185,  297 
Noh-Ska-stum-ik,  see  Three  Bulls 
Nokes,  note  177,  123,  288 
North  Blackfeet  Indians,  see  Blood 

North  Blood,  see  Blood  Indians 
North  Dakota,  266 
North  Fork  of  the  Platte  River.  265. 




North  Pagans,  see  Piegan  Indians 
Northwest  Company,  240.  257 
Northwest  Fur  Company,  247,  249, 

262.  301 
Norway  House,  268 
Norwood,  James  H..  272 
Nute,  Grace  L.,  xi 
O'Fallon,  Benjamin,  297 
O'Fallon's  Creek,  note  258,  175,  185, 

O'Hanlon,  Tom,  253 
Old  Limpy,  121 
Old  Peke,  155-156 
Old  Sunn  (Blackfoot),  note  114,  63, 

Olvert,  Louis,  99 
Olympia,  Wash..  269.  271 
One  of  the   Fathers 

See  Menetrey,  Rev.  Joseph 
Onistah,  see  Calf's  Shirt 
Onistai  Pokuh,  see  White  Calf 
Only  Chief,  see  Lame  Bull 
Opposition  boats,  29,  ii 
Opposition    Company,    note    41,    22, 

2,2,,  2>7,  39.  44.  64,  70.  136.  150.  160, 

263,  265,  280,  284 

Opposition   House,   note   31,    15,   25, 

Orleans.  Nebraska,  242 
Osage  Indian  Agency,  272 
Osborne,  James,  note  170,   117,  126, 

Oswego,  Montana,  xi. 
"Outfit,"  299 
Owen,  Major  John,  note  122,  68,  75- 

76,  79,  91-93,  95-96,  193,  249,  261, 

277,  280 

Owen  Journals,  299 
Owen's,  Mr.,  man,  note  133,  92,  281 
Pablois  Island,  note  45,  25,  266,  289 
Pablo's  Rapids,  266 
Pacific  Railroad.  268 
Pack  robes,  note  54,  28,  267 
Pagan   Indians,  see  Piegan   Indians 
Painted     Lodge      (Piegan     Indian), 

25,  27 
Palliscr,   Capt.  John,  289,  293 
Pambrun,  Pierre  C.  257 
Pambrun.  Thomas.  259-260 
Panther  Hills.  296 
Parflesche,   note  49.   101.   284 
Paris.  Daniel  F..  282 
Paris.  F..  note  140.  99.  282 
Parksville.  Mo..  245.  270 
Partizan,  note  180.  125.  289 
Paul,  note  19.  6,  24.  255 
Paul,  Amiel.  253 
Paul,  Mrs.  Louise.  254 

P.   C.  Jr.   &   Co.,  see  Pierre   Chou- 
teau, Jr.,  and  Company. 
Peacott,  see  Picotte,  Joseph 
Pearson,    W.    H.,    note   72,  43,    269. 

Pecotte,  see  Picotte,  Joseph 
Pehama  et  Seienike,  261 
Pellew,  253 

Pellot.  Paul,  note  19,  255 
Pend    d'Oreilles.    note    88,    48,    269, 

Pennsylvania.  241 

Peoria,   Illinois,  xi,  241-242,  244-245 
Peoria  Daily  Transcript,  244 
Perault,  see   Perrault 
Perrault,   Charles,  289 
Perrault,   Dan,  289 
Perrault,    James    P.,    note    179.    99. 

123-124,  135.  145,  262,  289 
Perrow,  David,  see  Perrault 
Perry,  note  29,  10,  262 
Perry,   Charles,   262 
Pickon,  59 
Picotte,  Angus,   193 
Picotte,   Emilia.  267 
Picotte,    Honore.   240-241.   265.   267, 

Picotte.  Toseph.  note  50,  28,  70,  94. 

265.  267,  303 
Picotte,  Marie.  267 
Picotte.  Paul,  267 
Picotte.  Suzanna.  267 
Piegan  Indian  Agency,  255 
Piegans.  7-40.  55-59.  64-98,  127.  141, 

145,  181,  263 
Pierre  Chouteau,  Tr.,  and  Company, 

note    160,    106,    109,    115,    193-236, 

240-241,    261,    263.    265-267.    271. 

282.  285-286.  289-290.  299,  303,  305 
Pierre's     Hole.     Battle    of.    252-253. 

Pierre.   S.   D..  295 
Pig  pen,  8 
Platte   Outfit.  299 

Platte  River.  110.   145.   186.  239-240. 
251.  2-S.3.  271.  298 

See.     also.     North     Fork     of     the 
Platte    River 
Plenty  Eagles.  72 
Point.  Rev.  Nicholas.  240.  261 
Polache.  Paul,  see  Pellot,  Paul 
Point   Frenchman 

See  Frenchman's  Point 
Poplar  River,  see  Tremble  River 
Porcupine   CMo.   R.),   162,   170,    172, 

Porcupine  (Milk  R.).  163.  296 
Potatoes,  146 
Pouderie,  note  238.  155.  295 



Powder    River,    126,    136,    174     184 

265,  283,  297-298  ' 

Powder   Horn   River 
See   Powder   River 
Power,  T.  C,  278 
Pratte,  Bernard,  286 
Pratte.  Chouteau  and  Company   286 
Presbyterian  Church,  279-280 
Press,  note  55,  28,  267 

See,  also.  Packs  robes 
Primeau,   Charles,  note  281  A    231 
265,  303,  305  ' 

Princess  Mag,  111,  113-114 
Princess  May,  106-107 
Princeton  University   241    ^79 
Provo,  251-252 

Pumpkins,   note    157,    104,    115,    159, 

Quacken  Asp,  137 

Quaking  Ash,  182 

Quebec,  Canada,  247 

Racine,  Baptiste,  193-194 

Ramsey,  Joseph,  note  225,  148    171 

193-194,  289,  294 
Ramuso,  Jose,  294 
Rattlesnake,  178 
Ray,  see  Wray,  J.  F. 
Raynolds,  Wm.  F.,  283,  285 
Raynolds-Maynadier  Expedition, 

Raynolds-Maynadier  map,   286    296 
Red  Bull,  69 
Red  Crow,  243 
Redfield,   A.    H.,   272,   283-284,   287, 

Red  Horn,  note  100,  58  274 
Red   River,    151,   246,   253,  257 

286,  293.  295 
Red    River    half-breeds,    note 

191,  299 
Reese,  Tom  (negro),  248 
Rencontre,    Zephyr,    note    192, 

Revais,  see  Rivet,  Louis 
Ricarees,  see  Arikarees 
Rider,  The,  note  107,  60,  275 
Rising    Head,    note    51,    28.    80    98 
267  '       ' 

Ritch,  John  B.,  xi,  260,  276 
^'^!^J.'   Frederick   G.,   note    185.    130, 



152,     193-194, 

134,     143-144.     148 

246,  289 
Ritter,  Fred,  289 
Rivet,  Louis,  note  15,  2,  4    12-13    IS 

17.  20-24    26-29,  53,  55,  60-62.' 68,' 

96-97,  142,   161.   166.  239.  250    26^ 
Rivet  s  Houses,  19 
Roberts,  George  H.,  245 

Roberts,  Mrs.  George  H. 

See  Culbertson,  Julia 
Robson,  Henry,  245 
Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company,  252, 

Rocky  Mountain  House,  259 
Rocky  Mountains,  250-251,  254,  264, 

Rollette.  John  C,  note  229,  149,  151 

153-158,  161-162,  285,  294 
Rolette's  houses,  note  267,  182,  298 
Rondain,  Rondean,  Rondin,  Charles 

See  Charles  Mercier 
Rose,  Alexander,  note  11,  2  9   11-14 
18-19,  21-22.  24,  53,  60,  62,  'SS   99* 
152,  154.  165-166,  193-194  ' 

Rose,  Charley,  250 
Rose,  Edward,  250 
Rose,  William,  250 
Rosebud     River,     175-177,     185-187 

282,  284,  286,  297-298 
Rose's,  Mr.,  father-in-law,  96-97 
Rose's,  Mr.,  sister-in-law  died,  95 
Rose's,  Mr.,  woman,  59 
Rose's  grave,  250 
Rose's  Point,  250 
Rotten  Belly,  note  101,  59   274 
Rotten  Hand,  109 
Rotten  Tail,  note  166,  114,  159,  186, 

Roubideau,  250 
Round    Butte,    note    211,    143     168- 

169,   181,  292.  296,  298 
Round    Iron,   see    Meldrum,    Robert 
Rowand.  John.  259 
Rundle,  Rev.,  258-259 
Sacred  Heart  Convent.  261 
St.  Charles,  Mo.,  277 
St.   Ignatius   Mission,  280 
St.  Joseph,  Mo..  272.  274 
St    Louis,    11,   58.  68.   149-151,    156- 
157,    171.    240-241.    243-244,    247- 
253,    263,    265.    269,    273,    277-282 
285-286.    289.    292,    295-296     299' 
St.  Louis  cathedral,  280 
St.  Louis  directory,  254,  270 
St-    Louis    Fur    Company,    note    41, 

^SJ^°-V4',''4n'^'^^'"'    193-236,    265-266, 

270,  273.  281-282,  285.  294-295.  299 
St.  Louis  University,  xi 
St    Mary's  Lake.  Glacier  Nat.  Park 

Saint    Mary,    steamboat,    note     188, 

132.   192,  270,  288-290,  297 
St.   Mary's   Mission,  277 
St.  Mary's  (village),  note  63    37   44 

76.  83.  267  ■      •      . 



St.  Pauls,  151,  253,  270,  273 

St.  Peter's  Mission,  278 

St.  Peter's  River,  240 

St.  Valentine's  Day,  112 

Salmon  River,  281 

Salt  Lake  City,  247 

Sand  Creek,  30,  163,  166 

Sand  Butte  Lake.  294 

Sand  Hills,  note  221.  146.  294 

Sandoval,   Isadore,  302 

Sandoval,  Richard,  xi. 

Sarcees,  note  244,  164,  259,  277,  296 

Sarci,  296 

Sargeant's  Bluff,  288 

Sargeant  Hills,  288 

Sarpy,  J.  B.,  282 

Sartair,  277 

Saskatchewan    River,    250,    255-256, 

259,  268-270,  277.  282 
Saxton,  Lieut.,  254 
Scanlon,  Rev.,  244-245 
Schmidt.  Carroll,  279 
Schmidt,  George,  279 
Schmidt,    Jacob,    note    127,    86,    99, 

193-194,  278,  282 
Schmidt,  missionary,  286 
Schultz,  James  W..  xi,  262,  275-276, 

Scotland,  263,  266 
Scott,  John,  note  272,  186,  298 
Searces,  see  Sarcees 
Selkirk   Settlement,  257 
Sets  Every  Way,  111.  121 
Shaw,  George,  288 
Shayenne  River 

See  Cheyenne  River 
Shell  River,  289 
Shelby  County,  Ky.,  284 
Shike,  George,  124,  288 
Shonkin  coal  mines,  281 
Shonkin  Creek,  253,  275 
Shouquet,   see   Chouquette,    Charles 
Shreveport,  steamboat,  272 
Silver  City,  Mont.,  278 
Silverthorne,  John,  247 
Simon,  Charles,  281 
Simond,  John,  note  134,  99,  281 
Simpson,  Nelson,  note   139,  99,  282 
Sioux,  44.  100-125.  131,  136,  146-147, 

174,  299 
Sioux,    attack     on     men     from     Ft. 

Union,  123-124,  288 
Sioux  City,  S.  D.,  262 
Sioux  Outfit,  299 

Sitting   Squaw,   see   Sitting  Woman 
Sitting  Woman  (Gros  Ventre),  note 

102,  59-61,  274-276 
Six,  note  146,  100-101,  103,  107,  112, 

115,  118-119,  122-123,  283 

Skunk    (Gros  Ventre),  note  97,  55, 

58,  70,  274 
Sleepers,  note  113,  63,  276 
Smith,  Jacob,  see  Schmidt.  Jacob 
Smith  River.  273 
Smithsonian  Institution.  241 
Smoke  House,  35,  97 
Snake  Bute,  note  224,  148,  294 
Snake  Creek,  168 

Snake  (Indians),  note  66,  39-40,  268 
Snake  Point,  note  207,  142,  292 
Snake  River,  252,  253,  260 
Soldier  band,  note  117,  65,  276 
Soldiers,   121 
Southesk,    Earl   of,  297 
Spaniard,  a,   174 
Spaniard,  old.  note   186,   130 
Spaniards,  two,  128 
Spanish  Island,  note  263,  179,  298 
Spotted  Calf,  59 
Spotted  Cow,   13 
Spotted  Eagle,  note  99,  57,  274 
Spread  Eagle  Point,  250 
Spread  Eagle,  steamboat,  245 
Stanford,  Harry,  xi 
Stanley,  John   M.,  241 
Stanley  Expedition  (1874),  294 
Star  Robe,  note  94,  54,  274 
Stevens'   Expedition 

See  Stevens,  I.  I. 
Stevens,   Hazard,  274-275 
Stevens,  I.  I.,  note  64,  arrives  at  Ft. 

Benton,   37-42;   46-48,    50-51,    140- 

141,    191,    241-250,    254-256,    260- 

262,  267-274,  277,  281,  295-296 
Stevensville,  Montana,  277 
Story  Post,  287 
Stoup,  Michel,  107.  123 
Stuart.  Granville,  246,  262,  287 
Stuart,  James,  262 
Stuart,  Thomas,  262 
Sublette,  William,  252,  298,  300 
Sully  Expedition,  1864,  294 
Sun  River,  38,  93,  272,  277,  282,  295, 

Sun  River,  Upper,  256 
Sun  River,  South  Fork,  278 
Surround,  note  57,  32,  267 
Susnard,  T.,  193 

Sweetgrass   Hills,  see  Three   Buttes 
Switzerland.   280 
Tail  That   Goes   Up   the   Hill,   note 

116,  63,  276 
Tarbois  Creek,  287 
Tarbot  Creek,  287 
Teton  River,  5-6,  16-20,  23-25,  35-36, 

39,  43,  47,  50,  52-53,  57-58,  60,  246, 

Teton  Times,  259 



Teton  of  the  Yellowstone,  298 
Tetreau,  note  154,  103,  110,  285 
Tevis,  Mr.,  note  17,  4,  9,  14,  254 
Thin    Behind    (Crow),    176-177,    183, 

Thin  Hills,  136 
Three  Bulls,  note  120,  67,  277 
Three   Butes,  note    12,  2,  40.  48-49, 

250,  268 
Three     Cottonwoods,     see     Cotton- 
wood Creek,  Yellowstone  R. 
Three  Forks,  271 
Three  Islands,  note  202,  141,  292 
Three  Sons  (Indian),  255 
Tiger  Butes,  note  242,  163,  296 
Tobacco  Gardens,  245 
Tobacco  Pants   (Indian),  59 
Tongue    River,    107,    110,    112,    114, 

122-123,   286 
Tongues,  see  Buffalo  tongues 
Townsend,  John  K.,  258 
Tramps  On  Her  Foot,  Miss,  116 
Treaty,  note  130,  49,  91,  192,  280 

See     also     Blackfoot,     Crow    and 
Fort  Laramie  treaties 
Tremble   River,   note    198,    137,    144, 

162,  170,  172,  182,  277,  291 
Troudelle.  Charles,   193-194 
Trudell,   C,   see  Troudelle,   Charles 
Tullock,  Samuel,  284 
12  Mile  Prairie,  175,  178,  184,  187 
Two   Elks    (Gros  Ventre),  note  83, 

45,  59,  273 
Two    Face    (Crow),    note    174,    120, 

122-123,  176,  186,  288 
Two    Fork,   note    116,   62,    164,    183, 

Two    Medicine    Lodge    Creek,    255, 

Two  White  Weasels,  note  223,  147, 

Ulm,  Montana,  278 
Union  Fur  Company,  298 
Upham.  H.  D.,  266,  277 
Upper  Bullbers 

See  Big  Muddy,  Mo.  R. 
Upper    Missouri    Outfit,    note    277, 

192-236,    240-241,    246,    260,    263, 

267,  281,  295,  299 
Upper  Missouri  Outfit,  Inventories, 

note  284,  195-236,  305 
Upper  Missouri  River,  240-243,  263, 

265-266,  270-272,  274,  277,  292.  304 
Vaillant,  285 
Valle,  101,  104,  107.  110 
Van  Cleve,  Mrs.  Charlotte  W.,  263 
Vandenberg,  Henry,  276 
Vanderbilt,  S.  D.,  282 

Vaughan,  Alfred  J.,  note  82,  44-45, 

100.    no,    122,    132-133,    136,    141, 

174,    176,    178.    182,    184-187,    171- 

172.    255,    270,    272-273,    282-283, 

287,  289,  297-298,  301 
Vaughan,  Fanny,  272 
Vaughan,  young.  272 
Vaughan's,  Col.  boat,  135-136 
Vaughn's,  Robert,  "Then  and  Now," 

268,  271,  298 
Virginia,  272 
Walla  Walla,  Wash.,  256,  289 

See.  also.  Fort  Walla  Walla 
Warren.  Lieut.  G.  V.,  note  254,  174, 

179,  282,  297-298 
Washington,  D.  C.  241,  262 
Washington   Territory,  268-269,  274 
Washington's    Birthday,   112 
Water  Raises,  note  184,  129,  289 
Weasel  Calf,  295 
Weippert,  George,  note  10,  2.  48,  52, 

74,  193-194,  239,  247,  300 
Weippert's,   G.,  wife   died,  71 
Wheeler,  Col.  W.  F.,  239,  247 
White  Bear,  119-120 
White  Calf,  note  28,  10,  262,  268 
White  Calf,  young,  69 
White  Cow  Against  the  Bank,  note 

49,  27.  62,  266 
White  Cow  in  the  Middle,  266 
White  Dog,  285 
White    Eagle    (Gros    Ventre),    note 

118,  65,  276_ 
White  man  with  gold,  note  8,  1,  246 
White  River,  129,  293 
White  Side,  see  White  Thigh 
White    Thigh     (Crow    chief),    note 

240,  158-159,  295 
Whoop-up,  275 
Wiggins,  Mr.,  250-251 
William  Brand,  steamboat,  288 
Williston,  N.  D..  245.  289 
Willow  Creek.  163.  187,  278 
Willsen,  see  Willson,   E.  S. 
Willson,   E.  S.,  note  85,  45,  48,  53- 

55,  65,  141,  161,  273 
Wilson.  Mrs.,  285 
Wind  River,  265.  288 
Winnipeg,  Canada,  257,  260.  299 
Winter  houses,  151-152 
Wipert,  G.,  see  Weippert,  George 
Wister,  60 
Wolf  Mountain,  76 
Wolf  Point,  note  251,  162,  170,  172, 

250.  270,  296 
Wolf  Skin,  109-111,  115-116 
Wood  Mountain.  131 
Woody.  F.  H.,  247 
Woody  Mountain,  240 



Wray,  J.   F.,  note  2>2,,   16-17,  37,  42, 
49,  58,  60,  62,  67,  IZ,  80-81,  88,  99, 
139,    156-157,    165,     171-172,    179, 
193,  246,  263-264 
Wren,  Mrs.  John,  278 
Wright,  George  B.,  276 
Wyeth,  N.  J.,  253,  258 
Yanctonias,  note  274,  191,  299 
Yankton,  S.  D.,  262 
Yankton  Agency,  S.  D.,  267 
Yellow   Belly    (Crow).   176-177,    186 
Yellow  Dog  (Crow),  186 

Yellow  Fish,  see  Rose,  Charley 
Yellow  Hair,  note  62,  VJ ,  267,  277 
Yellow  Head,  note  123,  69,  75,  267, 

Yellowstone,    steamboat,    212,    285, 

Yellowstone  River,  Zl ,  39,  42,  44   74 
118,    125,    146,    176,    178,    184-185', 
187,    241-242,    265,    276-277,    282- 
284,  286,  288-289,  297-299,  303-304 
York  Factory,  Canada,  256 
Zephyr,  see  Rencontre,  Zephyr 






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